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After the etching by Manly MacDonald 



155 2, 




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he Founder of Trinity College and those associ- 
ated with him had certain ideals of education of 
which we need to be reminded from time to time. 
It is well also to recall how their successors sought 
to maintain those ideals in the changed conditions of later 
days. If this account of our history helps in any measure to 
prepare for the service the College should render in its 
second century it will have served a useful purpose. 

The preparation of this history has been the work of many 
hands and derived from many sources. Some of these 
sources have been readily accessible, others have involved 
considerable research. The editor is most grateful to the 
many friends of the College who have helped him in this 
work. Chapter VIII, covering the period 1925 to 1952 — 
the twenty-seven years since the removal to Queen's Park — 
has been prepared by some members of the teaching staff 
under the leadership of Dr. Philip Child and Professor Cecil 
Lewis. This group included the Reverend Charles R. Feild- 
ing, the Venerable J. B. Fotheringham, Professors W. 
Lyndon Smith, Charles A. Ashley, Sinclair M. Adams, R. 
Keith Hicks, Dr. A. E. Barker, and Dr. W. A. Kirkwood. 
Chapter IX, "St. Hilda's College," has been contributed by 
Miss Mabel Cartwright, LL.D., and Mrs. W. A. Kirkwood, 
Ph.D., the former and the present Principals of St. Hilda's. 
The late Dr. Norman B. Gwyn supplied information 
regarding the Medical Faculty and the Trinity Medical 
School; Professor E. A. Dale the Latin dedication; and Mr. 
A. Scott Carter, R.C.A., the emblazonment of the College 
Arms. To the Provost special thanks are due for the Epi- 
logue. For permission to use the poem At the Gates of Old 



Trinity by Verna Loveday Harden, acknowledgment is made 
to the author and to the editor of Saturday Night where the 
poem first appeared. 

In the preparation of the book as a whole invaluable 
assistance has been given by Miss Laila C. Scott, Miss 
Helen McClung, and Mr. William G. Colgate, all former 
graduates. To them and to Dr. F. H. Cosgrave, the Chair- 
man of the Editorial Committee, for his advice and wise 
supervision, the editor is deeply indebted and profoundly 

In addition to those mentioned in the text the editor 
wishes to thank the following who have sent in valuable 
contributions: Dr. R. G. Armour, '04; the Reverend Canon 
T. Stannage Boyle, '98; Archdeacon J. H. H. Coleman, '91; 
Miss Julia Jarvis; Professor, the Reverend J. H. Leigh ton, 
'91; the Most Reverend John Lyons, '06; H. Eric Machell, 
'15; A. Bruce Robertson, '25; Gerard B. Strathy, '00; the 
Reverend T. F. Summerhayes, '04; W. Clare White, '03; 
and the Reverend Walter H. White, '90. For making avail- 
able much historical material acknowledgment must also be 
made to the Bursar of the College, Mr. Elliot G. Strathy; 
to the Librarian, Professor S. M. Adams, and his assistant, 
Miss Isabel Hunter; to the Provincial Archivist, Dr. George 
W. Spragge, '15, and to Miss Helen A. McClung, his 
predecessor; to the Librarian of the Legislative Assembly, 
Mrs. J. H. Fraser, '18; to Dr. W. Stewart Wallace, Librarian 
of the University of Toronto; and to R. C. Cant, Esq., 
Keeper of Muniments, University of St. Andrews, Scotland. 

The files of The Churchy Rouge et Noir> and The Trinity 
University Review (referred to throughout as The Review) in 
the library of Trinity College have proved to be of great 

T. A. R. 





I • The Founder 3 

II ■ The Preparation 32 

III The Early Days: 1852-1867 50 

IV Difficulties and Dangers: 1867-1881 73 
V Growth and Change: 1881-1894 87 

VI The Federation Movement: 1894-1904 105 

VII From Federation to Removal: 1904-1925 131 

VIII Trinity at Queen's Park: 1925-1952 156 

IX St. Hilda's College 188 

X Student Life through the Years 225 

XI Trinity in Athletics 264 

Epilogue 292 


Graduates who became Bishops 297 

The Fallen, 1914-1918 298 

The Fallen, 1939-1945 299 

The Arms of Trinity and St. Hilda's 300 





Old Trinity College, etching 

Opposite page 2 
John Strachan 

Between pages 52 and 53 
John Strachan 1825; 1865 

Bishop Strachan's Funeral Procession on King Street 1867 
The Reverend A. N. Bethune, Principal. The Diocesan Theological 

Institution, Cobourg, 1842 
The Banner carried at the laying of the corner-stone 1851 
Provost George Whitaker 
Trinity College 1852 

The Provosts Lodge and the Terrace at Old Trinity 
Convocation Hall 1877-1925. The Library 1884-1925 

Between pages 116 and 117 
A group of Trinity men 1870 
A group of Trinity men 1879 
The Class of 1882 
The Staff of Trinity College 1899 
The Chapel of Trinity College 1884-1925 
The College Gates 1904. The Greek Play, June 1902 
Provost C. W. E. Body. James Henderson 
Professor William Clark. Dr. William Jones 

Between pages 148 and 149 
Convocation 1904 
Provost T. C. S. Macklem 

"Federation" — A Leap in the Dark. "Some of the Faculty" 1904 
Laying the foundation stone, June 1923 
Trinity College 1925 
Strachan Hall 1941 

Strachan Hall: Oriel Window and Fire-place 
Men's Residence and Junior Common Room 1941 



Between pages 180 and 181 
The Chancellors of Trinity College: Sir John B. Robinson, c.b., d.c.l.; 

John Hillyard Cameron, q.c, d.c.l.; Hon. George W. Allan, 

d.c.l. ; Christopher Robinson, m.a., d.c.l.; John A. Worrell, k.c, 

Four Provosts of Trinity College: Dr. E. A. Welch; Dr. C. A. Seager; 

Dr. F. H. Cosgrave; Dr. R. S. K. Seeley 
Principals of St. Hilda's College: Miss Ellen Patteson; Miss Mabel 

Cartwright, ll.d.; Miss M. E. Strachan (assistant); Mrs. M. M. 

Kirkwood, m.a., ph.d. 
St. Hilda's College 1899-1925. St. Hilda's College 1938 
St. Hilda's College: First students 1888; Laying the corner-stone 1937; 

On the opening day 1938 
St. Hilda's College: Hockey Team 1904-5; The Library 1939 
Trinity College: The First Board of Stewards 1935-36 
Athletic Association Executive 1924-25 

Between pages 276 and 277 
Cricket Team of 1897 

University of Toronto Harrier Team 1913, "Five men of Trinity" 
Basketball Team 1914 — Sifton Cup Champions 
Hockey Team 1921 — Jennings Cup Champions 



After the portrait by G. T. Berthon in the Great Hall, Hart House 



lthough born a Presbyterian, John Strachan, it 
has been frequently stated, was attracted to the 
Church of England because it offered, or seemed 
to offer greater chances of advancement. As a 
matter of fact both his parents were dissenters from Presby- 
terianism and according to his own statement he himself was 
never a communicant. His father seems to have been a non- 
jurant Episcopalian, that is to say, one of those who, loyal 
to the Stuart cause, refused to acknowledge the house of 
Hanover; his mother was a member of the Relief Church, a 
religious body that had seceded from the Presbyterian 
Church and of liberal tendencies which allowed communion 
with other Christian bodies. Strachan himself was familiar 
with episcopal forms of worship, frequently attending, with 
his father, the ministrations of Bishop Skinner of Aberdeen, 
the Primus of Scotland from 1789 to 1816. 1 

John Strachan was born in Aberdeen on the twelfth of 
April 1778, "of parents not rich but respectable,' ' to use his 
own words. The third son in a family of six children, John, 
the favourite of his mother, was regarded as the most serious 
and well fitted to become a gentleman and a scholar. In 
spite of the objections of his father, he was sent to the Latin 
or Grammar school at Aberdeen, a respectable seminary 

: Henry Scadding: The First Bishop of Toronto: A Review and a Study (Toronto, 
1868). Fennings Taylor: The Last Three Bishops Appointed by the Crown for the 
Anglican Church of Canada (Montreal, 1869), pp. 192 and 193. Ontario Archives, 
Strachan Papers, letter to the Record, an English Church newspaper, July 25, 1850, 
from the Bishop of Toronto refuting the statement "that Bishop Strachan is an ex- 
Presbyterian minister." 



governed by a rector and three masters and with an average 
attendance of 160 scholars. Although he does not appear 
to have been a particularly brilliant student, in five years 
he was qualified to enter King's College, University of 
Aberdeen, in November 1794. 

The annual session at Aberdeen being for five months 
only, John, with the aid of a bursary and by employment as 
school-teacher during the long vacation, was able to earn 
sufficient income to help with the family expenses. His 
father had been killed by an explosion in a quarry where he 
was an overseer, and the care of his mother devolved to a 
great extent on the young student. In the spring of 1796, 
Strachan was appointed parish schoolmaster of Dunino, in 
the county of Fife, some eighty miles from Aberdeen, with a 
stipend of thirty pounds and a good house. Here he received 
his first encouragement as a teacher and here, too, he made 
three lifelong friends: Dr. James Brown and Thomas Duncan 
of the University of St. Andrews, and Thomas Chalmers, the 
eminent scholar and preacher and leader of the Free Church 
movement in the Church of Scotland. He returned to Aber- 
deen at the end of the year to complete his course and was 
graduated Master of Arts on the thirtieth of March 1797. 2 

A desire for a more lucrative position, a disappointment 
in a love affair, and conflict with the government over his 
refusing to give a list of his pupils of military age, resulted in 
Strachan's application for a larger school at Kettle (King's 
Kettle), a parish some twenty miles from Dunino. Here, 
at the age of nineteen, he made his first essay in the great 
field of educational labour, commencing his career (as he 
himself says) with a deeply rooted love for the cause. From 
the first it was his practice to study well and note the 
character and ability of his pupils and to start them on the 

2 See University of Aberdeen: Officers and Graduates of University & King's College, 
Aberdeen, MVB-MDCCCLX (Aberdeen, 1893; in the University of Toronto Library), 
p. 265, where Strachan is mentioned among other Masters of Arts, 1797: "Hi juvenes 
Artium Magistri renunciati fuere, promovente Magistro Roderico MacLeod, Sub- 
primario, Martii 30, . . ., Joannes Strachan, Aberdonensis." 


career for which they seemed best fitted. The discipline 
and teaching of the school were such that children from other 
districts were sent to it. 3 

In April 1797, Strachan had enrolled as a "partial at- 
tender" at the University of St. Andrews, where young men 
preparing for the ministry might take lectures in Divinity 
for the complete session or have their attendance spread 
over a longer period. At the conclusion of his studies, in 
1799, the principal Dr. Hill testified to his understanding, 
his talents for composition, and his high qualifications as a 
public teacher. 4 

Although successful and fairly happy at Kettle, Strachan's 
restless ambition sought other and greater opportunities. 
His friend, Dr. James Brown, who had been appointed Pro- 
fessor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Glasgow, 
proposed to make Strachan his assistant, but difficulties 
arose; Dr. Brown was retired on pension and Strachan was 
not considered. "This to me was a very bitter disappoint- 
ment, but I was not overwhelmed. God had, in his good- 
ness, given me a cheerful spirit of endurance, and a kind 
Providence, even before I had recovered from the shock, pre- 
sented me an opportunity of removing to another sphere of 
activity, which in my then frame of mind I was the more 
disposed to accept, namely, employment in Canada. " 5 

Among the many things contemplated by the first Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe, 
for the new province, and for the benefit of the people, was 
the establishment of grammar schools in various districts and 
of "a college of a higher class" at the seat of government. 6 
Some time after Simcoe's return to England in 1796 — the 

3 Bishop Strachan: Charge Delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Toronto at the 
Visitation on Tuesday , June 12, I860 (Toronto, 1860). Fennings Taylor: The Last 
Three Bishops Appointed by the Crown, p. 196: "He taught 127 boys at Kettle." 

4 Alexander Neil Bethune: Memoir of the Right Reverend John Strachan, D.D. y 
LL.D., First Bishop of Toronto (Toronto, 1870), p. 5. 

6 Bishop Strachan: Charge to the Clergy of the Diocese of Toronto, 1860. 

^Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society of Great Britain, Written 
by Lieut. -Govern or Simcoe (Toronto, 1890). The letter is dated January 8, 1791. 


reason for the delay is obscure — the Reverend Dr. George 
Hamilton of Gladsmuir, a brother of the Honourable Robert 
Hamilton of Queenston, asked the professors at St. Andrews 
to recommend a young man as tutor to the children of the 
Honourable Richard Cartwright of Kingston. The position, 
which held the prospect of further advancement in the teach- 
ing profession and even the possibility of becoming the 
head of a projected university, was offered to two friends 
of Strachan, first to Thomas Duncan and then to Thomas 
Chalmers. Finally it was offered to Strachan who, after 
some hesitation, chiefly on account of his mother, decided to 
accept the appointment. 

John Strachan, then twenty-one years of age, sailed from 
Greenock on the twenty-sixth of August 1799, to be picked 
up at Cork by convoy, for England was then at war with 
France. So wretched was the state of navigation in those 
days and so perilous the voyage, that he did not arrive 
in New York until the thirteenth of November. After a 
week there, during which he "saw the town" and visited the 
docks and shipping, he took passage in a sail-boat up the 
Hudson for Albany; then by stage coach and sleigh and some- 
times on foot, proceeding by way of Saratoga and Burling- 
ton, under conditions unbelievably primitive, he covered 
the remaining 140 miles in eight days. At Burlington, im- 
patient of repeated delays, he bargained with a little Jew 
named Lazarus, who had a conveyance, to take him to 
Montreal. The bargain fell through when Lazarus refused 
to travel on the Saturday. "I whistled," said Strachan, 
"which I sometimes do when angry. When we arrived at 
Rousse's Tavern, 7 after walking ten miles of the way, we 
hired Rousse to fetch us along the ice about eighteen miles, 
to St. John's." He arrived in Montreal at last on the twelfth 
of December 1799. 8 

The next day Strachan called on James McGill of Burn- 

7 Now called Rouses Point. 

8 Trinity College Library, Toronto, Strachan MS. 


side with a "letter of creditt," and was "received with civility 
and invited to dinner." This meeting was the beginning of a 
friendship which increased with the years, an intimacy that 
was further enhanced by Strachan's marriage in 1807 to 
Andrew McGill's widow, and by James McGill's frequent 
visits to Strachan's home in Cornwall. 9 McGill, like Strachan, 
was a believer in the value of education and on the question 
of method he sought advice from his young friend. James 
McGill died in December 1813, leaving Strachan as one of 
the executors of his large estate. Strachan writing to the 
other surviving executors seven years later said, "It was, I 
believe, at Cornwall during one of the visits which Mr. 
McGill made to Mrs. Strachan and me that his final resolu- 
tion respecting the erection of a College after his name, en- 
dowing it, etc. was taken. . . . We had repeated conversations 
upon the subject . . . [McGill] expressing at the same time a 
wish that if he did anything I should take an active part in 
the proposed College. " Although the will does not mention 
this, it may be assumed that because of Strachan's close 
friendship, his connection by marriage, and his established 
reputation as a brilliant and successful educationist with 
definite ideas on Canadian nationality, James McGill desired 
that he should have a prominent part in the organization of 
the college and that possibly he should be its first principal. 
Indeed, as Strachan declared later, it was with much difficulty 
that he was able to prevail upon his friend to forbear making 
it a condition of his bequest that Strachan should fill that 
position. 10 

On Christmas Eve, 1799, after nearly two weeks of visiting 
and sightseeing in Montreal, during which he met several 
former Aberdonians by whom he was hospitably entertained 
(notably by one, Alexander Skakel), 11 he departed on the 
last lap of his journey to Kingston by "carryall" (cariole). 

"James McGill (1744-1813); Andrew McGill (1756-1805). 

10 Cyrus Macmillan: McGill and Its Story, 1821-1921 (London, 1921), pp. 36-38. 
n Ibid. Alexander Skakel, M.A. Aberdeen 1794; LL.D. Aberdeen (honoris causa) 
1845. Master of Royal Grammar School, Montreal, 1818. 


The trip was a nightmare. Drunken drivers, desperately bad 
roads, accommodation at wayside inns and settlers' houses of 
the most primitive sort — it is little wonder that his arrival in 
Kingston was delayed until the last day of the year. 12 

The exhausting journey and the grim, desolate appear- 
ance of the country were to him a source of great disappoint- 
ment and depression. But a still more bitter disappointment 
awaited him. On arriving at Mr. Cartwright's house he found 
that Governor Simcoe's plans had not materialized, and was 
told that the leading men of the Province of Upper Canada 
had expressed the opinion that the country was not ready for 
an institution of higher learning. "I was so beat down," he 
said, "that, if I had been in possession of twenty pounds, I 
should have returned at once; but in truth I did not have 
twenty shillings." In the Honourable Richard Cartwright, 
however, he found a friend. Realizing the position in which 
Strachan was placed, he suggested a temporary arrangement 
whereby Strachan would be provided with living quarters in 
Mr. Cartwright's house and would take charge of his sons 
and possibly other pupils. If, at the expiration of three years, 
the country did not present a reasonable prospect of advance- 
ment, Strachan could then, if he wished, return to Scotland. 

Mr. Cartwright's elder sons, Richard and James, and his 
daughter Hannah, together with James and Andrew Stuart, 
sons of the Reverend John Stuart, 13 the minister of St. George's 
Church, formed the nucleus of the school which was shortly 
increased to twelve pupils. This little school, even then dis- 

12 Trinity College Library, Toronto, Strachan MS.; Bethune: Memoir of Bishop 
Strachan. For a more detailed account of this journey see Ontario History (the quarter- 
ly of the Ontario Historical Society), vol. XLII (1950), no. 4. 

13 John Stuart (1740-1811), M.A., D.D., originally a Presbyterian, ordained 1770; 
missionary to the Mohawks, Fort Hunter, N.Y., 1770-81; evening lecturer, and 
schoolmaster, parish of Montreal, 1781-85; missionary to the Mohawks at the Bay 
of "Kenti" and to the whites at Kingston 1785-1811; Bishop's official, Upper Canada, 
1789-1811; Chaplain to the Legislative Council, Upper Canada, 1792-1807; died at 
Kingston 1811. A. H. Young, M.A., D.C.L.: The Reverend John Stuart, D.D., U.E.L., 
of Kingston, U.C., and His Family (Kingston, 1920). 



tinguished for its instruction and discipline, flourished for 
more than three years. Mr. Strachan formed strong attach- 
ments with the Cartwright and Stuart families, a similarity 
of feeling and interests confirming and enhancing their 
mutual regard. No greater evidence of this mutual trust 
could be shown than the appointment of Strachan as guard- 
ian of Mr. Cartwright's infant children. Strachan's associa- 
tion with Dr. Stuart developed into an intimate friendship, 
and it was largely owing to his influence and instruction that 
Strachan decided to study for Holy Orders in the Church of 
England, devoting all his spare time to that end. Early in 
1803 he was recommended to Bishop Mountain of Quebec, 
by Lieutenant-Governor Hunter, Dr. Stuart, and Mr. Cart- 
wright, for ordination. 14 The Bishop, on examination, found 
their good opinions fully justified and at Quebec, on the 
twenty-second of May, the young student was admitted to 
the diaconate, 15 and immediately appointed to the mission of 
Cornwall. This was a large parish but with neither church 
nor parsonage. A parsonage, however, was soon supplied and 
meetings for the erection of the Church were held in the 
Presbyterian Meeting-house of his friend, the Reverend John 
Bethune. In 1804, Strachan again journeyed to Quebec, and 
was advanced to the priesthood on the third of June by 
Bishop Mountain. With the assistance of a government 
grant, a church building was erected and opened for divine 
service in January 1806. Four years later room for the greatly 
increased congregation was provided by the addition of a 

Since Strachan's clerical duties at Cornwall were not 
sufficiently onerous to occupy all his time, he was prevailed 

"Ontario Historical Society, Proceedings, vol. XXV (1929), pp. 492 and 493; 
letters of the Honourable Richard Cartwright, M.L.C., to the Lieutenant-Governor's 
secretary, January 5, 1803, and to the Bishop of Quebec, May 1803, recommending 
Strachan for ordination. 

15 The date of John Strachan's ordination has been variously stated by different 
writers. The date given by Bishop Bethune, May 22, 1803, has been verified as 
correct by the Dean of Quebec, Dr. R. L. Seaborn, from the Cathedral records. 



upon by some of his Kingston friends to resume his school- 
teaching. Thus was founded the school, the Cornwall Aca- 
demy, which became famous throughout Upper and Lower 
Canada, for at that time there was no college where Protes- 
tant youth could obtain a liberal education. His protege and 
lifelong friend, John Beverley Robinson, was one among 
many of his scholars who afterwards became prominent in 
the public life of the country, filling high offices in church 
and state. He was a pupil at the Cornwall school from Novem- 
ber 1803 until the summer of 1807. 16 

In spite of these additional duties, which took up fully 
sixteen hours a day, the nine years at Cornwall were often 
referred to by Strachan as the happiest in his life. Contribu- 
tory to this happiness was, of course, his marriage on the 
ninth of May 1807 to Anne McGill, 17 widow of Andrew 
McGill, and daughter of Dr. George Thomson Wood, of 
Cornwall, a United Empire Loyalist. One of Strachan's bio- 
graphers says "the young clergyman's conduct was worthy, 
alike of praise and imitation for he showed his taste by 
marrying the prettiest, his prudence by marrying the richest 
and his good judgment by marrying one of the nicest young 
gentlewomen in the town of Cornwall. " 18 

Notwithstanding the establishment in 1807 of grammar 
schools in eight districts of the Province the Cornwall school 
continued to flourish. Instead of the expected falling off in 
pupils, "my reputation for teaching," Strachan wrote to a 
friend in Scotland, "still secures me as many as ever — my 
number is at present thirty-six. I was forced this year to build 

16 C. W. Robinson: Life of Sir John Beverley Robinson (Edinburgh, 1904), p. 18. 

17 The marriage was performed by the Reverend John Bethune, Presbyterian divine, 
minister of St. Andrew's Church, Williamstown, Glengarry County. "The Reverend 
John Strachan of Cornwall and Mrs. Ann McGill, widow of the late Andrew McGill 
of Montreal were married by me. J.B. 9 May 1807." From his Marriage Register, 
now in the Ontario Archives. 

18 Fennings Taylor: The Last Three Bishops Appointed by the Crown, p. 206. 



a school-house and repair the parsonage and furnish it in a 
better state, which emptied my pockets. " 19 

In 1833 forty-two of Strachan's former Cornwall students 
presented him with a massive silver epergne, of the value of 
230 guineas, as a token of their reverence and affection. 
The address which accompanied it bore the signatures of 
many men who had attained high office in state and church 
and in public life. Thus they recorded their grateful recollec- 
tions of his unwearied efforts to impress upon them sound 
moral and religious principles. The epergne is now a trea- 
sured possession of Trinity College and decorates the head 
table at many College functions. 20 

In 1811, his Alma Mater, the University of Aberdeen, con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity, 21 
probably through the influence of his old friend and former 
counsellor, Dr. James Brown of St. Andrews, to whom he had 
expressed the opinion some three years before "that a degree 
might in some measure increase my influence. " But it is 
doubtful whether any influence was necessary; his fame as a 
teacher was widespread. 

There were, however, great changes in the offing. In Aug- 
ust 1811, his "spiritual father," the Reverend John Stuart of 
Kingston, died, terminating an affectionate friendship that 
had subsisted since Dr. Strachan's arrival in Canada more 
than twelve years before. Mr. Cartwright and other friends 
hoped that Strachan would succeed to the Kingston charge, 
but when Strachan learned that Mrs. Stuart wished her son, 

19 Ontario Archives, Strachan Papers, letters to Dr. James Brown, October 20, 
1807, and October 9, 1808. Lady Matilda Edgar: Ten Years of Upper Canada in 
Peace and War, 1805-1815, being the Ridout Letters (Toronto, 1890), pp. 16 and 25. 

20 For the text of the address and the names of the signatories see A. N. Bethune: 
Memoir of Bishop Strachan, pp. 147-49. 

21 University of Aberdeen: Officers and Graduates, p. 106; among others, Doctors of 
Divinity, "1811, January 22, R. Mag. Joannes Strachan, hujus Academiae alumnus 
et Ecclesiae apud Cornwall in Canada Super, Rector, (gratis)." 



George Okill, 22 to be brought from York to succeed his 
father, he not only withdrew his own name but urged the 
appointment of the son of his former friend. 

Lieutenant-Governor Sir Francis Gore and the Lord 
Bishop of Quebec then offered Strachan the parish of York. 
This he at first declined, but eventually accepted on the 
urgent request of Chief Justice Thomas Scott and other 
citizens, seconded by Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, who 
also appointed him chaplain to the troops and to the Legis- 
lative Council. 23 The transfer to York took place on the first 
day of July 1812. Twelve days before this the United States 
had declared war on Great Britain. 

York in 1812 was a straggling place of less than eight hun- 
dred inhabitants. Of the 120 houses, apart from the govern- 
ment buildings, only one was built of brick. The only church, 
of frame construction, was quite ample for the parishioners 
of the day. But to John Strachan, at thirty-four years of age, 
the prospects were attractive and the possibilities great. 

In addition to his clerical duties, he had the responsibility 
of the grammar school, which had been opened in 1807 by 
his predecessor, George Okill Stuart, in a small one-storey 
building adjoining his own house. Now it had been tem- 
porarily transferred to a barn in the outskirts of the town 
near the corner of the present King and Yonge Streets. 

The war which then raged was a new anxiety. The daily 
fear of invasion, the absence of all able-bodied men on 
military duty, and the necessity of providing for their 
families — all these created formidable and unforeseen diffi- 
culties. With the approach of spring, the worst fears of the 
townspeople were realized. On the twenty-seventh of April 
the place was attacked by an American fleet of sixteen armed 

22 The Reverend George Okill Stuart, minister at York from 1800, was also head- 
master of the Home (York) District Grammar School from 1807 until his removal to 
Kingston in 1812. 

23 A. N. Bethune: Memoir of Bishop Strachan, p. 39. 



vessels and a military force of 1,800 men. The British forces 
under Major-General Sheaffe consisted of 250 regulars, 350 
men of the Third York Militia, and 100 Indians. After an 
unequal struggle for eight hours, the British regulars blew 
up the fort with all its military stores, burned the vessels 
under construction, and retreated eastward towards Kingston. 

General Sheaffe handed the command of the town over to 
Colonel William Chewett and Major William Allan of the 
Third York Militia with instructions to arrange as best they 
could for its capitulation. So incensed was the American com- 
mander, General Dearborn, at the explosion of the powder 
magazine and the resultant loss of General Zebulon Pike 
and 250 of his best soldiers that he threatened "to make the 
town smoke for it." Dr. Strachan, hearing of this threat, 
sought an audience with the General and in no uncertain 
terms demanded protection for the town and its people. 
Contrary to the General's assurance that no private home 
would be pillaged, the enemy violated other provisions of the 
terms of capitulation, plundered the Church, burned the 
government buildings, destroyed the public library, and 
robbed many houses. 

Dr. Strachan was chiefly instrumental in organizing the 
Loyal and Patriotic Society with branches throughout the 
Province for the relief of the wounded militia and the support 
of the widows and children of the militia men killed and 
the families of the men still fighting. By the winter of 1814 
the funds collected exceeded the sum of £10,000. As the 
war went on, the care of the sick and wounded also became 
an acute problem. Dr. Strachan, on being appealed to by 
the British General Vincent, in the autumn of 1813 placed 
his church, St. James, at the disposal of the military author- 
ities. The Church — the only one in York — was turned into 
a general hospital and used as such until the end of the war. 
According to Dr. William ("Tiger") Dunlop, assistant sur- 



geon of the 89th Regiment, the accommodations were com- 
fortable by comparison with what the army had lately been 
obliged to put up with on the Niagara frontier. 24 

During this period of stress Strachan was not free from 
personal trouble and anxieties. In September 1812 his two- 
year old daughter had died suddenly and early in 1813 he 
was advised of the death of his mother at the age of seventy- 
five. In March 1815, while he was visiting the hospitals, his 
house and its contents were burned. Mrs. Strachan and the 
infant children were safe, but the destruction of furniture, 
books, and manuscripts was great. His old friend and ad- 
viser, the Honourable Richard Cartwright, worn out with 
the labour and trials of the war, died in July 1815, leaving 
Dr. Strachan as one of his executors and the guardian of his 
infant sons. 

In spite of the temporary loss of his church he neglected 
none of his parochial duties, as the parish records of St. 
James' Cathedral show. Baptisms, marriages, and burials 
among his flock were many. At the visitation of the parish 
by the Bishop of Quebec on the twenty-first of September 
1813, forty candidates were presented for confirmation. 25 Nor 
was the District School neglected. Less than two weeks after 
the American invaders had departed, "the little dominie" 
resumed the classes which had been interrupted by the inva- 
sion. Writing on the tenth of May to the Honourable John 
Richardson, whose son was a pupil there, he said: "We have 
commenced School today." 26 

24 Dr. William Dunlop: Recollections of the American War 1812-14 (Toronto, 1905), 
p. 89. John Douglas: Medical Topography of Upper Canada (London, 1819), p. 82. 
George W. Spragge, ed.: The John Strachan Letter Book, 1812 to 1834 (Toronto, 1946), 
January 1, 1814, report to the Reverend Dr. Owen, Chaplain General: "So great was 
the number of sick [at Burlington Heights] for some time upwards of 400 that I was 
obliged to give up the Church for their reception, a step which could only be justified 
by the most imperious necessity. ... I visit the hospitals twice a week." Ontario 
Archives, Strachan Papers, letter dated March 20, 1816, from Major J. Harvey, 
D.A.G., Quebec, to John Strachan: "I am extremely glad that there is a prospect of 
you receiving some compensation for your humane and disinterested exertions in 
attendance on the sick and wounded of the Army." 

26 George W. Spragge, ed.: Strachan Letter Book, September 21, 1813. 

™Ibid. y May 10, 1813. 



The peace, long prayed for and welcomed by the combat- 
ants on both sides, came with the signing of the Treaty of 
Ghent on the twenty-fourth of December 1814, and its rati- 
fication at Washington on the eighteenth of February follow- 

With the return of peace Dr. Strachan was free to turn his 
mind to his avocations. He at once proceeded with the re- 
organization of the Home District Grammar School. Early 
in 1815, at the request of Chief Justice Scott, he drew up an 
elaborate report on the state of religion and education in 
Upper Canada for submission to the Provisional Governor, 
Sir Gordon Drummond. 27 Among other things he urged that a 
commodious schoolhouse be built in each district where the 
population justified it, that the minimum of instruction 
should include Latin, French, and English languages, arith- 
metic, geography, and practical mathematics, that trustees 
should visit the schools regularly, and that a public examina- 
tion should be held annually prior to the summer vacation. 
As a result of this report the building of the Home District 
Grammar School was soon under way and it was opened early 
in 1816. It was a frame structure in the six-acre field set aside 
immediately north of the Church for school purposes in 1797 
and its fame has come down to posterity under the name of 
the Blue School. 28 Here Dr. Strachan continued and ex- 
panded the methods in which he had been so successful in 
Kingston and Cornwall and gave renewed life to educational 
matters by a reorganization on a broader basis of his pre- 
decessor's system of training. The number of boys attending 
the Blue School in 1818 amounted to fifty; a list of the names 

"During the period September 1811 to September 1815 the administration of the 
Province was under the Commander of the Forces, although Sir Francis Gore was 
nominally the Lieutenant-Governor from 1806 to 1817. 

28 Further information regarding Dr. Strachan's methods and success as a teacher 
will be found in Henry Scadding: Toronto of Old (Toronto, 1873); J. Ross Robertson's 
chapter on "The Old Blue School" in A History of Upper Canada College, 1829-1892, 
ed. George Dickson and G. Mercer Adam (Toronto, 1893); George W. Spragge, ed.: 
Strachan Letter Book and Ontario History, vol. XLIII (1951), no. 3; J. George Hodgins, 
LL.D.: Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada, vols. I, IV (Toronto, 
1894, 1897). 



reads like a directory of the town including, as it did, the 
names of practically all the known residents. 29 

Strachan's connection with public life was inevitable, when 
one considers the condition of the sparsely populated country. 
Lieutenent-Governor Gore, who from the first held Strachan 
in high esteem, recommended to the Home Government in 
1815 his appointment as an honorary member of the Execu- 
tive Council. He was admitted in September and succeeded 
Chief Justice Scott as a regular member in 1817. Gore's 
successor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, had him appointed to the 
Legislative Council in 1820, and President of the Board for 
the General Superintendence of Education in 1823, principal- 
ly on account of his high standing and wide fame as an 
educator. Both of these positions he accepted, because, as he 
has stated, it gave him more influence and greater opportuni- 
ties for promoting plans for the moral and religious instruc- 
tion of the people. He regarded himself as the duly author- 
ized state champion of the Church of England, and when he 
was the recipient of further honours he valued them as much 
for the prestige they added to the Church as to himself 

But Strachan's efforts aroused opposition in many quarters, 
and for nearly thirty years he was engaged in two great con- 
flicts, the settlement of the Clergy Reserves and the estab- 
lishment of a University in Upper Canada. 

It is unnecessary to go into detail here regarding the Re- 
serves, a subject which has been dealt with at length by 
many writers. Under the Constitutional Act of 1791 the 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Upper Canada was 
authorized to set aside in each township certain tracts of 
land for support of "a Protestant clergy." The claim that the 

29 On his resignation as headmaster in July 1823, the Trustees of the Home District 
Grammar School expressed appreciation of his merits and the great benefit which 
this District in particular and the Province in general had received from his labours. 
Ontario Archives, Strachan Papers, letter from the Trustees of the School to Strachan, 
July 23, 1823. 



lands were intended solely for the support of the clergy of 
the Church of England was not allowed to go unchallenged, 
for as early as 1819 the law officers of the Crown supported 
the contention of the Church of Scotland that their church 
was also established by law and that their ministers had 
equal rights thereto. In 1828 a select committee of the 
House of Commons ruled that the term "a Protestant clergy" 
might include ministers of other Protestant bodies. On the 
other hand Lord Bathurst, Secretary of State for the Colo- 
nies, in 1824 ruled that there should be no interference with 
the undeniable claims of the Church of England; in 1832 his 
successor, Lord Goderich, not only took the same stand but 
instructed the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, Sir 
John Colborne, to endow rectories in the settled parts of the 
Province. In August 1840 a compromise was agreed upon and 
the Home Government, on the suggestion of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, authorized the sale of the balance of the 
lands and the distribution of the proceeds, five-twelfths to 
the Church of England and seven-twelfths to the Church of 
Scotland and other dissenting bodies. This compromise was 
accepted by Strachan and his associates as final. 

In 1851 the whole question was reopened by Lord Grey, 
the Colonial Secretary, who, while deprecating a disturbance 
of the existing arrangements, ruled that the settlement was 
essentially a matter for the Provincial Legislature. In 1854, 
in spite of Bishop Strachan's protests, a bill was finally 
passed which was regarded as a wise piece of legislation. It 
confirmed in principle the endowment of the forty-four rec- 
tories by Sir John Colborne in 1836 and the annual stipends 
of the clergy and clergymen's widows under the act of 1840. 
Subject to these charges the whole of the proceeds of the 
balance of the Reserves was divided among the several muni- 
cipalities in the Province in proportion to their population. 
Out of the "wreckage" of the Reserves, Bishop Strachan, 
with the active assistance of the Honourable John Hillyard 



Cameron, was able to devise a plan whereby the annuitants 
agreed to commute their life interest for a bulk amount, 
which resulted in the sum of £224,900.16.8 being handed 
over to the Church to be held in trust for the clergy. This 
fund for the Diocese of Toronto alone now has a capital 
value of $410,000 and provides for grants to retired and 
needy clergy amounting to $13,000 annually. 30 

Strachan's other great interest, the subject of prolonged 
controversy, was the University question. 

The establishment of " a college of a higher class," visualized 
by the first Governor of Upper Canada before leaving Eng- 
land in 1791, was never far from Simcoe's thoughts through- 
out his five years in the Province. The following year, 1797, 
the Legislature petitioned the Home Government and re- 
ceived an appropriation of 500,000 acres for the endowment 
of a university and grammar schools. The price of Crown 
lands at that time was about ninepence per acre. 

In 1807, largely through the efforts of John Strachan, an 
act was passed for the establishment of a grammar school in 
each district of the Province. This was supplemented in 1824 
by grants for common, or public schools and while these 
provisions left much to be desired, the principles of prepara- 
tory education they established worked fairly well. 

In 1825, Sir Peregrine Maitland, who soon after taking 
office in 1818 had made some tentative plans, felt that the 
time was now ripe for a move to be made towards the es- 
tablishment of a University. On the nineteenth of December 
he sent a communication to Earl Bathurst, the Colonial 
Secretary, suggesting an exchange of some of the original 
endowment lands in outlying districts for Crown lands in a 
better location, which could be sold for a higher figure. To 

30 In his address to the Synod in 1856, Bishop Strachan paid tribute to the Honour- 
able John Hillyard Cameron for his indefatigable labour, patience, skill, and ability in 
consolidating these funds for the benefit of the clergy. In 1863 Mr. Cameron was 
elected Chancellor of Trinity College on the death of the Honourable Sir John 
Beverley Robinson. 



follow this up with a personal approach he prevailed upon 
Dr. Strachan, on account of his intimate knowledge of the 
educational system, to proceed to England to expedite 
matters. Leaving York in March 1826 Strachan arrived in 
London towards the end of April. 

So successful was Strachan in his mission that the Colonial 
Secretary sent the following communication to Sir Peregrine 
Maitland dated the thirty-first of March 1827. "I have the 
honour to inform you that His Majesty has been pleased to 
grant a Royal Charter by Letters Patent, under the Great 
Seal, for establishing at or near the Town of York in the 
Province of Upper Canada, one College, with the style and 
privileges of a University, for the education and instruction 
of youth in Arts and Faculties, to continue for ever, to be 
called King's College." In addition the sum of £1,000 per 
annum was granted towards the erection of the necessary 
buildings and the exchange of wild lands for Crown Reserves 
in more favourable locations was authorized. "You will pro- 
ceed to endow King's College with the said Crown Reserves 
with as little delay as possible." The Charter was dated 
March 15, 1827, and on June 3, 1828, a Patent was issued 
endowing the University of King's College with 225,000 
acres of Crown lands. 

Thus success had rewarded the efforts of Dr. Strachan and 
the dreams of his youth and early manhood seemed about to 
be realized. But the success was more apparent than real. 
Under the terms of the Charter, the University was to be a 
Church of England institution, with the Bishop of Quebec 
as Visitor, and the Archdeacon of York, President ex officio ; n 
the members of the Council were to be members of the Church 
of England and to subscribe to the Thirty-nine Articles. The 
College was to be open to all denominations of Christians; 

31 Strachan was appointed Archdeacon of York on June 28, 1827. See Rapport de 
V archivist e de la province de Quebec pour 1946-1947 (Quebec, 1947), "Historical Records 
of the Church of England in the Diocese of Quebec," ed. Canon A. R. Kelley, '02; 
here the date of his appointment is given as September 6, 1827. 



the professors, except those appointed to the Council, were 
not required to be of the Church of England and only in 
Divinity were religious tests to be imposed on undergradu- 
ates. Strachan was blamed for what was called the exclusive 
nature of the King's College Charter; but, whatever its 
terms, it was the most liberal that, up to that time, had ever 
passed under the Great Seal. In his address at the official 
opening of the College on the eighth of June 1843, Bishop 
Strachan referred to it as follows: 

The Charter of the University of King's College was not hastily 
settled. It was nearly a whole year under serious deliberation. It was 
repeatedly referred to the . . . Archbishop of Canterbury . . . who 
doubted the propriety of assenting to an instrument so free and so 
comprehensive in its provisions. 

It was considered, not only the most open Charter that had ever 
been granted, but the most liberal that could be framed on Constitu- 
tional principles; and His Majesty's Government declared that, in 
passing it, they had gone to the utmost limit of concession. 

Quoting this speech, Dr. Hodgins in his Documentary 
History of Education in Upper Canada comments: 

. . . the Reverend Doctor Strachan was not personally responsible 
for the most objectionable denominational features of the Royal 
Charter of King's College. ... 

One can scarcely read this Address . . . without a feeling of personal 
sympathy for the heroic Old Man, who all these years, from 1827 to 
1843, had endured a good deal of odium for a Charter — based indeed 
on purely denominational lines — but which, had his advice and counsel 
to the Colonial Secretary been taken, would have had eliminated from 
it, at the beginning, some of the most objectionable of its features. One 
cannot, nevertheless, but admire his constancy and loyalty to the 
terms of a gift from the Imperial Government, not altogether to his 
liking, but which, taken as a whole, he then regarded as a great boon to 
Upper Canada. 32 

A site of 150 acres, with avenues of approach from Yonge 
Street and Lot (Queen) Street was purchased in 1828 for the 

32 Vol. IV, p. 287. Sec also A. N. Bethune: Memoir of Bishop Strachan, p. 110. 



sum of approximately £4,000 currency ($1 6,000). 33 This area, 
far to the northwest of the then town of York, is now the site 
of the Parliament Buildings, the University of Toronto and 
its Colleges. Plans and specifications were soon under con- 
sideration and there was prospect of an early opening of 
King's College, when in 1828 its promoter and patron, Sir 
Peregrine Maitland, was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of 
Nova Scotia. 

His successor in Upper Canada, Sir John Colborne, was a 
man of a different stamp. Both had fought at the battle of 
Waterloo and had brilliant military records. But there re- 
semblance ceases. Sir John, on assuming office, refused, as 
Chancellor of King's College, ex officio^ to allow the work to 
proceed until certain amendments had been made in the 
Charter. In this he may have had the instructions of the 
Imperial Government, but whether or not this be so, he 
was not convinced of the immediate necessity of a university 
in Upper Canada. He was more interested in the founding 
of schools for primary and secondary education and, to that 
end, urged the College Council to appropriate a portion of 
the endowment for the building of Upper Canada College. 
This action stayed for a time Strachan's ambitions. A new 
curriculum, wholly classical, devised by the Governor and 
his brother-in-law, the Reverend James H. Harris, D.D., the 
first principal of this new college, replaced Strachan's scheme 
of studies which had been so successful at Cornwall and York, 
and which included English, history, mathematics, and the 

Later, in 1832, with the abolition of the Board of Educa- 
tion, Strachan was relieved of the presidency to which he 
had been appointed by Sir Peregrine Maitland nine years 
before, and in 1836 under pressure from Sir John Colborne, 

3S The term currency was applied to the Halifax pound of four dollars and the 
shilling valued at twenty cents, the official currency of Canada until the adoption of 
the decimal system in January 1858. In other words £1,000 sterling equalled £1,250 
currency, or $5,000. 



he formally resigned from the Executive Council although he 
had attended no meetings since November 1835. However, 
it should not be overlooked that Strachan's advancement in 
the Church and his labours in the cause of education had 
been rewarded by the honorary degree of LL.D. from the 
University of St. Andrews in 1829. He had been made Arch- 
deacon of York in 1827, the same year that he became Presi- 
dent of King's College. 34 

In 1837, Sir Francis Bond Head, who had succeeded Col- 
borne as Lieutenant-Governor, prevailed upon the Council 
of King's College, Strachan being president, to allow the 
Provincial Legislature to amend the Charter by altering 
some of the essentially Anglican features, as follows: the 
members of the College Council should not be required to be 
members of the Church of England; the president of King's 
College should in the future not necessarily be a clergyman; 
and, instead of the Bishop of Quebec being Visitor, the judges 
of the court of King's Bench in Upper Canada should act in 
that capacity on behalf of the Crown. 35 

The Mackenzie rebellion broke out in the latter part of 
this year, and caused still further delay and for some years 
suspended further action. Other things complicated matters, 
such as Lord Durham's Report, the Act of Union of 1840, 
uniting Upper and Lower Canada into one Province of Cana- 
da with one Legislature, and the granting of Royal Charters 
to Victoria College at Cobourg in 1836 and to Queen's Col- 
lege at Kingston in 1841. 

Sir Charles Bagot was appointed Governor-General of 

34 The following is a transcript (sent by the Secretary of the University of St. 
Andrews, March 3, 1948) from the minutes of the Senatus Academicus of the Univer- 
sity of St. Andrews, January 9, 1829: "It was proposed and seconded that the degree 
of LL.D. be conferred on the Reverend John Strachan, D.D., Archdeacon of York in 
Upper Canada and President of the University recently established there." On 
January 18, 1829, according to the minutes, "The meeting unanimously confer the 
degree of LL.D. on the Revd. John Strachan mentioned in the minutes of 9th of 
January last; Mr. Duncan to take charge of the Diploma." 

36 Act to amend the Charter of King's College, March 4, 1837. 



Canada on January 12, 1842. Educated at Rugby School and 
at Christ Church, Oxford, he saw at once the importance of 
a university in a young country such as Canada and set his 
heart upon its immediate organization. His first official act 
was the laying of the corner-stone of the first unit of King's 
College, one of a comprehensive group of buildings, on St. 
George's Day, April 23, 1842, with a colourful ceremony in 
which the Church, the State, leaders of Education, the 
learned professions, and the military all took part. At the 
close a salute of nineteen guns was fired by the Royal Artil- 
lery, the national anthem was sung, and the assembly was 
dismissed with Bishop Strachan's blessing. At the banquet 
held later in the day in the hall of Upper Canada College, 
the Lord Bishop, in responding to the toast tendered by Dr. 
McCaul, 36 declared that he had looked for this day for forty 
years, and that the present was the happiest moment of his 
existence. His feelings were evidently almost too strong for 
him, and he spoke with an eloquence far beyond that of 
words. 37 The University of King's College actually opened in 
the former Parliament Buildings 38 on Front Street on the 
eighth of June 1843, the Government having abandoned for 
the time being the pretentious plans originally proposed. On 
this occasion inaugural addresses were given by the Lord 
Bishop, Dr. John McCaul, Chief Justice the Honourable 
John Beverley Robinson, and Mr. Justice Hagerman. 

The short but active existence of the University of King's 
College is referred to briefly in chapter in. It is sufficient 
at this point to state that between 1843 and 1847 three Uni- 
versity bills were submitted to Parliament, but each in turn 

86 John McCaul (1807-1886), B.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1825; headmaster, 
Upper Canada College, 1839-42; Professor of Classics, King's College, 1842-49, 
Vice-President 1842-48, President 1848-49; President, University of Toronto, 1850-80. 

"University of King's College: Proceedings at the Ceremony of Laying the Corner 
Stone (Toronto, 1843). 

88 Under the Act of Union of 1840, the capital of the Province of Canada was to be 
chosen by the Governor-General, Baron Sydenham. He selected Kingston, and the 
first Parliament of the united Canadas met there on June 14, 1841. 



failed to pass. In 1849 the Honourable Robert Baldwin suc- 
ceeded in passing a new University Act whereby King's 
College was secularized and all religious tests and teaching 
were abolished. On the first day of January 1850 it became 
the University of Toronto. 

In 1847 Strachan had ceased to attend the meetings of the 
King's College Council and formally resigned as President 
in January 1848. On the fifth of February, Dr. John McCaul 
was appointed President. 

It is not within the scope of this chapter to deal at length 
with the life of the Founder throughout his Bishopric, nor 
with all the details leading up to his consecration in 1839. 
Fifteen years before this the division of the Diocese of Que- 
bec had been considered in order to relieve the Bishop of the 
responsibility of the western part, that area known as the 
Province of Upper Canada. Strachan would have been the 
logical choice as bishop of the new diocese, as he was already 
the Bishop's Commissary, but difficulties arose regarding the 
stipend and nothing was done. In 1836 the need of a co- 
adjutor for Bishop Stewart became imperative but Strachan 
was passed over in favour of the Archdeacon of Lower Cana- 
da, the Reverend George Jehoshaphat Mountain. Moun- 
tain, as coadjutor, received the title of Bishop of Montreal, 
and on Bishop Stewart's death the following year succeeded 
him in the see of Quebec. Still the establishment of the new 
diocese hung fire, the Home Government, in spite of the 
strong representations of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Colonial Secretary, and the Lieutenant-Governor, refusing to 
provide the necessary endowment. Strachan protested that 
the matter of salary was secondary to the spiritual needs of 
the country and could be held in abeyance until the question 
of the Clergy Reserves should be settled. 39 Strachan's claims 
to the Bishopric were urged by others. In an article in the 

z 'The Arthur Papers, ed. Charles R. Sanderson, Part I (Toronto, 1943), Strachan 
to Arthur, May 4, 1838. Also quoted by A. N. Bethune: Memoir of Bishop Strachan, 
p. 169. 



Qpieens Quarterly , 1928, Professor A. H. Young notes: "His 
personal friend and fellow-Scotsman, Alexander Macdonell, 
the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Kingston, [in 1835] 
wrote to the Colonial Office to say that, if an Anglican 
Diocese in Upper Canada was to be erected, his friend, Dr. 
Strachan, was the only man in the country fit to receive 
the appointment. " 

Finally, on the twenty-seventh of July 1839, Letters Pat- 
ent were issued by the Crown erecting Upper Canada into a 
separate Bishopric and appointing the Venerable Archdeacon 
Strachan the first Bishop of the Diocese of Toronto. Early 
in the summer Dr. Strachan had proceeded to England and 
on the fourth of August was consecrated in the chapel of 
Lambeth Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. 
William Howley, assisted by the Bishops of London, Chi- 
chester, and Nova Scotia. 40 The Bishop returned home in 
November and, on the twenty-second of December, was 
enthroned in his new Cathedral Church, built to replace the 
former building destroyed by fire the previous January. 
Early in 1840 the Bishop resigned from the Legislative 
Council and thus severed his connection with all political 

As Bishop, Strachan realized more than ever the great 
need of more clergy, brought acutely to his notice in his 
visitations throughout the Diocese. In November 1841 he an- 
nounced through the columns of The Church the appointment 
of the Reverend A. N. Bethune to be Professor of Theology 
for the Diocese and the opening of the Diocesan Theological 
Institution at Cobourg on the tenth day of January follow- 
ing. 41 

40 Strachan continued as Rector of St. James' and Archdeacon of York until 1847 
when the matter of the episcopal stipend having been arranged, he appointed the 
Reverend Henry James Grasett to the Rectorship and the Reverend Alexander Neil 
Bethune, Archdeacon. Ontario Archives, Strachan Letter Book, February 10 and 25, 

41 The Church, November 27, 1841. The inauguration and progress of the Diocesan 
Theological Institution are dealt with in chapter n. 



The Bishop's first ordination on April 12, 1840, was almost 
immediately followed by visitations, first to the western 
missions in the Niagara and Lake Huron district, followed 
by one as far eastward as the Ottawa River, practically 
covering the whole of Upper Canada — hundreds of miles by 
farmer's cart, by boat or canoe, sometimes even on foot, 
visiting parishes and outlying missions and establishing new 
ones, and confirming thousands in their baptismal vows. And 
this ceaseless activity he persisted in until old age made such 
labours impossible. 

In 1841 and every third year thereafter he summoned his 
clergy in convocation to discuss diocesan problems. For the 
meeting of May 1, 1851, he invited them to bring one or two 
lay members of their respective congregations to participate 
in their councils. Out of this there evolved the first Diocesan 
Synod convened anywhere in the British Dominions, the first 
time in the history of the Church that lay representatives 
were given legislative power together with the clergy. 

Nor should it be forgotten that it was Bishop Strachan 
who first conceived the idea of a conference of bishops and 
clergy throughout the Anglican Communion. In his charge 
to the Synod in 1860 he spoke at length on the subject and 
was energetically followed by Bishop Lewis at the Synod of 
the Diocese of Ontario in 1864, with the result that the first 
Lambeth Conference was held in London in September 1867 
shortly before Bishop Strachan's death. 

The rapid growth of the Province impelled the Bishop 
to carry out a plan he had discussed with the Archbishop of 
Canterbury in 1850 looking towards a division of the un- 
wieldy Diocese of Toronto. In 1857 the western thirteen 
counties of the Province, comprising forty-three parishes, 
were set aside as the Diocese of Huron, and four years later 
forty-six parishes in the eastern district were formed into 
the Diocese of Ontario. 

This was virtually the last of Bishop Strachan's adminis- 



trative acts. Notwithstanding the fact that he had now 
arrived at the age of eighty-four he continued to minister to 
the immediate needs of his own diocese. In his last letter on 
his eightieth birthday to his old friend and mentor, Professor 
Thomas Duncan of Aberdeen, he admitted that "my seeing 
and hearing are failing but my general health and power of 
labour wonderful, blessed be God!" 42 

Before closing this brief memoir of one who for sixty-eight 
years had been a citizen of this Province, a brief reference 
might be made to his personal characteristics. 

Throughout his life he was blessed with good health and 
"a constitutional imperturbability" which enabled him to 
rise superior to his troubles. Courageous himself, he inspired 
courage in others. His motto, Caveo sed non timeo, he trans- 
lated, in a letter to his friend, Dr. William McMurray, as 
"Prudent but Fearless ; but, how far applicable to me I cannot 
say, perhaps as much as mottoes generally are." His cour- 
age and sense of duty were shown on many occasions. 
Reference has been made to his action in defending the 
inhabitants of York from pillage when the town was invaded 
by American troops in April 1813. On one of his episcopal 
journeys to the mission at Sault Ste Marie it was only pos- 
sible to reach his destination by water — a long pull in an 
open row-boat by night. When efforts were made to dissuade 
him, on account of the rough weather, he replied like the 
Roman general of old, "It is not necessary for me to live, but 
it is necessary for me to go." Throughout the terrible cholera 
epidemics of 1832 and 1834 and the typhus attack of 1847, 
he worked night and day in the immigrant sheds of Toronto, 
alongside his friend Bishop Power of St. Paul's Roman 
Catholic Church and ministers of other denominations. He 
had no fear for himself, for, he said, God was with him. Nor 

^Five years previously Strachan had written to Mr. Duncan urging him not to 
retire. "For my part I shall never resign, but labour to the last according to my 
strength." Ontario Archives, Strachan Letter Book, October 21, 1853. 



was his charity confined to his own flock. At the time of the 
potato famine in Ireland in 1847 he collected and sent to the 
Archbishops of Armagh and Dublin the sum of £318 sterling 
for relief of the sufferers. 

For the young he had ready sympathy and a genuine inter- 
est in their affairs and problems; for children he had a real 
affection and they in turn for him. His friendships were 
strong and lasting and his loyalty unflinching. Above all he 
was endowed with a generous portion of sound common sense 
so essential to one in his position. 

His relationships with his clergy were paternal, as befitted 
a Right Reverend Father in God, and many acts of kindli- 
ness, of encouragement, and often of financial assistance are 
disclosed in a perusal of his letter books. Nor did he mince 
matters if a reprimand was necessary. To Archdeacon Be- 
thune he wrote, in reference to the Reverend A. B., "who has 
been an incessant annoyance since his admission to the 
Church, — he and his wife seem to be Methodist gossipers — 
no greater misfortune can happen to a clergyman than to 
have a gossipy wife." And to the same A. B. he wrote scold- 
ing him severely for his continual complaints, supposed 
grievances, and attitude to his parishioners. To another he 
recommended, "Be not too familiar with the members of 
your congregation — this I remarked when with you — it ap- 
pears to be your danger and no doubt arises from natural 
frankness and goodness of heart." Here tact is exemplified 
as well as acute perception. Regarding another person of 
some standing he wrote to his rural dean, "The Reverend C. 
D. is always giving trouble, always impracticable; he repre- 
sents a sad example of a life uselessly spent and good natural 
talents wasted." 

But when complaints came to him about his clergy it was 
another matter. A deputation of laymen came to ask for 
their rector's removal; one complaint was that their pastor 
was getting old, his discourses prosy and that one sermon 



was repeated frequently. "When did he preach it last?" in- 
quired the Bishop. "Last Sunday, my Lord." "What was it 
about?" None could tell. "What was the text?" Again silence. 
Then "Go back," said the Bishop, "and ask him to preach it 
again next Sunday." 

On another occasion an obviously trumped-up charge in- 
cluded drinking, and to clinch the matter one of the delegates 
added, "and he buys it by the bottle, my Lord." "Tut, tut," 
said the Bishop, "that's a most extravagant way to buy 
whiskey, I always buy mine by the barrel." 

His biographer, the Reverend Canon Henry Scadding, said 
his sermons were thoughtful and cultivated, invariably solid, 
full of meaning, never insipid, and always vigorous and to the 
point. 43 And another commented that he was in the strictest 
sense head and centre of the Church. He moulded its doc- 
rines and directed its energies. Nil sine Episcopo was not an 
abstract theory, but a concrete necessity. The Reverend 
Edmund Baldwin, Curate of St. James' Cathedral, com- 
plained that when he or the Rector, Dean Grasett, both 
pronounced evangelicals, preached any distinctly evangelical 
doctrine, the Bishop would say when they reached the 
vestry, "I will preach next Sunday." Then he was sure to 
say, with reference to what had been preached the week 
before, "That is what some people think, but this is the way 
the matter is to be understood." And then he would proceed 
to give the orthodox Anglican doctrine in a way that could 
not be mistaken. 44 

In Synod, he controlled all the discussions, indeed almost 
dictated what should be said. On a subject that displeased 
him, he abruptly called the speaker to order. "But I am in 
the hands of the Synod, my Lord." "Don't talk nonsense, 
mahn," said the Bishop, "ye are in my hands, sit ye doon, sit 
ye doon." On another occasion, a venerable clergyman pro- 

48 The First Bishop of Toronto. 

^John Langtry, '55, M.A., D.C.L.: History of the Church in Eastern Canada and 
Newfoundland (London, 1892), p. 117. 



posed a most elaborate scheme for the establishment of ad- 
ditional archdeaconries (of which the Bishop approved) and 
above all an assistant or a coadjutor for his Lordship. The 
Bishop heard him throughout and then settled the matter by 
the pithy, but angry remark, "Do ye wish to bury a mahn 
before he is dead?" 45 

It was often a matter of surprise that any deliberative as- 
sembly would consent to this autocratic rule, but it is ac- 
counted for by the fact that the vast services which the 
Bishop had rendered the Church were ever present in the 
minds of the members, a large number of whom had re- 
ceived many personal kindnesses at the Bishop's hands. 

In 1866, in his eighty-ninth year, the Bishop consented at 
last to the election of a coadjutor to relieve him of the more 
arduous duties of his office. "The weight of years," he said 
in his address to the Synod on the eighth of August, "and 
the infirmities they bring move one to announce this deci- 
sion; for although equal to some duties, still there are others 
of paramount importance which I am warned not again to 
attempt." Before the close of the Synod the date for the 
election was fixed for September 19, 1866, when the clergy 
and lay representatives of ninety-seven parishes met in Tor- 
onto. Following three days of voting, unfortunately marred 
at times by strong party feeling, and when after eight ballots 
there was still a deadlock, Provost Whitaker, who had a 
large majority of the clergy votes throughout the election, 
but failed by a few votes to carry the laity, withdrew from 
the contest. On the ninth ballot the Archdeacon of York, the 
Reverend Alexander Neil Bethune, was elected coadjutor, 
with the title of Bishop of Niagara. He was consecrated on 
January 25, 1867, the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul. 
In September he represented the Diocese at the first Pan- 
Anglican Conference held at Lambeth Palace, returning to 
Toronto two days after Bishop Strachan's death. 

^Herbert Symonds, '86, in The Review, February 1890. 



During the summer of 1867 it had been evident that 
Bishop Strachan's health was rapidly failing. On Sunday, 
October the twentieth, he attended his Cathedral Church 
for the last time. After the service, as if he had a presenti- 
ment that he would never be there again, he bade good-bye 
to all the attendants of the Cathedral, overlooking none. 
He shook hands with them and prayed that God would 
bless them. He passed to his eternal rest on the Festival of 
All Saints, in the ninetieth year of his age and, of his episco- 
pate, the twenty-ninth. He died, as he had hoped to do, 
"with his hand solely on the helm." 

The funeral, which took place on the fifth of November, 
was an impressive one. By proclamation of the Mayor, busi- 
ness was suspended, stores were closed, and many public 
buildings draped in mourning. From the Palace to the Ca- 
thedral the streets were lined by the military, including the 
13th Hussars of Balaclava fame, British regulars stationed 
at the Fort, and the militia of the city, a fitting honour for 
one who had been chaplain of the forces in his younger days 
and for a militant Churchman who throughout his life had 
fought the good fight for Church and State and Education. 
All sections of the community were represented. Included 
were representatives of other churches; the University of 
Toronto, Victoria College, and Trinity College; the judiciary, 
the medical and legal professions, and the benevolent socie- 
ties. Six of his former pupils, the Venerable Archdeacon 
Fuller of Niagara, the Reverend Dr. William McMurray, 
the Honourable Vice-Chancellor Spragge, Messrs. William 
Gamble, F. H. Heward, and John Ridout acted as pall- 
bearers. The body was laid to rest beneath the Chancel of 
his Cathedral Church as the choir chanted the anthem, "I 
heard a voice from Heaven saying unto me, Write, From 
henceforth blessed are the dead which die in the Lord: 
Even so, saith the Spirit, for they rest from their labours. ,, 




arly missionaries of the Church of England in 
Upper Canada received their training and were, 
with one or two exceptions, ordained in England. 
But the available clergy were few and there was 
little in this country in the eighteenth century to attract 
men of education and of the necessary physique to endure 
the rough life, the privations, and the lack of society. Then, 
too, the annual stipends were small, at the most £150, of 
which the parish or mission paid £50, frequently less, the 
Government £100, and the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel £50.* 

Jacob Mountain, the first Bishop of Quebec (the Diocese 
then comprised the whole of Upper and Lower Canada), 
despairing of obtaining missionaries from England, and hav- 
ing no way of training men for the ministry, determined to 
look about in Canada for men of mature age, with education 
and experience in this country, who would be suitable both 
as to character and as to physical fitness. He agreed also to 
consider any person who might be recommended by men in 
whose judgment he had confidence. John Strachan was one of 
these. In writing to Mr. Richard Cartwright in May 1803, 
the Bishop said, "The testimony contained in your letter of 
the 3rd instant in favour of Mr. Strachan's character and 
conduct was, in a peculiar manner, satisfactory to me. He 

^he Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts and its sister 
organization, the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, both founded 
about the year 1700, had done noble missionary work in British colonies. Even after 
the American Revolution, they continued their labours in the former North American 



appears to be a young man of competent attainments, of 
fair understanding and great modesty and worth." 

Six years later the Bishop wrote to Strachan, "I will re- 
ceive candidates for Holy Orders educated by you and will 
give them ordination, provided always that I shall be suffi- 
ciently satisfied with their attainments and that there shall 
be a situation open." But by 1825, the year of Bishop Moun- 
tain's death, the total number of clergy in Upper Canada 
was only twenty-six. 

Some years later the Reverend Featherstone Lake Osier, 
missionary to the townships of Tecumseh and West Gwil- 
limbury from 1837 to 1857, had a parish of 240 square miles 
and a scattered population, as well as out-stations as far 
north as Penetanguishene and eastward to Georgina, extend- 
ing into twenty townships and over 2,000 square miles of 
country. He appealed to Bishop Strachan for assistance in 
serving the twenty-eight congregations and Sunday Schools 
he had organized. Failing in this appeal he obtained a pro- 
mise from the Bishop that he would ordain any suitable men 
that Mr. Osier might train for the ministry. He found six 
promising young men who acted as catechists and took ser- 
vices at various points on Sundays, visited the people within 
twelve miles of the parsonage during the week, and studied 
with him in the evenings. Four of these men were ordained 
and afterwards became prominent in Church life. They were 
the Reverend William Stewart Darling, ordained 1842, who 
founded churches at Mono Mills and at Scarborough, and 
served from 1853 to 1886, the greater part of his ministry, at 
the Church of the Holy Trinity, Toronto; the Reverend 
Henry Bath Osier who was stationed at Lloyd town and York 
Mills and, later, was Canon of the Diocese of Toronto; the 
Reverend George J. Hill, at Perth; and the Reverend George 
Bourne, in the Simcoe district. 

The Royal Charter for the establishment of King's College 
was granted in 1827. Although its terms were the most liberal 



ever granted by the Crown, its exclusively Anglican tenor 
immediately aroused political and denominational opposi- 
tion. It was modified to some extent ten years later, but the 
Rebellion of 1837 and the resulting unsettled conditions 
throughout the Province delayed any building until 1842. 
For the following seven years, the University question was 
the "football of politics"; no less than three abortive "Uni- 
versity bills" (1843, 1845, and 1847) were submitted to the 
Legislature. Finally by the provisions of the Baldwin Act of 
1849, 2 King's College became the University of Toronto on 
the first day of January 1850 and all religious tests and teach- 
ing were abolished. In the meantime it had become evident 
that its exclusively Anglican character could not be main- 
tained, and that, to use the Bishop's own words, it would not 
be safe to rely on King's College as the nursery of the Church. 
Bishop Strachan, whether he saw the handwriting on the 
wall or not, realized that a theological college was necessary 
which would have the full confidence of the Church in the 
training of young men for the ministry. That he had long 
had such a college in mind is seen in a letter to the Bishop of 
Quebec twenty-four years before in which he suggested that 
the few students supported by the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel might be the nucleus in forming such a 

In the autumn of 1841 Strachan asked his Chaplains, the 
Reverend Alexander Neil Bethune, Rector of Cobourg, the 
Reverend Henry James Grasett, Minister 3 of St. James* 
Cathedral, and the Reverend Henry Scadding, then Assist- 
ant at the Cathedral, 4 to draw up a plan by which students of 
Divinity in the Diocese of Toronto might be given a system- 

2 The Act, 12 Vic, c. 82, passed both Houses on May 30, 1849. 

3 Grasett was designated "Minister" from his appointment to St. James' on October 
2, 1835, until he succeeded Bishop Strachan as Rector in February 1847. 

4 Alexander Neil Bethune (1800-1879), pupil under Strachan at Cornwall and at 
York; missionary at Grimsby 1823-26; Minister and later Rector at Cobourg 1827-67; 
Archdeacon of York 1847-67; consecrated as coadjutor to Bishop Strachan January 
25, 1867; succeeded him as Bishop of Toronto, November 1, 1867. 



atic course in Theology before being admitted to Holy 
Orders, and which at the same time looked towards the 
formation of a college for the purpose. 

On the twenty-seventh of November 1841, the Bishop an- 
nounced that he had appointed the Reverend A. N. Bethune 
Professor of Theology in the Diocese of Toronto and that a 
candidate for Holy Orders would, in future, be required to 
take a prescribed course of theological study under his direc- 
tion, after first passing an examination by one of the Bishop's 
Chaplains as to his competency and suitability. Thus was 
founded the Diocesan Theological Institution at Cobourg, 
which opened its doors for the Easter Term on Monday the 
tenth day of January 1842, with seven students in atten- 
dance. This number was increased to seventeen by the 
following October. By January 1852, when the Institution 
was transferred to Toronto to become the Faculty of Divin- 
ity in the new Trinity College, forty-six students had been 
admitted to Holy Orders. 

At the beginning lectures were held three times a week, 
but after a time instruction was given daily, except Mondays. 
The courses included the Greek Testament, the Thirty-nine 
Articles, Evidences of Christianity, Old Testament History, 
Liturgies, Church Government, Ecclesiastical History, and 
the Greek and Latin Fathers. At stated periods each student 
was required to write a sermon, which was read to the other 
students and commented on or criticized by the Principal. 

The period of residence was three years. Attendance at 
morning chapel was compulsory, seven o'clock in the sum- 
mer, half an hour later in the winter, and students were re- 
quired to wear cap and gown. They instructed in the Sunday 

Henry James Grasett (1808-1882), B.A. Cantab. 1831; Minister at St. James', 
Toronto, 1835-47 and Rector 1847-82; Dean of Toronto 1867-82. 

Henry Scadding (1813-1901), pupil under Strachan at the Blue School in York; 
first student and head boy at Upper Canada College 1829-33; B.A. St. John's College, 
Cambridge, 1837; Classical master, U.C.C., 1838-62; Assistant, St. James', Toronto, 
1838-47; first incumbent, Church of the Holy Trinity, Toronto, 1847-75. 



schools, distributed tracts among parishioners, and in addi- 
tion held services and otherwise assisted the clergy in out- 
lying parishes. This practical experience was most beneficiaL 
These men, with few exceptions, according to Dr. Bethune, 
"proved themselves amongst the most hard-working and 
most successful of our clergy." 

To assist worthy students, the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel granted ten exhibitions or bursaries of the 
total annual value of £400. These bursaries were further sup- 
plemented by four from the Church Society of the Diocese. 
In March 1842 the Bishop wrote Mr. Bethune: "I can assist 
three or four of your advanced students by bona fide loan 
(to be repaid) but nothing else." 5 

At the outset the Bishop was determined that men gradu- 
ating should have sound training. "I am not satisfied," he 
wrote Dr. Bethune in November 1842, "with the last ordina- 
tion; we must raise the standard of study for candidates and 
insist on Latin and Greek and, at least, two years' attend- 
ance." 6 Even graduates from other colleges otherwise aca- 
demically qualified were required to spend a year under Dr. 

In his charge to the clergy of the Diocese of Toronto at his 
triennial visitation on the sixth of June 1844, the Bishop re- 
viewed the work of the previous years: 

[The Institution] was, from the first, placed under the sole manage- 
ment of the Rev. Dr. Bethune, and has prospered far beyond my most 
sanguine expectations. A success which I chiefly attribute to the super- 
ior ability and sound discretion with which it has been conducted by 
its learned and amiable Professor. . . . 

And here also we have most thankfully to acknowledge that for the 
continuance, and indeed we may say for the very existence of this 
Institution, we are beholden to the unwearied kindness and munificence 
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 
That noble and venerable Association has made an annual grant of 
£500 Sterling towards its support; of which £400 is divided into ten 

6 Ontario Archives, Strachan Letter Book, March 24, 1842. 
*Ibid. y November 24, 1842. 



scholarships, and the remaining hundred enables the Professor to 
employ an assistant to relieve him from some portion of the duty of 
his populous and extensive mission. . . . 

The Theological Seminary will, it is hoped, in time become the 
foundation of a still more extensive Institution, to be attached to the 
Cathedral, as was the custom in former ages, that it may supply the 
whole Diocese with Clergymen, instead of vacancies, to which it is as 
yet chiefly confined. 

The Diocesan Theological Institution was successful and 
justified the Bishop's confidence to such an extent that in 
1848 he had serious thoughts of having it incorporated. The 
vexed question of King's College became the subject of pro- 
longed and, at times, acrimonious debate between 1843, when 
the first lectures were given, and 1849 when the College was 
secularized by the Baldwin administration. In 1848 Strachan 
resigned the Presidency of King's College and virtually with- 
drew from the fight. In writing to a friend about this time he 
suggested that "now might be a good time to carry through 
the Act incorporating the Theological Institution at Cobourg 
with the title of a College or University, say 'Trinity College/ 
to be located near Toronto." 7 Thus he was anticipating what 
actually happened three years later when the University of 
King's College was secularized and became the University of 

The indefatigable Bishop lost no time. Although seventy- 
two years of age he visualized a new Church University. In 
February 1850 he addressed a strong pastoral appeal to the 
clergy and laity of his Diocese, and on the tenth of April set 
out for England to secure a Royal Charter and to appeal for 
funds in the Mother Country. 

During the absence of Bishop Strachan in England, a pro- 
visional committee was appointed by friends of the proposed 
College. The Bishop's pastoral was read at vestry meetings 
throughout the Diocese and subscription lists were opened. 
The response on the part of the laity as well as the clergy was 

Ubid. y June 29, 1847. 



prompt and enthusiastic, money and lands being subscribed 
to the extent of £25,000 by the time the College was opened 
in January 1852. 

On the Bishop's return early in November 1850 he was 
waited upon by a deputation of leading physicians who had, 
in the previous summer, organized the Upper Canada School 
of Medicine. These gentlemen, Doctors Edward M. Hodder, 8 
James Bovell, Francis Badgley, William Hallowell, Norman 
Bethune, and Henry Melville, proposed that this School 
should be the Medical Faculty of the new Trinity College if 
it was the intention to include the sciences and liberal arts in 
the proposed institution. Knowing the difficulties surround- 
ing such an undertaking, they offered their services gratuit- 
ously until the income of the University was sufficient for 
the maintenance of the Faculty. 

The Bishop at once accepted this offer and that there might 
be no delay suggested that the official opening of the medical 
school should be held on the seventh of November in the 
rooms of the Mechanics' Institute then in Court Street. 
Accordingly at eleven o'clock on that day and before a large 
audience, the Lord Bishop, assisted by the Reverend H. J. 
Grasett, Rector of St. James' Cathedral, opened the pro- 
ceedings with a short service. This was followed by intro- 
ductory lectures suitably adapted to a mixed audience on 
subjects which in those days were a closed book to laymen, 
namely, Anatomy, Obstetrics, Surgery, Materia Medica, 
Medicine, and Medical Jurisprudence. Said The Church, in 
its issue of the fourteenth of November 1850: 

8 Edward Mulberry Hodder (1810-1878), M.D., F.R.C.S., one of the founders of 
the Upper Canada School of Medicine, afterward the Faculty of Medicine in Trinity 
University, and, on its reorganization in 1871, Dean of the Trinity Medical School, 
was a citizen of distinction. A midshipman in the Royal Navy at the age of twelve, he 
later turned his attention to medicine, in which profession he ranked highly. Coming 
to Toronto in 1843 he soon acquired a lucrative practice. A born yachtsman, he was 
the owner of the Cherokee and one of the founders of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club, 
of which he was commodore (the third) 1856-59, and again at different periods up to 
the time of his death. In 1875 he was President of the Canadian Medical Association. 



Seldom if ever, has our Province witnessed a more interesting event. 
Generations yet unborn will keep that day in remembrance, connected 
as it is with the first operations of a University founded to counteract 
the infidel spirit of the age, and to combine the blessings of Science 
with the far more precious blessings of Christianity. 

Regarding the ability displayed by the respective Lecturers, but one 
opinion can be entertained. Brief and popular as the addresses neces- 
sarily were, they furnished the most solid assurance that the teachers 
of the newly-formed School are fully competent for the effective dis- 
charge of the duties which they have undertaken. 

The first pressing object of the Bishop and his associates 
on his return from England was to find a suitable site for the 
new University. Offers of land had been received from other 
parts of the Diocese, notably one from Niagara, mentioning 
a beautiful situation of fifty acres near the town, and one 
from Cobourg, where for ten years the Theological Institu- 
tion had been established, and one from Hamilton. 

It was finally decided that Toronto, on account of the 
superior advantages of its central location and its position 
as the Cathedral city of the Province, and the fact that the 
greater amount of the subscriptions had come from its 
citizens, would be the most suitable. 

The population of the city of Toronto in 1850 was about 
30,000. The boundaries were roughly from the Don River 
to Bathurst Street, and from the Bay shore to a line arbi- 
trarily drawn four hundred yards north of and parallel to 
Queen Street, i.e., approximately the line of the present 
Dundas Street. When considering a site for the proposed 
College, it was undoubtedly in the mind of Bishop Strachan 
and his associates to build well beyond the town limits and 
far from the temptations of city life. 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts — "that venerable Society, The S.P.G." — had, in addi- 
tion to a generous donation of £2,000 sterling, given seven 
and one-half acres of land, worth at least £4,000, from the 
original Garrison Reserve granted to the Society by the 



Crown in 1845. This property sold in 1855 for £9,155 cur- 
rency (#36,620). It was in a block not far from the site 
finally chosen, but south of Queen Street. It was thought 
by some to be an eligible site, but the Bishop, rinding that he 
could purchase twenty acres with a frontage on Queen 
Street for £2,000 currency, from Miss Cameron of Gore Vale, 
displayed the business acumen for which he was noted. Writ- 
ing to the Secretary of the S.P.G. in 1853 the Bishop said he 
would be able to sell the property given by that Society to 
great advantage on account of the increase in land values. 
Although "too far in the suburbs ever to become a site for 
business, there is a great mania here for railroads — at 
present four or five are to centre here." 9 The purchase of the 
Cameron property was completed in December 1850 when 
the Bishop drew on the Society for the Promotion of Christ- 
ian Knowledge for its subscription of £3,000. 

The site, the most beautiful and convenient for the pur- 
pose that could have been selected, commanded a fine view 
of the lake and harbour. Canon Henry Scadding, rhapsodiz- 
ing twenty years later on its sequestered beauty, refers to 
the brooklet (the Garrison Creek, now long submerged in a 
sewer), which would hereafter be famous in scholastic song, 
"the modern Cephissus of a Canadian Academus, the Cher- 
well of an infant Christ Church"; the "elmy dale which . . . 
renders so charming the views from the Provost's Lodge"; 
and the cupola and tower recalling to Oxford men the Tom 
Gate of Christ Church. 10 And so it seemed in those far-off 

The site was added to in 1853 by Dr. Alexander Burnside, 
who to celebrate his seventy-fifth year, executed a convey- 
ance to the College of a piece of land adjoining the College 
grounds on the west, valued at £2,000. n This field, of about 

"Ontario Archives, Strachan Letter Book, Strachan to the Reverend Ernest 
Hawkins, Secretary of the S.P.G., February 4, 1853. 

10 Henry Scadding: Toronto of Old (Toronto, 1873). 

"In 1853 Dr. Burnside's gift to the College was stated to be £4,000 in cash, £2,000 
in land. Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, April 9, 1853. 



four acres, had been used in the previous year as a cricket 
ground for the College. In making the presentation Dr. 
Burnside added his gratification at the establishment of a 
Church University, his sensibility of the privilege of being 
honoured by the friendship of the Bishop, and the great 
benefit he had experienced from his spiritual ministrations. 
Dr. Burnside died on the thirteenth of December 1854, in his 
seventy-fifth year, and was buried in St. James* Cemetery in 
a lot adjoining that of the Strachan and Robinson families 
where an imposing monument marks his last resting place. 
On Saturday the sixteenth of December, at the request of 
the Bishop, the Council, Officers, and students attended his 

In 1855 the lot on the southwest corner was purchased by 
the College from one John Phipps, for £700. In after years it 
proved to be revenue-producing, the land being leased for 
stores to be built by various individuals. In June 1882 a 
further purchase of three and one-half acres, for $10,500, to 
the north and west of the Burnside gift, brought the western 
boundary of the College grounds to Bond (now Crawford) 

Early in January 1851 a Provisional Council to direct the 
affairs of the new College was formed, consisting of the 
following members: the Honourable James Gordon, the 
Honourable Vice-Chancellor John Godfrey Spragge, the 
Honourable Robert Sympson Jameson, the Honourable Mr. 
Justice Draper, Philip M. M. S. Vankoughnet, Esq., Q.C., 
and Dr. Edward M. Hodder of the Medical Faculty, all 
appointed by the Lord Bishop; Dr. Alexander Burnside, the 
Honourable John Beverley Robinson, the Honourable James 
Buchanan Macaulay, the Reverend Henry James Grasett, 
John Arnold, Esq., and Lewis Moffatt, Esq., appointed by 
the subscribers to the College funds. The Trustees were the 
Reverend H. J. Grasett, George W. Allan, Esq., and Lewis 
Moffatt, Esq. 

The Council held its first meeting on the ninth of January 



1851. At this meeting the Lord Bishop received a vote of 
thanks for his generosity in "defraying out of his own 
private funds, not only the heavy preliminary expenses 
incurred in the Province, but also those expenses attendant 
on an extensive and lengthened trip to Great Britain." 

At the meeting of Council held on the twenty-third of 
January the plans for the College building were discussed. 
The Bishop, when in England, had been impressed with and 
had secured the plans for a theological college about to be 
built near Liverpool — St. Aidan's, Birkenhead — which, he 
said, appeared to be well adapted for the new Trinity 
College. The Reverend H. J. Grasett and Captain James 1VL 
Strachan were appointed to confer, severally, with the com- 
peting architects, Messrs. Cumberland and Ridout, and 
Mr. Kivas Tully, to determine to what extent these plans 
could be adapted, and in what manner, to those under pre- 
paration. Whether they were worthy of consideration is not 
stated in the minutes of Council, but three weeks later the 
architects submitted their plans and on the twentieth of 
February those of Mr. Tully 12 were chosen. At the same time 
the tenders of the contractors, Metcalfe, Wilson and Forbes, 
for the construction at an estimated cost of £7,845 currency 
($31,380) were accepted. On Monday, the seventeenth of 
March, the first sod was turned by the Lord Bishop in the 
presence of the College Council, the architect, the contract- 
ors, and a few spectators in a brief but impressive ceremony. 

After a short preliminary address the Bishop took the 
spade from the architect and, having filled it with soil, said: 
"We begin this work in the name of The Father, and of The 
Son and of The Holy Ghost." He then threw the soil into the 
barrow. Members of the Council did likewise, the High 

"Kivas Tully (1820-1905), C.E., I.S.O., born in Queen's County, Ireland, educated 
at Limerick; came to Canada in 1843; structural engineer and architect of many 
public buildings; Alderman and Councillor of the City of Toronto in 1852 and 1859; 
appointed Architect and Engineer of Public Works for the Province of Ontario in 
1867; member of St. George's Church and churchwarden 1855, etc. He died on April 
24, 1905. 



Sheriff of the County, William Botsford Jarvis, acting as 
barrowman. After cheers for the Queen, the Bishop, and the 
College, a short prayer by His Lordship closed the proceed- 

On Wednesday, the thirtieth of April 1851, the corner- 
stone was laid with fitting ceremonies. At one o'clock a ser- 
vice was held in St. George's Church, John Street, at that 
time near the outskirts of the city and over a mile from the 
site of the College. Evening Prayer was sung, with an anthem 
written by the Reverend Dr. McCaul, President of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, and a sermon by the Venerable Dr. 
Alexander Neil Bethune, Archdeacon of York. The offertory 
in aid of the College funds amounted to about forty pounds. 

The service being ended, a procession was formed consist- 
ing of the Bishop, the Clergy, and the Congregation, which 
proceeded down John Street and westward along Queen 
Street to the site of the College, headed by the boys of the 
St. Paul's Church Grammar School bearing a banner with 
the challenging and significant motto "Nil sine Episcopo." 13 
The procession, marshalled by Major George Taylor Deni- 
son, moved off in the following order: 


Pupils of Church Grammar School 

Principals and Assistants of Church Grammar School 


Members of the Faculties of 

Arts, Medicine, Law and Divinity 

The Clergy 

13 This banner now hangs in the College, having been presented on April 8, 1931, 
by George Allan Mackenzie, '69, and Ernest C. Mackenzie, sons of the headmaster, 
the Reverend John George Delhoste Mackenzie, Rector of St. Paul's Church, 1845-56, 
and a graduate of the Theological Institution at Cobourg in 1845. He was the first 
M.A. of Trinity College. On the occasion of this presentation there were present three 
scholars of the Grammar School who had witnessed the laying of the corner-stone 
eighty years before: Elmes Henderson, M.A., and Henry O'Brien, K.C., who carried 
the banner in 1851, and Beverley Jones, M.A. The Reverend Dr. C. J. S. Bethune, 
another old boy, was prevented by ill health from attending. 



Yeoman Beadle 

Church University Board 

Architect Secretary Solicitor 

Students in Medicine 

Students in Divinity 



Bishop's Chaplain 

The Venerable Verger The Venerable 

Archdeacon Archdeacon 

of Kingston The Lord Bishop of York 

Contributors and friends to the College on foot 

Contributors and friends to the College in carriages 

Melville's Rise and Progress of Trinity College describes the 
scene: "On the way to the grounds, several of the gentry in 
carriages accompanied the procession and the footways were 
crowded with pedestrians. The scene was gay and animating 
in the extreme . . . the day proved as auspicious as could well 
be desired, and the sun shone brightly during the whole of 
the solemn proceedings. " 14 

When all were assembled, amounting to several thousand 
persons, the Lord Bishop in a short address recalled the 
auspicious occasion, just nine years before, when the corner- 
stone of King's College was laid with high hopes and great 
promise — those hopes to be shattered by political foes and 
lukewarm friends and to result in the complete secularization 
of that institution. On this day they were again to com- 
mence the foundation of a seminary where religion and edu- 
cation would once more be joined hand in hand. 

This portion of the ceremony was followed by a dedicatory 
prayer after which a bottle containing coins and documents 
to be deposited in the stone was handed to the Bishop by Dr. 
Alexander Burnside while the Chief Justice, the Honourable 
John Beverley Robinson, read the Latin inscription on the 

14 Henry Melville, M.D.: The Rise and Progress of Trinity College, Toronto (Toronto 



brass plate to be cemented on the stone. The inscription had 
been composed by the Reverend Henry Scadding, of the 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Toronto, and Chaplain to his 
Lordship. 15 

The architect, Kivas Tully, then handed the trowel to the 
Bishop who having struck the stone three times with the 
mallet said: "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost. Amen. I lay this corner-stone of an edifice 
to be here erected by the name of Trinity College, to be a 
place of sound learning and religious education in accordance 
with the principles and usages of the United Church of Eng- 
land and Ireland. Other foundation can no man lay than 
that which is laid, even Jesus Christ, who is God over all, 
blessed for evermore; and in whom we have redemption 
through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins. Amen." 

The trowel used bore the following inscription: 

Presented to the Honourable and Right Reverend 

John Strachan, D.D., LL.D., 

on the occasion of the laying of the corner stone of 

Trinity College, the Church University 

April 30, 1851, by Kivas Tully, architect. 

The trowel was of solid silver, fashioned in the shape of a 
maple leaf. On the handle were engraved the words, "Peace 
on earth, goodwill towards men." 16 

Then followed addresses by Sir Allan Napier MacNab and 
Master John Bethune (representing the scholars of St. Paul's 
School), whose speech in Latin was responded to by the 

16 This brass plate is now in the main entrance of the College on the right-hand 
wall. Mr. T. E. Champion, in the Jubilee number of The Review, June 1902, pointed 
out that of all those whose names were inscribed thereon, only one, Kivas Tully the 
architect, lived to see the fiftieth anniversary. 

l6 The trowel was used again for the various additions to the old College, and St. 
Hilda's College, and at the laying of the foundation stone of the buildings in Queen's 
Park on June 4, 1923, and subsequent additions. It was given by Mrs. James McGill 
Strachan to Professor Jones to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of his 
appointment to the chair of Mathematics (1889) and after his death it became the 
property of Trinity College. It had been designed by Frederick W. Cumberland who 
submitted plans for the College in competition with Kivas Tully. 



Bishop in the same tongue; the Venerable Archdeacon Beth- 
une recited the Bidding Prayer and the proceedings were 
brought to a close by collects recited by the Reverend H. J. 
Grasett, the singing of the Gloria in exce/sis, and the Bene- 
diction pronounced by the Lord Bishop. 

The important matter of the appointment of the staff for 
the College engaged the attention of the Bishop soon after 
his return from England. In February 1851 he wrote to the 
Trinity College Committee in London setting forth his views. 
This Committee was composed of the following prominent 
Churchmen: the Reverend John Jackson, M.A., Rector of 
St. James's, Piccadilly, Chaplain-in-ordinary to Her Majesty 
the Queen (Lord Bishop of London, 1869-85); the Rev- 
erend Charles B. Dalton, M.A., Rector of Lambeth and 
Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of London; the Reverend 
Ernest Hawkins, M.A., Secretary of the Society for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel, 1843-65 (a warm friend and sup- 
porter of Bishop Strachan in all his undertakings) and the 
Reverend Henry McKenzie, M.A., Vicar of St. Martin-in- 
the-Fields (afterwards Bishop Suffragan of Nottingham), 
who was also treasurer of the funds for Trinity collected in 

The initial requirements were a Provost, who was to re- 
ceive a salary of £400 sterling and a residence in the College 
buildings, and two Professors at a salary for each of £200 
sterling and rooms in the College. "We are anxious," said the 
Bishop, "that the three belong to neither extreme of the 
Church, but that they should be true sons of the Church of 
England, not low, or what is called Evangelical, but equally 
distant from Romanism on the one hand and Dissent on the 
other.'' 17 

Later in the year there were appointed the Reverend 
George Whitaker, M.A., of Queen's College, Cambridge, as 

17 Ontario Archives, Strachan Letter Book (to the Societies), February 16, 1851; 
copy in Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, November 10, 1851. 



Provost and Professor of Divinity; the Reverend Edward St. 
John Parry, M.A., of Balliol College, Oxford, Professor of 
Classics; 18 and the Reverend George Clerk Irving, B.A., of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, Professor of Mathematics. 19 
They arrived in Toronto early in November 1851 to assume 
their duties in Trinity College. 

Work on the erection of the building proceeded apace dur- 
ing 1851, and there were high hopes that it might be ready for 
the opening of the College for the Michaelmas Term. On the 
fifth of April 1851, William B. Leather was, on the recom- 
mendation of Kivas Tully the architect, appointed clerk of 
works at a salary of £75 per annum from the fifteenth of 
March instant. 20 But the inevitable delays contingent upon 
such a structure resulted in postponement until the follow- 
ing January. Even then the building was far from complete, 
but it was felt it would be sufficiently advanced to allow for 
the formal opening on the fifteenth of January 1852. Only 
the eastern part of the main front was then finished. At 
eleven o'clock on the morning of that day the service of 
Morning Prayer was held in the temporary chapel, a room 
over the middle entrance, afterwards used as the Library. 
There was insufficient accommodation for the many friends 
and benefactors of the College who thronged the halls and 
stairways. Prayers were said by the Provost, the Reverend 
George Whi taker, the Lessons were read by the recently 

18 Edward St. John Parry (1825-1896), educated at Balliol College, Oxford, first- 
class honours in Classics; Professor of Classics, Trinity College, 1852-55; headmaster 
of Leamington School 1855, and afterwards head of a successful preparatory school 
for boys at Slough, near Windsor, England. He died at Godalming, Surrey, September 

^George Clerk Irving, M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, Eighth Wrangler in 
Mathematics; Professor of Mathematics, Trinity College, 1852-56, 1862-63; Vice- 
Provost 1862-64. 

!0 His initials, W. B. L., carved in Old English characters, may be seen over the 
western entrance of the old building, as the architect's, K. T., are over a similar door- 
way on the east side. William B. Leather (1802-1907) was for a time in partnership 
with Sandford Fleming (later knighted), the originator of standard time {Toronto 
Directory, 1850). See also The Review, March 1907. 



appointed Professors, the Reverend Edward St. John Parry, 
and the Reverend George Clerk Irving. The choirs of the 
Church of the Holy Trinity and St. James' Cathedral pro- 
vided the musical part of the service, of which the singing of 
the Jubilate and the anthem, Lord of All Power and Might 
(from the Collect for the seventh Sunday after Trinity), seem 
to have been most impressive. At the conclusion the congre- 
gation proceeded to the entrance hall which had been fitted 
up for the occasion. On the dais at the north end sat the 
Bishop, with the Council of the College, the Provost and the 
Professors, the College officials, and the attendant clergy, all 
in their canonicals, academicals, or robes of office. The 
weather was not propitious, it being severely cold; neverthe- 
less many ladies were present. 

The first part of the ceremony was the admission of stud- 
ents, of whom there were thirty, including those from the 
Diocesan Theological Institution at Cobourg who had not 
completed the Divinity course there. Twenty-one students 
matriculated, all signing the declaration of obedience to the 
rules of the College, those proceeding to the Divinity course 
subscribing also to the Thirty-nine Articles. 

The Lord Bishop then addressed the meeting, tracing the 
history of the movement from the laying of the corner-stone 
of King's College in 1842 and in detail from its secularization 
in 1850 down to the present. He was followed by the Chief 
Justice, the Honourable John Beverley Robinson, one of the 
Bishop's first pupils at Cornwall and presently to be Chancel- 
lor of this University of Trinity College. The proceedings 
were closed with a short address by the Provost. 21 

The Charter, dated the sixteenth of July 1852, arrived in 
due course. The Bishop, writing to the Secretary of the 
S.P.G. on the eighth of September, said: "We have received 

21 A full account of the Ceremony of Inauguration, from which these paragraphs 
have been taken, will be found in Melville: Rise and Progress of Trinity College. 



the Charter. The heat has melted the seal but I believe it is of 
little consequence as a fragment remains. " 22 

The Royal Charter, supplementing the Act of the Legisla- 
ture of Canada incorporating Trinity College passed on the 
second day of August 1851, 23 ordained that the said College 
"shall be a University and have and enjoy all such and the 
like privileges as are enjoyed by our Universities of our Uni- 
ted Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland," and, "There shall 
be at all times a Chancellor of the said University to be 
chosen under the rules and regulations of the College Coun- 
cil. " On the third of June 1853, the Chief Justice of Upper 
Canada, the Honourable John Beverley Robinson, was in- 
stalled as the first Chancellor of the University of Trinity 
College, a position he filled with conspicuous dignity until 
his death on the thirtieth of January 1863. 24 

^Ontario Archives, Strachan Letter Book (to the Societies), September 8, 1852. 

28 The Act of Incorporation did not pass without considerable opposition, chiefly 
from the Honourable P.B. de Blaquiere, M.L.C., at that time Chancellor of the newly 
formed University of Toronto, and in the Assembly from W. L. Mackenzie. Toronto 
Globe, July 8, 1851. 

24 John Beverley Robinson (1791-1863), educated at Strachan's Cornwall school 
1803-7; lieutenant and captain, York Militia, War of 1812 (at Detroit, Queenston 
Heights, York, etc.); Attorney-General of Upper Canada 1818-30; Chief Justice 
1830-62. D.C.L. Oxon. 1855, C.B. 1850, Baronet of the United Kingdom 1854. 



THE EARLY DAYS: 1852-1867 

t is difficult in this day and age to picture the 
opening of Trinity College one hundred years ago. 
The unfinished building, inadequately heated with 
open fire-places and stoves of a primitive charac- 
ter, the unimproved surroundings and uncultivated fields, 
the distance from the city and friends, would all contribute 
to discomfort and disappointment; to say nothing of the 
Canadian winter, austere, bleak, and often intensely cold. 
A student in Divinity, who had come up from the Theo- 
logical Institution at Cobourg in 1852, wrote as follows 
fifty years later. 1 

We had come from a small town where we had been thought persons 
of some consequence to the Church and to society, and were very much 
our own masters. It was no small trial to us to be brought under strict 
domestic — almost monastic — discipline; to be put into a new and 
imperfectly warmed building in the dead of winter, and to be subjected 
to precise rules as to chapel and meals, and going-out and coming-in, 
and generally to more or less restriction of our liberty. The steward was 
decidedly crusty and sometimes tyrannical; spoke of us as the men 
when we thought he should have said the gentlemen. 

While there was no restriction upon our going into the city we had 
to be back by the time the doors were locked which was done before 
evening chapel. But we were not permitted to go out of the grounds 
without wearing the academic cap and gown, which in winter time 
was often a trying experience. 

The Debating Society, which came organized from Cobourg, 
languished and flourished with alternations of lassitude and vigour. 
Then the Union was formed, moderately successful for a time and then 

l The Review, Jubilee number, June 1902. 



in 1854 both societies merged in the Trinity College Literary Institute 
which has run a successful course for forty-eight years. 

We had our Chess Club presided over by that most able and genial 
of men, Professor G. C. Irving. Among the students, sixteen of whom 
came into residence in that memorable January 1852, was Tom 
Phillipps, facile princ eps at chess and whist and mathematical exercises 
— there never was a better all-round cricketer; others, the grandsires — 
the patriarchs of Trinity, John Langtry, Francis Tremayne, James 
Bogert, W. E. Cooper, C. E. Thomson, Alexander Williams, A. J. 
Broughall, H. W. Davies, Edward W. Beaven, all to become prominent 
in later years in Church affairs. 

It is not clear when the building was actually finished, but 
there must have been many exasperating delays. According 
to the Minute Book, as late as May 1852 the architect was 
summoned before the Council to explain why he had pro- 
vided neither bedrooms nor bathroom in the Provost's house 
or "Lodge," the suite of five rooms in the southwest corner of 
the building. In June of the same year a leakage was dis- 
covered around the turrets and a letter was sent to the con- 
tractors threatening the withholding of future payments 
until this was rectified. Insufficient heating, smoky fire- 
places, faulty drainage, and inadequate water supply were 
among other trials experienced by students and faculty alike. 

In the first eight years of the College progress was slow, 
the total number of matriculants in that period being 145 or 
an average of eighteen annually. But a large proportion of 
these became prominent in after life. In addition to those 
mentioned above, there were Charles Walker Robinson, son 
of the Chancellor, later a Major-General and a C.B., and 
author of a biography of his illustrious father; Maurice Scol- 
lard Baldwin, Bishop of Huron 1883-1902, and his brother 
Arthur Henry, Rector of All Saints', Toronto, 1872-1908; 
Archibald Lampman, father of the poet who also became a 
graduate five-and- twenty years later; J. A. Ardagh, Judge of 
the County of Simcoe; John D'Arcy Cayley, Rector of St. 
George's Church, Toronto; William Jones, B.A. Cantab., 



who returned to Trinity and during a busy life filled the chair 
of Mathematics, the position of Dean and the offices of 
Bursar and Registrar; James and Elmes Henderson, lifelong 
benefactors of the College; Sir John Hawkins Hagarty, 
K.C.M.G., D.C.L., and Chief Justice of Ontario; Dr. Charles 
J. S. Bethune, for thirty years the distinguished head of 
Trinity College School; Archibald G. L. Trew, who attained 
high position in the American Episcopal Church, and a D.D. 
from Trinity (Jure dignitatis) in 1889; and many others. 

One other name, however, deserves special mention. John 
George Bourinot entered Trinity in 1854 and was soon recog- 
nized as a man of intellectual ability. He was forced to leave 
the College during his final year for financial reasons, and was 
unable to write for his degree. Obtaining a position on the 
Toronto Leader, he showed a flair for journalism in editorials 
of a high order. He founded and was for some years editor of 
the Halifax Reporter. Shortly after Confederation he was 
appointed shorthand writer to the Senate and after a series 
of promotions became Clerk of the House of Commons in 
1880. An authority on parliamentary procedure, his works 
on that subject and How Canada is Governed and Canada 
under British Rule established him as an author of the first 
rank. He was one of the founders of the Royal Society of 
Canada and its first Secretary in 1882, its President in 1892. 
Trinity granted him the honorary degree of D.C.L. in 1889, 
an example followed by King's (N.S.), Laval, Bishop's, and 
Queen's. His services to the Empire were recognized by a 
C.M.G. in 1892 and K.C.M.G. six years later. A member of 
Corporation, he retained his interest in Trinity until his 
death in 1902. 

The matriculation requirements in the Faculty of Arts 
were not exacting. Applicants were examined in Scripture 
History and in the Greek Testament; in Latin and Greek 
Authors, Arithmetic, Algebra, and Books I and II of Euclid. 
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From the portrait by Robert Harris in Strachan Hall 


THE LIBRARY 1884-1925 


ing. But admission could be obtained on the certificate of a 
principal from other collegiate institutions, and "terms" 
would be allowed in cases where residence requirements and 
examinations were similar to those of Trinity. 

In Divinity, a student was required to be a graduate in 
Arts of Trinity or of some other university, or, being of the 
full age of twenty-one years and having been examined by 
the Provost and professors in Greek, New Testament, Scrip- 
ture, the Church Catechism, and one Latin and one Greek 
author of his own choosing (Virgil, Horace, Cicero, Livy; 
Homer, Euripides, Xenophon, or Herodotus) could be re- 
commended by the rector of his parish, and approved by a 
bishop. All students on entrance were required to sign a 
declaration of obedience to the College, but only Divinity 
students subscribed to the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion 
as appended to the Book of Common Prayer. Graduates in 
Arts of other universities were obliged to supply certificates 
of good conduct. Students who entered in January 1852 were 
allowed the previous Michaelmas Term as a "grace term," so 
that it might count as one of the nine terms required to be 
kept before proceeding to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 2 

The Arts course consisted of three years, or nine complete 
terms, the college years commencing early in October and 
ending on July the first following. The three terms were 
Michaelmas: October 10 to December 29; Lent: January 10 
to the second Saturday before Easter; Easter: Saturday after 
Easter to July 1. At the end of the course and having satis- 
factorily passed the necessary examinations, a student might 
proceed to the Master of Arts degree. 

According to the first printed calendar (1854-55) there 
were two examinations in Arts: the previous examination at 
the end of the Lent Term (March) in the second year; the 
final examination at the end of the third year. For the "pre- 
vious" the subjects for examination were an historical book 

2 Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, June 3, 1854. 



of the New Testament, Paley's Evidences of Christianity, the 
Church Catechism, a Latin and a Greek author, Latin Prose, 
Algebra, Trigonometry, and Euclid. For the final examina- 
tion, the subjects were Old and New Testament History, 
another historical book of the New Testament, two Greek 
and two Latin authors, Greek and Roman History, Latin 
Composition, and Mechanics and Hydrostatics in addition 
to Euclid and Algebra and Trigonometry. 

The Divinity course consisted of two years or six complete 
terms. The studies embraced a book of the New Testament 
in Greek, Scripture History, Paley's Horae Paulinae, Blunt's 
Undesigned Coincidences, St. Augustine's Civitas Dei, Book 
X, and Proctor's History of the Book of Common Prayer. It 
will" Tie seen then that the subjects taught both in Arts and 
in Divinity gave a comprehensive and thorough education 
and one in no way inferior to the courses given at other in- 

The general regulations covering discipline required the 
wearing of the cap and gown at Chapel, in Hall, and at lec- 
tures as well as in public. A surplice was to be worn in Chapel 
"at appointed times," i.e., on Sundays, Holy Days and their 
Eves, and attendance at daily Mattins and Evensong was 
insisted upon. (A regular attendance at Chapel and lectures 
was indispensable in the "keeping of terms." 3 ) There were 
also strict rules as to hours of meals and of going-out and 
coming-in, matters more or less irksome to those who had 
come up from Cobourg where the students were treated as 
men and were pretty much on their own. 

3 A chance discovery about the turn of the century bore testimony to the fact that 
absence from chapel was a punishable offence. On turning out an old desk, formerly 
belonging to the first Provost, some dusty papers were found that gave mute evidence 
as to the penalty imposed. Apparently the offenders (nine of them) were required to 
write out the whole service, which they had missed, including the psalms and the 
lessons for the day. In more recent years a dean, much beloved and noted for his 
leniency, on finding students deficient in two or three chapels, would call the said 
student (or students) into his office and thereupon read the whole of Mattins, or 
Evensong, the number of times necessary to comply with the regulations. 



The Provost was required to live in the College, to see that 
statutes, rules, and regulations were faithfully observed and 
to enforce discipline, but in addition the Professors had 
power to punish students by imposition of a fine or by con- 
finement to the College grounds. 

The Provost's report for the first complete academical 
year, 1852-53, gives the following information: Morning 
Prayer was said at 9 a.m., on Holy Days at 11 a.m., Evening 
Prayer at 9:30 p.m. Services on Sundays were at 11 a.m. 
and 3:30 p.m., and these were attended also by many fami- 
lies in the district. Lectures in Divinity, Mathematics, and 
Classics were given daily from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., except on 
Holy Days. 

The enrolment in October 1852 consisted of thirteen men 
in Divinity, eighteen in Arts, and five in Medicine. (Five 
Divinity students had left in June 1852 having completed 
the course begun at Cobourg.) Of resident students there 
were twenty-two; thirteen occasional students attended the 
classes in Medicine and twenty-five those in Law. 

Among early benefactions to Trinity were the foundation 
scholarships, notably the Wellington, the Jubilee (S.P.G.), 
the Bishop Strachan, and the Burnside. 

In April 1844 the first Duke of Wellington wrote to the 
Honourable (afterwards Sir) John Beverley Robinson to the 
effect that some years before he had subscribed for twenty- 
five shares in the first Welland Canal, at a critical period of 
its fortunes. He now wished to dispose of these shares, then 
valued at £500, and apply the proceeds in some way service- 
able to the Province of Canada, or any district thereof, and 
asked Mr. Robinson's advice. It was finally agreed that a 
scholarship in King's College, Toronto, bearing the name of 
its illustrious donor would best serve his purpose, with the 
proviso that, should King's College cease to have any con- 
nection with the Church of England, the funds should be 
transferred to some other Anglican institution. When, there- 



fore, all connection of the University of Toronto with re- 
ligious teaching and the Church of England ceased, and 
Trinity College had been established, the accumulated 
funds, amounting to over £1,100 sterling, were transferred 
to Trinity College. 4 

The Wellington Scholarships have been awarded annually 
by Trinity College since 1854. One of the first holders at 
King's College was Christopher Robinson (a son of the first 
Chancellor of Trinity College, the Honourable John Beverley 
Robinson). He graduated B.A. in 1846 (Trinity College, ad 
eundem^ '53), and became in 1902 the fourth Chancellor of 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, in com- 
memoration of the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of 
its foundation, donated in 1851 the sum of £1,000 sterling for 
scholarships to be known for all time as the S.P.G. Jubilee 

The Bishop Strachan Scholarship was established by 
friends of the Founder in 1853, on the fiftieth anniversary of 
his ordination in 1803, the amount of £532.5.0 being sub- 
scribed in six hours. 5 It was called the Bishop Strachan 
Jubilee Scholarship at first, but the word "Jubilee" was 
afterwards dropped to avoid confusion with the name of 
the S.P.G. scholarship mentioned above. 

Dr. Alexander Burnside, a close friend of Bishop Strachan, 
is described by Canon Henry Scadding as "a New-England 
medical man of . . . bluff, benevolent countenance, an early 
promoter of the Mechanics'-Institute movement, and an 
encourager of church-music, vocal and instrumental. . . . 
He bequeathed his property partly to Charities in the town, 
and partly to the University of Trinity College, where two 
scholarships perpetuate his memory." 6 

4 C. W. Robinson: Life of Sir John Beverley Robinson (Edinburgh, 1904). 
6 Ontario Archives, Strachan Papers, June 2, 1853. 

6 Henry Scadding: Toronto of Old (Toronto, 1873). See also chapter n, supra y p. 40 
an reference to Dr. Burnside's benefactions. 



It will be recalled that early in the history of the College a 
Faculty of Medicine was formed by the inclusion of the new 
Upper Canada School of Medicine. 7 The founders of this 
Faculty were not only leaders in their profession, but were 
devout Churchmen inspired by Bishop Strachan's heroic en- 
deavours to establish a Church University. It had a distinct- 
ly brilliant group of men on its teaching staff who had the 
support of social Toronto and later became the controlling 
influence in the Toronto General Hospital of those days. 
With the abolition of the Medical Faculty of the University 
of Toronto (formerly King's College) by the Hincks bill of 
1853, several of its most efficient members were attracted to 
Trinity and the future of the Trinity Medical Faculty 
seemed assured. 

But it is evident from the Minute Book of the College 
that from the first there had been friction between the Facul- 
ty and the Council. Instructions of the latter were ignored, 
expenditures were made without authority, and unauthor- 
ized advertisements of the medical courses were inserted in 
the press by the Dean, the saintly Dr. James Bovell. No 
doubt men of the calibre of Dr. Bovell and his colleagues, 
Doctors Hodder, Badgley, Bethune, and Melville, would 
find these restrictions irksome, particularly as their time and 
services were freely given for the good of the University. 

In 1855 a movement for the repeal of the Hincks bill was 
initiated and indeed discussed in the Legislature. This would 
have meant the revival of the former King's College Medical 
Faculty as the medical school of the University of Toronto 
and would have been a direct threat to the existence of the 
Trinity medical school. The Trinity men, taking alarm at 
this move, were influential in getting the repeal shelved, but 
in their excitement and haste they so far forgot their position 
as to open negotiations with the Government on their own 
account and not through their masters, the Trinity College 

7 Sec chapter u, supra y p. 38. 



Council. For this they were compelled to apologize and while 
they were forgiven, apparently they could not themselves 
forgive. Shortly afterwards another unauthorized advertise- 
ment appeared, another reprimand and ultimatum resulted, 
the entire Faculty resigned, and the Faculty of Medicine of 
the University of Trinity College ceased to function from 
that date, the second of July 1856. 

The resignation, signed by Doctors Hodder, Bovell, 
Bethune, Badgley, Hallowell, and Russell, stated in no un- 
certain terms the conviction that as all their endeavours to 
advance the interest of Trinity College met with repeated 
rebuffs, they could no longer work harmoniously with the 
Council. In anticipation, it might be here stated that in 1871 
the Trinity Medical Faculty was re-established as the 
Trinity Medical School on a broad and liberal basis, with 
Dr. Edward M. Hodder, F.R.C.S., as Dean. 8 

In the minutes of the twenty-sixth of January 1854, we 
find instructions that bars should be placed on the windows 
of the basement and ground floor, apparently for protection 
from without. But this did not prevent numerous escapades, 
then and later, of unlawful egress to dances, the theatre, and 
other nocturnal social pleasures. As the fifties passed so, too, 
did the seniors and the influence and example of the more 
serious-minded who had come up from Cobourg were missed. 

In 1858, according to the Minute Book of the College, 
there would seem to have been in residence some turbulent 
spirits who, forgetting the character of the College, had 
created a disgraceful disturbance on the night of Thursday, 
the twenty-ninth of April. "None, who are desirous of main- 
taining their own reputation as gentlemen . . . ," reads the 
minute, "will ever condescend to participate in such in- 
decent irregularities. The Council will not hesitate to adopt 
the most stringent measures for the punishment of the per- 
petrators should they occur hereafter." The precise nature of 
the irregularities was not stated. 

8 See chapter iv, infra, p. 76. 



At the same meeting of the College Council sentence of 
rustication was imposed on a gentleman, then completing 
his final year, for grossly irreverent behaviour throughout 
the evening service in Chapel, rude and disorderly conduct 
towards the professors during dinner, and a deliberate re- 
fusal to attend the prescribed lectures in defiance of his 
father's remonstrances as well as of the rules of the College. 
A proper apology not forthcoming, the student never ob- 
tained his degree. He lived, however, to a good old age, a 
highly respected citizen in the community, and rendered 
distinguished service in many spheres. 

Fortunately such occurrences seem to have been few and 
probably are merely an indication of the high spirits which 
occasionally get out of bounds when restricted by arbitrary 
authority. A pleasanter side was a presentation in 1857 to 
W. P. Atkinson and E. W. Beaven as leaders of the College 

The College, which had started out under such favourable 
auspices, was not without its vicissitudes in the first decade 
of its existence. Dr. William Jones, who was a student and a 
member of the staff over a period of nearly half a century, 
refers to these in his article "Early Days at Trinity," which 
appeared at the time of the Jubilee in 1902. 9 "The entry of 
October 1855 was twenty students and the total number 
residing in College during 1855-6 was forty-six, both of which 
numbers were the largest up to that date, and indeed for 
many subsequent years." The serious financial crisis which 
began in 1857, coupled with the abolition of the medical 
department, had a detrimental effect on the enrolment, and 
the number of students for some years was considerably re- 
duced. For an institution with a small endowment and 
largely dependent on the fees of students this was a serious 
matter. Then there was a lack of support from the western 
portion of the Diocese even before it was set aside in 1857 as 
the Diocese of Huron under Dr. Benjamin Cronyn, its first 

9 The Review, Jubilee number, June 1902. 



Bishop. Cronyn had been opposed to Trinity from the begin- 
ning and his extreme evangelical views had little in common 
with the views of the promoters and supporters of Trinity. 
Furthermore, there were many changes in the staff during 
the first ten years which would necessarily have an unsettling 
effect on College routine. In 1855 the Professor of Classics, 
Mr. Parry, after a short three-year term, resigned on account 
of bad health and returned to England. Until his successor 
was appointed, the Reverend A. J. Broughall, a graduate in 
Classics in 1855, was appointed Lecturer. 10 At Easter 1856, 
the Reverend John Ambery, M.A., of Brasenose College, 
Oxford, was appointed, but two years later accepted the 
position of classical master in the Toronto Grammar School. 
He was succeeded in 1859 by the Reverend Edwin Hatch, 
M.A., of Pembroke College, Oxford, destined to become 
famous as an eminent theologian and scholar. His tenure, 
too, was brief, his theological opinions being so widely at 
variance with those of the College authorities that dissen- 
sions arose and after a stormy incumbency he resigned in 
1862. 11 Then Mr. Ambery returned to Trinity in 1863 as 
Professor of Classics and Dean of Residence, holding the 
dual position until 1875. 

10 Abraham James Broughall (1832-1917), '55, D.D. {honoris causa) '04. In his 
youth a student at Victoria College, Cobourg, where he attained high standing in 
Classics, he came under the influence of Archdeacon Bethune and entered Trinity 
College in 1852. He graduated with high honours and was ordained deacon in 1857, 
priest 1858. After two curacies he became Rector of St. Stephen's Church, Toronto, 
in 1861, a position he held for over fifty years. 

"Edwin Hatch (1835-1889), scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford, second class in 
Classics, and Ellerton Prize; M.A. 1857. After his resignation he was, for five years, 
Rector of Morin College, Quebec. In 1867 he returned to England and became Vice- 
Principal of St. Mary Hall, Oxford, a position he held until 1885. He gave the Bamp- 
ton Lectures in 1880; these were later translated into German by Harnack, the 
eminent German theologian. His monumental work is A Concordance of the Sep- 
tuagint, edited in collaboration with Henry A. Redpath, M.A. The degree of D.D. 
(honoris causa) was conferred upon him by the University of Edinburgh in 1883. 
While his fame rests upon his theological works, his familiar hymn, Breathe on me i 
Breath of God, will be found in many hymnals. 



In the chair of Mathematics, Professor Irving was obliged 
to resign on account of ill health in 1856, his place being 
rilled by the appointment in October of that year of the 
Reverend Edward Kay Kendall, M.A., of St. John's College, 
Cambridge. On the latter's retirement in 1862, Professor 
Irving was induced to return to the College as Professor of 
Mathematics and Vice-Provost, but ill health compelled his 
resignation in October 1863. Mr. Irving relieved the Provost 
of many administrative details and occupied the Provost's 
residence at the southwest corner of the building, the Pro- 
vost's Lodge to the north of the College having been com- 
pleted about that time at a cost of $5,300. 

A plan whereby certain men of mature age might study 
extramurally and be admitted to the Arts examinations was 
proposed and took effect on the opening of the Michaelmas 
Term in 1860. The requirements were that the applicant 
must be over twenty-five years of age and a member of the 
Church of England; he was to present a certificate of charac- 
ter and attainments if his professional duties excluded the 
possibility of his attendance at lectures, and was required to 
pass the several preliminary examinations (the matricula- 
tion, the previous, and the final) for the Bachelor of Arts 
degree. That the plan was not a success would seem to be 
indicated by the fact that there was no material increase in 
the enrolment for more than two decades. 

On the twelfth of June 1860, Bishop Strachan in his charge 
to the Synod of his Diocese said: "Looking at the progress of 
the Church throughout a vista of sixty years, I feel it most 
encouraging and more especially because I can witness to its 
continued peace and moderation. " Peace and moderation! 

On the following day, June the thirteenth, at the annual 
meeting of the Synod of the Diocese of Huron, the Reverend 
Adam Townley, D.D., Rector of Paris, Ontario, made the 
following motion, seconded by his lay delegate Mr. Ryall: 



That seeing it is greatly to be desired that the Canadian Church 
should unite in the upholding of one University, thereby ensuring for 
it a high literary character and extensive religious and Church in- 
fluence, this Synod respectfully requests the Lord Bishop to adopt such 
means, as in his wisdom he may see good, as shall tend to secure the 
hearty co-operation of all Churchmen in support of Trinity College, 
Toronto, which, through the energy of the Bishop of Toronto and the 
liberality of Churchmen here and at home, has been for some years in 
successful operation, and with the high honour of possessing a Royal 

Before putting the motion Bishop Cronyn said he could 
not do so without first expressing an opinion; he did not 
agree with Mr. Townley and he objected to the teachings of 
Trinity College. During the past years he had taken pains to 
inform himself of the teaching and, he added, he would not 
send a son of his to be educated there. Further, he said, a 
statute recently enacted gave the Chancellor absolute power 
to suppress any complaints against the College. When Mr. 
Townley realized his Bishop's attitude towards Trinity he 
asked permission to withdraw his resolution. This was re- 
fused and on the motion being put it was lost on a large 
negative vote. 

The first intimation the Trinity authorities had of the 
accusations was through the columns of the daily press and 
the controversy thus precipitated went on for over three 
years. But the origin of the controversy can be found many 
years before. 

Benjamim Cronyn, a native of Kilkenny, Ireland, and a 
graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, where he had a disting- 
uished career, was ordained deacon in 1825 and priest in 
1827 by the Archbishop of Tuam in whose diocese he served 
for nearly six years. Coming to Upper Canada in 1832, he did 
considerable missionary work in the undeveloped western 
part of the Province and was appointed to the mission of 
London, then a small village of 400 people. Soon after his 
appointment he was made rural dean of all the territory west- 



ward to the St. Clair River. Cronyn had the reputation of 
being energetic, earnest, and philanthropic but he was also, 
imbued with "the militant Protestantism of Irish Church- 
manship, the unbending champion of the strictest kind of 
evangelicalism/' and as such leaned strongly towards Cal- 
vinistic doctrine. 12 By 1857 he had been able to secure the 
appointment of Irishmen of his way of thinking to the 
majority of the parishes included in the new Diocese of 

To Bishop Strachan he was a thorn in the flesh for many 
years. In a letter to his friend the Reverend Ernest Hawkins, 
Secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, in 
1851 the Bishop said: "Mr. Cronyn has been the focus of all 
the agitations against the Society's plans and me for support- 
ing peace and order among the clergy of that [the Western] 
section. Moreover, he did all he could to oppose Trinity 
College and to bolster up Toronto University and prevent- 
ed those over whom he had any influence from subscribing 
to its funds." Even then Strachan feared his appointment 
as Bishop of Huron, for, said he, "he is a low Churchman 
and better fitted for a political agitator than a Bishop." 13 
On the ninth of July 1857, Cronyn was elected Bishop of 
Huron over Archdeacon Bethune by a majority of two cleri- 
cal and fourteen lay votes. 

It was Bishop Strachan's idea that Trinity should be the 
Church University for the whole of Canada West (Ontario). 
The passive and, later, active resistance of Cronyn was a 
grievous disappointment to him. The Charter of Trinity 
College provided that the bishop of any diocese carved out of 
the original Diocese of Toronto, became, by virtue of his 
office, a member of the Corporation of Trinity College. Under 

12 Henry J. Morgan: Sketches of Celebrated Canadians (Quebec, 1862). The Reverend 
R. T. Appleyard, M.A., B.D., "The Origins of Huron College," MS. thesis, Library 
of the University of Western Ontario. 

"Ontario Archives, Strachan Letter Book (to the Societies), Strachan to Hawkins, 
June 6, 1851. 



the revised statutes (February 12, 1859), the Corporation 
consisted of the three Bishops of Canada West: Toronto, 
Huron, and Ontario (when elected), 14 the Trustees of the 
College, the Chancellor, the Provost and the two senior 
Professors (all ex officio) , and twenty-six Councillors, eleven 
to be elected by the Corporation of Trinity College, five to be 
appointed by the Bishop of Toronto, five by the Bishop of 
Huron, and five by the Bishop of the new Diocese of Ontario, 
when established. 

This revision provided also that all proposals for the re- 
moval of a Provost or a Professor must be submitted to the 
Chancellor upon a request in writing signed by at least five 
of the Councillors. It was this last proviso that the Bishop of 
Huron objected to, arguing that it gave a Bishop no power 
to interfere in the teaching of the College and vested the 
supreme power in the Chancellor. In the report of Corpora- 
tion of the twenty-ninth of June I860, 15 it was pointed out 
that this was not the case; the proviso merely ensured that 
an important act should be done in a solemn manner, and 
through a fitting officer. The Bishop of Huron had been pre- 
sent at the meeting in his official capacity when the revised 
statutes were passed and had then made no objection. It was 
the only meeting of Corporation His Lordship had attended 
since his consecration in 1857. Though repeatedly urged by 
Bishop Strachan to do so, he had deemed it, he stated in a 
Pastoral of July 1860, "a wiser course to stand aloof from the 
University than by a public protest exhibit the melancholy 
picture of a house divided against itself." He also added, "I 
have never assisted the institution in any way." 16 

The attack on the teaching of Trinity College was a more 
serious one. Bishop Cronyn stated in the same Pastoral that 

14 Thc Reverend John Travers Lewis (1825-1901) was elected Bishop of the new 
Diocese of Ontario, June 13, 1861 (at the age of 36 years) and consecrated March 25, 

15 Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, June 29, 1860. 

16 Bishop of Huron, Pastoral, July 21, 1860; published in Canadian Ecclesiastical 
Gazette^ August 1, 1860 (in the Library of Trinity College). 



in examining candidates for the ministry in his Diocese he 
had taken pains to inform himself of the methods of teaching 
at Trinity. He had obtained possession of a manuscript, 
compiled from the notes of three students on Provost 
Whitaker's lectures on the Church catechism, which, he 
said, was placed in the hands of each student entering the 
University. He considered both the method of teaching and 
the instruction given dangerous in the extreme, setting forth 
views unsound and un-protestant. 17 

The Provost replied to the Bishop in a public letter, ex- 
plaining his methods. 18 The catechism — his own questions — 
was not placed in students' hands; they made their own 
notes from his lectures and were examined orally by him. He 
was responsible for his own teaching and was prepared to 
publish it in full and thus get rid ot the false impressions 
which had been created. A further statement by the Corpora- 
tion reviewed the whole question, criticized the Bishop of 
Huron's methods, expressed confidence in the Provost and 
his teaching "as being in entire conformity with the formu- 
larities of our Church as elucidated by her great writers/' 
and challenged the Bishop of Huron to come out in the open 
and make definite charges. 19 

The Bishop of Huron ignored this challenge but later in a 
letter "to the Clerical and Lay Gentlemen composing the 
Executive Committee of the Diocese of Huron" disclosed 
that he had sent out a questionnaire to certain graduates and 
others connected with Trinity College and from the replies of 
"four or five of them" he still regarded the teaching at 
Trinity as dangerous in the extreme. 20 The Bishop charged 
that the Provost's teaching implied: (1) that the Church of 
England had lost at the Reformation some things which 
were in themselves edifying (e.g., Reservation of the Sacra- 


"Globe, July 28, 1860. 

^Canadian Ecclesiastical Gazette , August 8, 1860. 

"The letter is undated; see Colonial Church Chronicle (London, Eng.), November 
1860, p. 426. 



ment for the sick) ; (2) undue exaltation of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary by asserting that she was an instrument in bringing 
mankind into the Kingdom of Heaven; (3) the Communion 
of Saints, i.e., that departed friends might pray for those on 
earth; (4) that there were five other Sacraments besides the 
"two generally necessary to Salvation"; (5) an interpretation 
of the sixth chapter of St. John's Gospel as applying to the 
Holy Eucharist which was a Romish doctrine; (6) a teaching 
on baptismal regeneration which was also Romish. 

The Provost replied to these charges in an able defence 
addressed to the President of the College, Bishop Strachan, 
and read before the Corporation on September 27, I860. 21 
Resolutions were passed expressing entire satisfaction with 
the Provost's explanation, and censuring the Bishop of 
Huron for his methods in securing information, for his failure 
to consult the Provost as to the truth of the said information, 
and for the unprecedented manner in which these grave 
charges had been given publicity through the press. 

The controversy by this time had aroused interest out- 
side Canada and some of the articles had been published in 
England. The Colonial Church Chronicle, an English mission- 
ary publication, regarded the Provost's defence as conclusive 
and thought it would be with any other prelate than Bishop 
Cronyn; 22 the Guardian said: "Since the Provost's over- 
whelming rejoinders, Bishop Cronyn has been silent. He 
stands convicted of having made groundless charges against 
the most important Church institution in Canada." 23 

At the annual meeting of the Synod of the Diocese of 
Toronto on the twenty-fifth of June 1861, 24 Bishop Strachan 
referred at length to the controversy, with a fervent vindi- 

21 Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, September 27, 1860. Canadian 
Ecclesiastical Gazette (extra), September 1860. 
^Colonial Church Chronicle , January 1861. 
^Guardian, December 27, 1860. 
24 Synod of the Diocese of Toronto, Report , June 25, 1861. 



cation of the teaching at Trinity under the Provost and a 
strong indictment of the Bishop of Huron and his tactics. 
He regarded the attack as a personal one: "In the 58th year 
of my ministry, I am called upon for the first time to prove 
my orthodoxy and innocence of leaning towards Romish 
doctrines. In making these accusations his Lordship virtually 
makes them against me, for, of all men, I am most responsible 
for the teachings. Trinity would welcome an enquiry which 
could only come before the Metropolitan. Let the Bishop 
produce his witnesses — he must either withdraw his charges 
or prove them publicly." 

During the proceedings a motion was made by the Rev- 
erend Dr. Beaven, seconded by Mr. J. W. Gamble, "That 
the Synod desires to express its deep sympathy with our 
venerable Bishop in his late trials and difficulties in con- 
sequence of the imputations cast upon the teaching of 
Trinity and with the Reverend the Provost as the exponent 
of that teaching and declares its confidence in the College 
and its administration." This was carried by a vote of 84 to 
24 (For, 54 clerical, 30 lay; Against, 14 clerical, 10 lay). 

Previously the Bishop of Huron had changed his mind 
about not sending representatives to the Corporation and 
had decided to appoint his five Councillors. They and the 
Bishop were present at the Corporation meeting of the 
fourth of June 1861, and at subsequent meetings until the 
end of the controversy in 1863. At that meeting the Bishop 
of Huron gave notice of motion, "regretting the stand of the 
Corporation." This was defeated at the meeting on the 
eighteenth of February 1862, by an amendment proposed by 
the Chancellor, Chief Justice the Honourable Sir John 
Beverley Robinson, stating "that the opinion expressed by 
the Corporation on the first letters of the Provost vindicated 
the writer from the imputation of teaching doctrines not 
allowed by the Church, and to that opinion the Corporation 
still adheres," and requiring a specific statement, in writing, 



of the objections of the Bishop. 25 At the same meeting Bishop 
Cronyn moved the appointment of a special committee to 
receive a statement of his objections. The committee con- 
sisted of Samuel Bickerton Harman, Q.C., appointed by the 
Bishop of Toronto, the Reverend J. W. Marsh, appointed 
by the Bishop of Huron, and the Reverend Dr. W. B. Lauder, 
appointed by the Bishop-elect of Ontario. 

The first Synod of the new Diocese of Ontario was con- 
vened in April 1862. In his opening address Bishop Lewis 
referred at length to the controversy and in no uncertain 
terms defended Provost Whitaker and the teaching at 
Trinity College. A motion was passed expressing confidence 
"that under the wise administration of the said College it 
will continue to prove in its teaching a faithful exponent of 
the doctrines of the United Church of England and Ire- 
land." 26 This motion was carried by a vote of 45 to 10. 

Apparently some discussions were now taking place in an 
endeavour to bring about a reconciliation between the parties 
concerned. That these efforts proved futile is indicated in a 
letter to the Bishop of Huron from the Bishop of Toronto, 
dated the twenty-ninth of September 1862. 27 In it, the latter 
stated that the Provost of Trinity declined to take any 
part in "some grave alterations" suggested by the Bishop 
of Huron in conducting that institution, but that an opening 
for making up all differences had occurred in the recent 
resignation of Professor Hatch, whereby the Provost was to 
retain all his privileges and assume the Department of Clas- 
sics instead of Theology. Then a Professor of Theology might 
have been appointed acceptable to all parties. He added 
that he himself was opposed in principle to the contem- 
plated changes, because "I feel they would prove detrimental 
to the usefulness and rising reputation of Trinity College." 

At the meeting of Corporation held on the seventh of 

2B Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, February 18, 1862. 
^Proceedings of the First Sessions of the Synod of Ontario (Kingston, 1863). 
"Ontario Archives, Strachan Letter Book, September 29, 1862. 



October 1862, the special committee recommended that all 
the papers in the case be submitted to the Metropolitan (the 
Bishop of Montreal), and the other Canadian Bishops for 
examination. At a special meeting of the Corporation held on 
the twenty-ninth of September 1863, replies from the 
Bishops were received. The Bishop of Quebec, the Bishop of 
Ontario, the Bishop of Toronto, and the Metropolitan up- 
held the Provost and the character of the teaching at 
Trinity College, the Bishop of Huron, as was to be expected, 
maintaining his original stand. 

It was then resolved "That the Corporation after fully 
considering the charges preferred by the Right Reverend the 
Lord Bishop of Huron and the opinions of the Canadian 
Bishops on those charges and the Provost's replies, is of the 
opinion that that teaching is neither unsound, unscriptural, 
contrary to the doctrines of the Church of England, danger- 
ous in its tendency, nor leading to the Church of Rome." 
The vote of those present was 13 for, 8 against, the latter 
votes being cast by the six representatives of the Diocese of 
Huron, the Reverend H. J. Grasett, and the Honourable Mr. 
Vice-Chancellor Spragge. The three absentees, who con- 
curred in the resolution, were George W. Allan, Esq., Thomas 
C. Street, Esq., and the Chancellor, the Honourable John 
Hillyard Cameron. 

Thus the Provost was vindicated by the Synod of the 
Diocese of Toronto, 84 votes to 24, the Synod of Ontario, 45 
to 10, the House of Bishops, 4 to 1, and the Corporation of 
Trinity College, 16 to 8. 

The Bishop of Huron and his representatives then with- 
drew from the Corporation and ceased to have any connec- 
tion with Trinity College. In the meantime Bishop Cronyn 
had taken steps to form a diocesan college of his own in 
London, Ontario, with the Reverend Isaac Hellmuth as 
Principal. In September 1863 Huron College was opened and 
is now an affiliated college in the University of Western 



During the next few years, and until the death of Bishop 
Strachan in 1867, the College experienced other reverses. 
True, there were bright spots such as the visit of H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) in September 1860, 
when an address of welcome was presented by the Lord 
Bishop on behalf of the College at the levee at Government 
House; and the visit of the Governor-General, Viscount 
Monck, to the College in September 1862, when the address 
from the Corporation was read by the Bishop and that of the 
College was presented by the Provost. Shortly after the visit 
of the Prince, His Royal Highness endowed with a gift of 
£200 the prize which bears his name. This prize, which, with 
some exceptions, has been awarded annually since 1864, was 
originally granted to a student of the second year showing 
proficiency in English Literature and History. In recent 
years two prizes have been awarded to students ranking 
highest in Classics and Mathematics. 

The financial depression which began in 1857 continued, 28 
so that by the end of 1862 it was necessary to consider 
drastic retrenchment. From January 1, 1863, the salaries of 
the Provost and Professor Hind 29 were reduced by £100; the 
college laundry was discontinued; resident students were re- 
quired to pay for the coal consumed in their fire-places, and 
beer was an extra charge in the College accounts. On the 
other hand the fees of resident students were reduced by 
£50. It was realized, however, that this retrenchment was 
only a temporary measure. The real need was an increase in 
the endowment to provide additional revenue. 

28 Ontario Archives, Strachan Letter Book, Strachan to the Reverend Ernest 
Hawkins, the Secretary of the S.P.G., March 30, 1860: "The commercial depression 
which began in the summer of 1857 has prostrated the whole country and paralyzed 
all our resources." 

29 Henry Youle Hind (1823-1908), geologist and explorer, educated at Leipzig and 
Cambridge; came to Canada in 1846; master, Toronto Normal School, 1848-53; 
Professor of Chemistry and Geology, Trinity College, 1853-64; Government service, 
Canada, for thirteen years, in charge of explorations in the Northwest Territories, 
Labrador, eastern Canada, and Newfoundland. 



To this end, in 1864 the Reverend William McMurray, 30 
Rector of St. Mark's, Niagara, was commissioned by the 
Bishop and the College to proceed to England to enlist the 
sympathies of the Church people there. So successful was he 
in his mission that the sum of close upon four thousand 
pounds sterling was collected. Among those who warmly 
supported his appeal were the Reverend John Keble, author 
of The Christian Year, who subscribed £300; the Reverend 
Dr. Edward Bouverie Pusey; and the Honourable William 
Ewart Gladstone and his wife, who entertained Dr. McMur- 
ray at Hawarden, subscribed liberally themselves, and intro- 
duced him to many notables who contributed substantially 
to the fund. Being obliged to curtail his visit on account of 
the death of his son, he was succeeded by the Reverend 
William Stewart Darling, of the Church of the Holy Trinity, 
Toronto, who energetically completed the appeal. 

In 1866 conditions were so improved that the salaries of 
the Provost and professors were restored to their original 
amounts and in some cases the accumulated arrears were 
paid as well. Mr. Charles Magrath, the Secretary and 
Bursar, whose services had been given gratuitously from the 
beginning, was granted a nominal salary of £200 per annum. 

On the thirty-first of January 1863, the College suffered its 

30 William McMurray (1810-1894) came to Canada at an early age. He was educated 
at the Blue School at York under Dr. Strachan and prepared by him for the ministry. 
In 1832 he was sent to Sault Ste Marie as a lay teacher and missionary and served 
there until 1838. He was ordained deacon 1833, priest April 1840, one of the four at 
Bishop Strachan's first ordination. He received honorary degrees: M.A. Trinity 
College, Hartford, 1846; D.D. Columbia 1852; D.C.L. '57. He was appointed assist- 
ant at Dundas and Ancaster 1838 and Rector 1840; Rector, St. Mark's, Niagara, 
1857-94; Rural Dean 1860; Archdeacon 1875. 

In 1852-53, Dr. McMurray had visited the eastern United States on behalf of 
Trinity, collecting some $10,000 in money and books. A stained glass window sent 
from members of the American Episcopal Church to St. James' Church, Dundas, 
commemorates this visit and the impression made upon brother Churchmen, bishops, 
clergy, and laity in the eastern states. The window contains, among other emblems, 
the arms of Trinity College. 

In May 1928 Dr. McMurray's portrait, painted by Sir Wyly Grier, R.C.A., was 
presented by the artist to Trinity and now hangs in the College halls. 



first great loss in the death, after a painful illness of some 
months, of its distinguished Chancellor, Chief Justice Sir 
John Beverley Robinson. An earnest pupil of Bishop 
Strachan at the Cornwall school, he was also in a sense his 
adopted son. A zealous Churchman and an able jurist, he had 
risen at an early age to the top of his profession. He had been 
a warm supporter of the Bishop in all his undertakings, a 
support that was strongly in evidence throughout the con- 
troversy concerning King's College, its secularization in 1849, 
and the campaign immediately initiated for the establish- 
ment of a Church University. That he should be its first 
Chancellor was eminently logical, and his sound judgment 
and advice in those days were invaluable. One of his last 
official acts was a motion at a meeting of the Corporation 
vindicating Provost Whitaker and his teaching against the 
attacks of Bishop Cronyn of Huron. On the twelfth of June 
1863 the Honourable John Hillyard Cameron was installed 
second Chancellor of the University of Trinity College. 

The remaining period of the Bishop's life was indeed one of 
labour and sorrow. The death of his close friend the Chancel- 
lor was a deep personal loss. Two years later Mrs. Strachan 
died after nearly three score years of happily married life. 
The Fenian invasion, in June 1866, the failure of the Bank of 
Upper Canada the following September and its attendant 
financial losses, the long-drawn-out battle at the election for 
a coadjutor to relieve the Bishop of some of his official duties 
(a political battle which was the natural outcome of the 
Cronyn attack of ten years before) all combined to weaken 
physically the aged prelate. The last meeting of Corporation 
attended by the Bishop was on the eighth of February 1867. 
He died in the early morning of All Saints' Day, 1867. 

It was the end of an era, though few realized it at the time. 
In the troublous days which lay ahead, the guiding hand and 
mind of its Founder and first President were to be sadly 
missed by his "dear College — the child of his old age." 





nrolment at the opening of Michaelmas Term, 
1867, was the smallest in the history of the Col- 
lege, there being only four matriculants. Three of 
these were from Trinity College School at Weston, 
namely, William Osier, who won the Dickson Scholarship 
in his first year (Arts) but transferred to Toronto School of 
Medicine in the autumn of 1868 for two years before pro- 
ceeding to McGill to complete his medical course (1870-72), 
and thus to enter a profession in which he attained eminence, 
high honours, and a baronetcy; Robert Gregory Cox, a bril- 
liant scholar who held the Wellington Scholarship through- 
out his course; and Arthur Jarvis, awarded the Strachan 
Scholarship, subsequently Rector of Napanee and Canon 
of the Diocese of Ontario. 

The Convocation of that year, on the thirty-first of Octo- 
ber, differed from all other convocations in that the students 
in the gallery were silent, songs and jokes were omitted, and 
speeches dispensed with. All this because the venerable 
Founder lay upon his death bed. Five days later his funeral 
from the "Palace" to the Cathedral was attended by the 
students and staff of Trinity, by representatives from other 
colleges, including the University of Toronto, Victoria Medi- 
cal Faculty, and Upper Canada College, and, of course, by a 
large assembly of citizens. 

In the January following a meeting of Churchmen was 
called to consider a memorial to the late Bishop. A proposal 



by the Chancellor that this take the form of a convocation 
hall and library for Trinity College was supported by the 
majority of those present but met with opposition from a 
section of the clergy, who claimed that such a memorial 
would not appeal to the public at large. A committee ap- 
pointed to collect funds failed in its objective, although 
friends and supporters of Trinity contributed over four 
thousand dollars. At the diocesan Synod in 1868 and follow- 
ing years efforts were made towards the same end, but the 
response was such that the project fell through and was 
finally abandoned. 1 

Provost Whitaker enjoyed a much-needed vacation in 
England during the summer of 1868, returning in October to 
meet the largest class of matriculants since 1855, sixteen in 
all, among whom was one who would attain distinction in 
later life, John Austin Worrell, at this time a youth of sixteen 
years of age. 2 The meetings of the Literary Institute took on 
new life, evening chapel was changed from 6 p.m. to 9:30, 
and fines were instituted as punishment instead of "gating." 
The rule regarding the wearing of the cap and gown outside 
the College was suspended during the afternoon hours from 
two to six o'clock. 

The chief concern of the governing body at this time was 
the financial situation. A report of a special committee in 
March 1869 revealed total assets of £56,583 ($226,332), an 
annual income of something less than £4,000 ($16,000) with 
an estimated expenditure for 1869 of $18,000. 

A committee appointed to consider affiliation with "a pro- 
vincial university" (presumably the University of Toronto) 
after several meetings reported that the measure was sur- 
rounded by so many difficulties and open to so many and grave 
objections that it was one that should not be entertained. 3 

*See Synod of the Diocese of Toronto, Journal, 1868, 1870, 1871, 1873, 1874. 

2 John Austin Worrell (1852-1927), 71, B.C L. '80, D.C.L. '98; Lecturer in Classics 
1875; Chancellor, Trinity College, 1914-27; Chancellor, Diocese of Toronto, 1897- 
1927. He died on February 27, 1927. 

3 Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, February 8, 1870. 



Measures were proposed, however, which in the opinion of 
the committee would materially improve the financial posi- 
tion of the College, namely: the greatest possible retrench- 
ment in expenditure; the conversion of wild lands and other 
property into cash; the realizing of debts and monies due the 
College; and the appointment of two additional professors, 
one in Natural Science, and one in Modern History and 
English Literature. 

In this connection it is a matter of interest to note that 
the entire teaching in Divinity was done by the Provost; in 
Classics by Dean Ambery; and in Mathematics by Professor 
William Jones. The last was a former student who had 
returned to Trinity in 1863, after a postgraduate course at 
Cambridge where he attained high honours as a Wrangler in 
the mathematical tripos (M.A. 1864). 4 Part-time assistance 
was given by Emile Pernet in French, by the Reverend A. J. 
Broughall, '55, in Classics, and, occasionally, by Dr. James 
Bovell, of the former Medical Faculty, in Natural Science. 
But the real need to ensure the success of the College was 
an increased enrolment. The fees from some thirty-odd 
students were but a small proportion of the income necessary 
to carry on the work successfully. 

The estimated attendance for 1869 was twenty-four resi- 
dent students and eight non-residents paying fees of $200 
and $62 respectively. 5 It was reported four years later that 
by rigid economy the deficit had been turned into a surplus 
so that it was possible to increase the Provost's salary to 
$2,400, the Dean's to $1,600, and that of the Professor of 
Mathematics to $1,200. A report on the affairs of the College 
at that time showed that in the nineteen years since 1854, 
151 degrees had been granted in Arts plus 19 by examination 

4 William Jones (1838-1907), student at Trinity College 1855-57, B.A. Cantab. 
1862; Professor of Mathematics, Trinity College, 1863-95; Dean of Residence, 
1875-91; Bursar and Secretary 1895-1907. 

6 These were the fees established at the opening of the College (see the Calendar of 
1854). In 1878 they remained approximately the same. 



only, 53 in Medicine, 13 in Law, and that 78 students had 
left without graduating. 

Two other important questions were considered and hap- 
pily solved during the period under review. First, the revival 
of the Medical Faculty. As early as May 1868 a committee 
had considered this, which, among other problems, involved 
the vexed question of the abolition of religious tests. 

Nothing seems to have been done until late in 1870 when 
Doctors James Bovell, Edward M. Hodder, Norman 
Bethune, William Hallowell, and C. B. Hall were appointed 
a provisional board of examiners in the Faculty of Medicine. 
All but Dr. Hall had been the prime movers in the establish- 
ment of the Faculty in 1850 and were signatories to the letter 
of resignation when it ceased to function in 1856. It would 
appear, therefore, that former differences had been forgotten 
and a definite policy of co-operation agreed upon. A com- 
mittee representing Trinity University, consisting of the 
Provost, Dean Ambery, and Messrs. S. B. Harman, Lewis 
Moflfatt, and C. J. Campbell, was also instructed to con- 
sider the revival of the Medical Faculty and its affiliation 
with the College. 

This resulted in the appointment in March 1871 of Dr. 
Edward M. Hodder as Dean of the Trinity Medical School 
and Doctors William R. Beaumont, Norman Bethune, and 
William Hallowell as Professors. Dr. W. B. Geikie and Dr. 
John Fulton 6 were added to the board of examiners with a 
view to their ultimate appointment as professors, the former 
to be registrar, secretary, and treasurer of the School. About 
the same time Dr. James Bovell 7 resigned as Professor of 
Natural Science and returned to his birthplace in Barba- 

6 Doctors Geikie and Fulton had withdrawn from the Victoria Medical School on 
the death of Dr. John Rolph in 1870. 

7 James Bovell (1817-1880), born Barbados, B.W.I.; educated at London and 
Edinburgh; came to Canada 1848; Professor and Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Trinity- 
University, 1851-56; returned to Barbados 1870, studied theology; ordained deacon 
and priest by Bishop of Antigua 1871. He died at Nevis, B.W.I., January 15, 1880. 



dos, B.W.I. , where he was prevailed upon by the Bishop of 
Antigua to take Holy Orders. 

The new faculty held its first examinations in April 1871, 
when the number of candidates far exceeded all expectations. 
The Provost and the members of the Corporation gave the 
School every aid in their power and practical support by 
authorizing the erection of a building, adjacent to the Gen- 
eral Hospital on ground owned by the College, 8 at a cost of 
$7,000 together with a grant of $1,200 per annum for six 
years. Two years later the teaching faculty was increased by 
the part-time appointments of Dr. William H. Ellis, as Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry and Dr. J. E. Kennedy of Medical Juris- 

In 1877 the Trinity Medical School, with the consent of 
the Corporation, applied for and obtained from the Pro- 
vincial Legislature incorporation as a teaching body entirely 
independent of Trinity College. This enabled the Medical 
School to affiliate with any university empowered to grant 
degrees in Medicine. The advantages were twofold. Trinity 
College was relieved of all financial responsibility in connec- 
tion with the Medical School, and the students of the School 
were afforded every facility for obtaining degrees at other 
universities if they so desired. In 1888 the School was raised 
to the dignity of a College, and in 1903 the Toronto Medical 
College and the Trinity Medical College were amalgamated 
and became the Faculty of Medicine in the University of 

The other event worthy of note is that of the foundation 
of Trinity College School. In 1864 the Reverend William A. 
Johnson, Rector of the parish of Weston, applied to the 
College Corporation for permission to establish a preparatory 

8 This lot, with 100 feet of frontage on the south side of Spruce Street, had been 
purchased by the College in 1854 at a cost of £225 currency ($900) through Dr. 
Cornelius James Philbrick, at the time of the erection of the General Hospital on 
Gerrard Street in an adjoining block. Fifty-eight years later this lot with the building 
was sold for $15,000. 



school at Weston to be known as the Trinity College School, 
Mr. Johnson undertaking to provide the site or a building 
out of private funds. The project had the support of the 
Trinity authorities including Dean Ambery, Professor Wil- 
liam Jones, and the saintly Dr. James Bovell, a warm person- 
al friend of Mr. Johnson. The School was opened on the first 
day of May 1865, under the headmastership of the Reverend 
C. H. Badgley, '59, M.A. '64. The same year a similar 
school was opened at Picton under the auspices of the 
Bishop of Ontario, Dr. J. Travers Lewis, but it was obvious 
the competition of the two schools was not advisable; efforts 
were made for their amalgamation, without success. Fric- 
tion having developed on account of the dual control at 
Weston and the inadequacy of the quarters there, the 
School's governing body, after examining several sites, 
acquired in 1868 a property of some twenty acres near the 
town of Port Hope. Two years later Mr. Badgley and most 
of the staff resigned; the School had failed to pay its way and 
it was evident that radical changes in the management were 
necessary to ensure success. 

At this juncture, in July 1870, the Corporation passed a 
resolution "that the Head Mastership of Trinity College 
School be offered to the Reverend C. J. S. Bethune, 9 under 
the condition that the Corporation of Trinity College is in 
no way responsible for the expenses incurred, or to be in- 
curred, for such school; it being understood that Trinity 
College School could not be established under the act in- 
corporating Trinity College." This disclaimer it is difficult 
to understand, inasmuch as the College had always main- 
tained a close connection with the School by appointing the 
Chancellor, the Provost, and the Professors in Arts and 
Theology, ex officio, to seats on the governing body of 

9 Charles James Stewart Bethune (1838-1932), son of the second Bishop of Toronto; 
educated Upper Canada College and Trinity College, '59, M.A. '62; D.C.L. {honoris 
causa) '83; deacon 1861, priest 1862; headmaster, Trinity College School, 1870-99; 
Professor, Ontario Agricultural College, 1906-10. 



Trinity College School and allowing the original name to be 

With the appointment of Dr. Bethune and under his long 
regime of thirty years the School steadily grew in numbers 
and reputation. Many of its students proceeded to Trinity 
and added lustre to the reputation of the University. The 
University in turn has provided the School with headmasters 
of distinction in addition to Dr. Bethune and Mr. Badgley, 
such as Dr. Herbert Symonds, '86, Dr. Oswald Rigby (Dean 
of Trinity 1891-1903), and the present incumbent, Philip 
A. C. Ketchum, '23. 

The movement for a convocation hall was again revived 
when, in 1876, the family of the late James Henderson of 
Yorkville, in accordance with a desire frequently expressed 
in his lifetime, tendered a gift of $4,000 to be used for a 
chapel or a convocation hall provided sufficient additional 
funds were raised from other quarters. A legacy from the 
estate of the late Thomas Clark Street of Clark Hill, Niagara 
Falls, for a like amount, which had been received three years 
before, was allocated to the fund. This together with a 
further guarantee of $4,600 by the College from monies 
collected in 1868 for a memorial of Bishop Strachan made it 
possible to proceed with the much-needed addition. In May 
the design of Mr. Frank Darling for the hall was accepted 
and the building was completed by the autumn. The official 
opening and dedication as a memorial to the Founder took 
place on the fifteenth of November 1877, when the Honour- 
able George William Allan, D.C.L., was installed as Chancel- 
lor in succession to the late Honourable John Hillyard 
Cameron. 10 

During this period several changes had taken place in the 

10 John Hillyard Cameron (1817-1876), educated at Upper Canada College; bar- 
rister 1838, Q.C. 1846, Solicitor-General for Upper Canada 1846-48; member of 
Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada and House of Commons of Canada; D.C.L. 
(honoris causa) '55; Chancellor, Trinity College, 1863-76; Chancellor, Diocese of 
Toronto, 1861-76. He died on November 14, 1876. 



staff. Dean Ambery, who had retired as Professor of Clas- 
sics, was succeeded in 1875 by the Reverend William Jones 
as Dean and the Reverend Henry E. Maddock as Professor 
of Classics. The latter's occupancy was brief, he being fol- 
lowed in 1878 by the Reverend Algernon Boys, M.A., who 
occupied the chair for over eleven years. 

Lectureships in Classics were held successively by the 
Reverend A. J. Broughall, the Reverend Ogden Pulteney 
Ford, Robert Gregory Cox, and John Austin Worrell; in 
Physical Science by William H. Ellis, M.A., and Thomas 
Henry Smyth, M.A., B.Sc; and in French by M. Emile 

Another appointment which was destined to leave its mark 
on the College for all time was that of Frank Darling as 
College architect in November 1878. 11 For some five years he 
had acted in an advisory capacity on repairs to the buildings, 
and, as mentioned above, had designed the new Convocation 
Hall. In later years he designed the eastern and western 
wings, the beautiful Gothic Chapel and, finally, the present 
building on Hoskin Avenue in which he faithfully repro- 
duced externally the chief characteristics of Kivas Tully's 
original structure. 

The hoped-for increase in enrolment fell off in 1869 and 
subsequent years, but a large proportion of the students who 
registered were of exceptional ability and became prominent 
in church and state and public life. 

There was little change in College routine. Dinner in Hall 
was a somewhat formal and solemn function at mid-day. 
The years sat separately at three tables placed longitudinally 
down the hall, while one of the Professors — the presiding 

"Frank Darling (1850-1923), second son of the Reverend William Stewart Darling, 
Rector of the Church of the Holy Trinity, Toronto; educated at Trinity College 
School. At the age of twenty he went to England and studied with George Edmund 
Street and Sir Arthur Blomfield. In 1915 he was awarded the Royal Gold Medal for 
the promotion of architecture by King George V, the first occasion since its institu- 
tion by Queen Victoria in 1848 that the award had been in one of the great overseas 



officer for the week — with any distinguished visitors sat at 
a head table placed cross-wise. The Latin graces before and 
after meat were said in turn by a student appointed weekly. 
Until the building of Convocation Hall with a refectory in 
the basement, meals were served under very cramped and 
uncomfortable conditions in the back part of the main en- 
trance hall. 

Chapel, at which attendance was compulsory, was held in 
a room over the main hall, afterwards used as a library. 
Mattins and Evensong were said daily with "no shortened 
form or unseemly abbreviations." The Holy Communion 
was celebrated on Sundays and Saints' Days. Notwithstand- 
ing the charges of ritualism and Romish teaching, the ser- 
vices were plain in the extreme; there was little ceremonial 
except what had been customary in the Church from time 
immemorial. Even an attempt by certain students to adopt 
a custom now almost universal, namely, the congregation 
standing at the presentation of the offertory, was discour- 
aged by the Provost who, although he thoroughly approved, 
felt it was not sufficiently important to be made the sub- 
ject of controversey. "The college," he said, "had as much as 
it could do to meet the foolish accusations brought against 
us, and it would not be right for us to give occasion for the 
enemy to blaspheme." 12 So the promoters agreed not to press 
the point until all the men in College were unanimously in 

On the social side, the Conversazione was one of the in- 
novations in the early seventies which soon became an 
annual event. It does not appear that dancing was the prin- 
cipal feature, although indulged in to some extent. By far the 
most important was a musical programme, consisting of 
songs by eminent local artists, glees and choruses by the 
students, and occasionally a talk on national music by M. 

12 Canon Arthur Jarvis, "Reminiscences" (manuscript in the possession of his 
daughter, Miss Julia Jarvis, University of Toronto Library). 



Emile Pernet, the French lecturer, illustrated by a choir of 
men. On the first occasion there was an exhibition of works 
of art distributed through the corridors and rooms. While 
the "Conversat." was entirely the conception of the senior 
students, the invitation list had to be submitted to the 
College authorities. Exception was taken by the Provost on 
one occasion to the inclusion of Goldwin Smith on the ground 
that he was an enemy to the College. (Professor Smith's 
radical views were, at that time, looked upon with suspicion.) 
When it was pointed out that by inviting him the College 
would be heaping coals of fire on his head "the Provost could 
not object to our sound Biblical reasoning." 13 

In January 1880 appeared for the first time the College 
paper Rouge et Noir. It was inspired by John Travers Lewis, 
78, Charles Harper Shortt, 79, W. M. Cruttenden, '80, and 
Frederick E. Howitt, Div. '81. Lewis was the editor, Crut- 
tenden the secretary, and Howitt the business manager. 14 At 
first published quarterly, it was, with the support of the men 
in residence, a success and soon became a College institution. 
At the outset exception was taken to the name which of 
course was suggested by the College colours. It was only 
adopted (according to the first editorial) for lack of a better 
one, for "when going to press some title was necessary and 
the colours seemed to suggest a local loyalty to the College 
without being unwarrantly comprehensive. ,, To the "unco 


"John Travers Lewis, 78, M.A. '89, D.C.L. {honoris causa) '98, son of the first 
Bishop of Ontario; Chancellor, Diocese of Ottawa. 

William M. Cruttenden, '80; journalist, U.S.A. 

Frederick Elliott Howitt, Div. '81; deacon 1881, priest 1882; Rector, St. George's 
Church, Hamilton; Canon, Diocese of Niagara. 

Charles Harper Shortt, 79, M.A. '86; deacon 1881, priest 1882; founder of St. 
Cyprian's, Toronto; missionary to Japan 1900-18; Principal, St. Mark's Hall, Van- 
couver, 1918; Warden, Anglican Theological College of British Columbia, 1920-33; 
died 1948. In 1918, on his return from Japan after eighteen years of missionary work, 
he was offered the degree of Doctor of Divinity {honoris causa) by the University of 
Trinity College. This he declined because of the view he had often expressed, that 
the conferring of such degrees should only be "under very exceptional circumstances." 



guid" the title was suggestive of a gambling game and there- 
fore thought unsuitable for a college where divinity was 
taught. Eight years later it was succeeded by The Trinity 
University Review, 

The main object of Rouge et Noir was to provide college 
chronicles, to be a vehicle by which a Trinity man of literary 
ability might display his wares in prose and verse, and where 
the grievances of the undergraduate might be exploited. 
Naturally it was not regarded with unanimous approval by 
the faculty, to whom it was frequently a thorn in the flesh 
and from whom at times there came dire threats when 
criticism was too caustic or indicated scant reverence for the 
powers that be. But it lived, never wholly bankrupt, though 
with little financial success until in later years under its 
successors name it became the official organ of the Univer- 

On the opening of the Michaelmas Term in 1879 Provost 
Whitaker announced to the Corporation that he had been 
offered by the Bishop of Salisbury the parish at Newton 
Tony, Wilts., a living in the gift of his own college, Queen's, 
of Cambridge, the appointment to take effect the following 
June, or later if necessary. This announcement caused con- 
siderable concern, not only to the Corporation, but also to 
the friends and supporters of the College, particularly among 
the clergy. At the request of Bishop Strachan, Provost 
Whitaker had been selected for his post by a committee of 
four eminent divines in England. The object of this com- 
mittee was to secure a man of high character whose dis- 
tinguished literary attainments would give value to the 
scholastic work and whose parochial experience would fit 
him for the important duty of training young men for Holy 
Orders. No better appointment could have been made. 

George Whitaker graduated from Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1833 with a first-class Classical Tripos and 
honours in Classics and Mathematics. He was then Classical 



Lecturer and Fellow at Queen's until his appointment in 
1840 to the vicarage of Oakington, a country village a few 
miles from Cambridge. He was ordained deacon in 1837, 
priest in 1838, on both occasions by the Bishop of Ely in St. 
George's, Hanover Square, London. 

He was in his early forties, when, in 1851, he was appointed 
Provost of the new Trinity College and entered upon the 
difficult position which he filled with conspicuous ability for 
thirty years. From the first he had to formulate the courses 
of instruction and to be Professor of Divinity and tutor as 
well as the administrative head of the College. He was 
scrupulous in training students in the tenets of the Church of 
England as set forth by her most learned writers. As a 
powerful preacher and speaker he had few equals; whether 
in Chapel or Hall, in Church or Synod he always had some- 
thing worth while to say and said it with eloquence and 
simple force. A man in such a position necessarily encounters 
opposition from others, as, for instance, in the controversy 
with Bishop Cronyn of the Diocese of Huron who charged 
him and the College with Romish teachings. 15 

Not seeking position or popularity, he was nevertheless 
the nominee for Bishop three times: in September 1866, as 
coadjutor to Bishop Strachan; in February 1878, as coad- 
jutor to Bishop Bethune; and again, after the death of the 
latter on the third of February 1879, as his successor in the 
Bishopric. On each occasion he had a large majority of the 
clerical votes but failed to obtain sufficient votes from the 
lay delegates. In a letter to his friend the Venerable Arch- 
deacon Roe of Lennoxville, Que., he said, referring to the 
election in September 1866: 

My consent was never asked by those who acted on my behalf. They 
knew what my feelings were and most honorably respected them. And 
I feel now that if I had stated that I would not serve in the event of my 

16 Reference to this attack and the Provost's spirited defence and subsequent 
vindication has been made in chapter III, pp. 61 ff. 



election, I should have been acting an unworthy part, and assuming a 
responsibility that I had no right to take upon myself. 

After the election held in February 1879 to elect a successor 
to the late Bishop Bethune, writing again to Dr. Roe, he 

I allowed my name to be put forward by, what I call, the Church party. 
I gave myself entirely into their hands, entirely desiring to stand apart 
and to have nothing to do with the details of the contest. I have been 
complimented on my generous withdrawal. I deserve neither praise nor 
blame for it. I feel most deeply that the result actually reached is due 
altogether to the wisdom and goodness of God, and in no degree to the 
wisdom and prudence of man. He heard our prayers and gave us not 
what we asked, but what he saw to be expedient for us. 

On the eleventh of May 1881 the Provost attended the 
meeting of Corporation for the last time, leaving Toronto 
early in June. "He leaves this country," said Rouge et Noir y 
"carrying with him the admiration and grateful regard of 
those who knew him best. In learning, ability and loftiness 
of character he has had no peer amongst the clergy of this 
land. He has toiled and taught and never spared himself in the 
interests of the Church and has laid, along with Bishop 
Strachan, Chief Justice Robinson and other loyal Church- 
men, a solid foundation. " 

He did not live long to enjoy his well-earned relaxation in 
the endowed and charmingly situated living at Newton 
Tony, a few miles northeast of the beautiful cathedral town 
of Salisbury. He died suddenly on the twenty-eighth of 
August 1882, "a type of the High Church clergyman of the 
old school with no sympathies for parties holding extreme 
views in the Church of England. He rather strove by quiet 
and scholarly dignity to raise the status of the Church, en- 
deavouring at the same time to avoid any course that would 
give unnecessary offence to those without her communion. 
Those who knew him best were impressed by the simplicity 
and earnestness of his character." 16 

16 Mail (Toronto), August 29, 1882. 



To this might be added a tribute from one of his students, 
George Allan Mackenzie, '69, published in the Review under 
the caption "Consu/e Planco" "His mental powers, his store 
of learning, his modesty, consistency, courage, and love of 
righteousness which lifted him to a just eminence amongst 
his fellows, will cause him to live long in the reverence and 
affection of many." 17 

17 The Review, February 1890. 





ppointment of a successor to Provost Whitaker 
was finally left in the hands of the Bishop of 
Toronto and the retiring Provost. In January, 
1880, the position had been offered to the Rever- 
end Dr. J. A. Lobley, Principal of Bishop's College, Lennox- 
ville, but he had declined it. 1 

Early in July 1881, it was announced that the Reverend 
Charles W. E. Body, M.A., of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, had been appointed from the first of October fol- 
lowing. He was a young man, thirty years of age, and had 
had a brilliant career at Cambridge: Sixth Wrangler in 
Mathematics and with honours in Theology. Since 1877 he 
had been a Fellow and Lecturer in Theology at St. John's 
where he was regarded as a Hebrew scholar of distinction. 
From the outset it was evident that his youth and energy 
would enable him to carry out those reforms in education 
that everywhere were becoming necessary. His plans were 
stated in a circular issued soon after his arrival in Toronto. 
Briefly, these consisted of a campaign to raise a supplemental 
endowment fund of $100,000, in order to add to the staff and 
to build an addition to the College building which would pro- 
vide an adequate number of lecture rooms and additional 
accommodation for resident students, and, above all, a pro- 
per chapel, the lack of which had been for thirty years a 

J Dr. Lobley had been nominated as a candidate for the Bishopric of Toronto the 
previous February after nineteen ballots had failed to elect, but he was not successful 
in breaking the deadlock. 



serious detriment to the work of the College. In the mean- 
time Provost Body took up a much-needed revision of the 
curriculum which had remained unchanged since the opening 
of the College in 1852. 

The increase in the endowment was designed to provide for 
additional Professorships in Divinity, Mental and Moral 
Philosophy, English Literature, Modern Languages, and 
Physical Science, and fellowships to assist in the teaching and 
to promote graduate study. In short he aimed to make the 
University of Trinity College a university in fact as well as 
in name, something more than a college teaching only Arts 
and Divinity, but including, as provided in the Charter, 
other branches of learning as taught by the "Universities of 
our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland." 

The appeal for a supplementary endowment was success- 
ful. In 1885 it was announced that subscriptions amounting 
to $108,228 had been collected by the Reverend R. H. Starr, 2 
the financial agent of the College, and the Provost who had 
accompanied Mr. Starr to England to solicit subscriptions in 
the summer of 1884. Among the many generous gifts were the 
following: the sum of $10,000 from the Henderson family of 
Toronto towards the erection of a chapel, to be in part a 
memorial to Miss Millicent Henderson; £3,000 sterling from 
the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (to be 
appropriated as follows: £1,000 for the erection of new build- 
ings, £1,500 towards the endowment of fellowships, and 
£500 for a Lectureship in History) ; £5,000 from a graduate 
of the University of Oxford, who chose to remain anony- 
mous, to establish a second chair in the Faculty of Divinity 
and a chair in Science. It was suggested that these chairs 
should be in memory of two great Oxford teachers, the 
Reverend John Keble and the Reverend Dr. Edward 

2 Reginald Heber Starr (1844-1897), educated at the University of New Brunswick; 
Victoria College, Cobourg, B.A. 1864, M.A. 1867; Trinity College, B.D. '82, D.D. '87. 
Ordained deacon 1868, priest 1869. Professor of Dogmatic Theology, University of 
the South, Sewanee, Tenn., 1895; sometime examiner in Divinity, Trinity College. 



Bouverie Pusey. 3 The old and staunch friend of the Founder 
and the College, the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, gave £100 as a token of sympathy for the campaign, 
but regretted, owing to lack of funds, its inability to do 

The new Chapel, made possible by the munificent dona- 
tion of the Henderson family, was opened and consecrated on 
St. Luke's Day, the eighteenth of October 1884. Designed by 
Frank Darling, it was described at the time as a "gem of 
ecclesiastical architecture, of the style commonly called per- 
pendicular or late gothic." Although not in strict harmony 
with the architecture of the College building, it had many 
beautiful features, chiefly a chancel of ample proportions 
with seven windows in the apse (subsequently containing 
memorials to the founders) and excellent woodwork in the 
roof and in the stalls. The cost of the organ, $1,500, was 
assumed by the students of the College, with a committee 
consisting of C. B. Kenrick, '82, R. N. Hudspeth, '82, and 
H. Crawford Scadding, '86. 

The result of the financial appeal enabled the Corporation 
to establish a second chair in Divinity, one in Mental and 
Moral Philosophy, and a Fellowship in Natural Science. 4 To 
the Professorship in Divinity the Reverend Gustavus Adol- 
phus Schneider, M.A. of Caius College, Cambridge, was 
appointed in 1882; but his tenure of office was brief, and his 
resignation at the end of the Easter Term, 1885, to become 
Vice-President of Ridley Hall, a theological college at Cam- 
bridge, was a distinct loss to Trinity. He was succeeded early 
in 1886 by the Reverend John Charles Roper, M.A., a grad- 
uate of Oxford, as Keble Professor, on the recommendation 
of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishops of Truro 

3 Both Dr. Pusey and the Reverend John Keble had subscribed to Dr. McMurray's 
collection in 1864. 

4 The Reverend George E. Haslam, '84, held the Fellowship in Natural Science from 
1885 to 1886. He was succeeded by William O'Connor, M.A. Queen's, Belfast, who 
received his degrees of M.D., CM., from Trinity Medical College, Toronto, in 1890. 



and Lincoln. He resigned at the end of December 1888 to 
take up parochial work at St. Thomas* Church, Toronto, but 
not before he had left his impress on the work and life of the 
College. 5 

Dr. Roper was followed by his assistant, the Reverend 
Herbert Symonds, a man of warm personality, who had been 
Fellow and Lecturer in Divinity since his graduation in 1886, 
after a brilliant course during which he had won three 
scholarships and graduated with honours. The gifts he dis- 
played as an undergraduate marked him for a scholastic 
career, for he was a teacher and preacher of outstanding 
ability, and to this work he devoted himself until his appoint- 
ment to the country parish of Ashburnham in 1892. 6 

During his student days Mr. Symonds was one of the first 
to foresee that Trinity could never hope to compete success- 
fully with the state-aided University of Toronto; that if 
federation could be effected on equitable terms Trinity, with- 
out sacrifice of principle, would be infinitely stronger than by 
struggling along as an independent University. At that time, 
1884, federation was seriously considered at a meeting of the 
heads of Colleges summoned by the Honourable George W. 
Ross, then Minister of Education for Ontario. Many stu- 
dents and supporters of Trinity were favourable to the pro- 
posed change; but the negotiations broke down and nothing 
was accomplished. Both Victoria and Trinity were not un- 
favourable to federation, but Provost Body was unable to 
obtain from the Government recognition of Trinity's rights 

B John Charles Roper (1858-1940), of Keble College and Brasenose College, Oxford, 
B.A. 1881, M.A. 1884; deacon 1882, priest 1883; Keble Professor of Divinity, Trinity 
College, 1886-1888; Vicar, St. Thomas' Church, Toronto, 1889; Professor, General 
Theological Seminary, N.Y., 1897 (D.D. 1898); D.D., Trinity College, Toronto, '12; 
Bishop of British Columbia 1911; Bishop of Ottawa 1915; Archbishop and Metro- 
politan of Ontario 1933. Retired 1939. 

6 Herbert Symonds (1860-1921), B.A. '86, M.A. '87, D.D. Queen's 1901; LL.D. 
McGill 1910; deacon 1885, priest 1887. Fellow, Lecturer, and Professor of Divinity, 
Trinity College, 1887-92; Rector, St. Luke's Church, Ashburnham, 1892-1901; Head- 
master, Trinity College School, Port Hope, 1901-3; Vicar, Christ Church Cathedral, 
Montreal, 1903-21. 



to continue religious teaching and her equality as an arts 
college with University College. Ten years later, Mr. 
Symonds wrote a clear and convincing pamphlet on the 
subject which was widely circulated but while it created a 
profound impression, it also aroused considerable antagon- 
ism. When federation was brought before Convocation, it 
was approved in principle, but was crushed by an over- 
whelming vote as being impracticable. As it turned out Mr. 
Symonds was only ten years ahead of the time so that, in 
1904, many of the principles he had vigorously advocated 
were later incorporated in the articles of Federation. 7 

A student who afterwards attained distinction in the 
literary world entered Trinity about this time. Horatio 
Gilbert Parker had been ordained to the perpetual diaconate 
by the Bishop of Ontario, Dr. J. Travers Lewis, in 1881 and 
for a short time taught at the Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb at Belleville. In 1883 Bishop Lewis sent him to 
Trinity College to complete his studies with a view to enter- 
ing the priesthood. At the same time Parker gave lectures in 
elocution to the Divinity students. Ill health compelled his 
withdrawal from the course after two years and for some 
time he travelled extensively in Australia and other parts 
of the Empire and developed a taste for writing. Finally he 
settled in England where his works soon attracted attention, 
particularly those historical novels dealing with Canadian 
life, in which he displayed a deep understanding of our 
French-Canadian fellow subjects. A profound Imperialist, he 
entered politics and sat in the British House of Commons as 
member for Gravesend. He was created a Baronet in 1915, 
and made a Privy Councillor in 1916. In 1899 Trinity con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law. 
He died in 1932. 8 He was the founder of the scholarship in 

'Herbert Symonds: Trinity and Federation (Toronto, 1894). 

8 Synod of the Diocese of Ontario, Journal, 1882-89; Authors of To-day and Yester- 
day, ed. Stanley J. Kunitz (New York, 1933). 



English which bears his name, awarded annually by the 

With the object of stimulating the interest of graduates in 
their University, a determined effort was made in 1886 by 
Provost Body and several prominent laymen to revive Con- 
vocation. In the Royal Charter provision had been made 
whereby those holding the degree of Master of Arts, or any 
degree in Divinity, Law, or Medicine, might become mem- 
bers of Convocation on payment of a small fee, but this pro- 
vision had become, in process of time, a dead letter, and the 
University had been governed solely by a council consisting 
of the Bishops of the Province of Ontario and their nominees. 

The first general meeting of Convocation was held on the 
third of November 1887, consisting of the staff of the College 
and a large number of graduates, the Chancellor, the 
Honourable G. W. Allan, and the Bishop of Niagara, the 
Right Reverend Charles Hamilton. John Austin Worrell was 
elected Chairman and the Reverend Herbert Symonds, Clerk 
of Convocation, and to them and to the Provost and the 
Reverend Edward C. Cayley the success of the revival was 
largely due. They travelled throughout the Province es- 
tablishing branch associations in local centres whereby 
enthusiasm in the work of the College was aroused and con- 
siderable addition made to its revenues. 

On Dr. Symonds* resignation as Professor of Divinity in 
1892 the Corporation voiced unanimous appreciation of the 
discharge of his many duties as librarian, choir master, pro- 
fessor, bursar of St. Hilda's College, of his devoted service to 
the University and, above all, of the important part he had 
taken in bringing Convocation to its present high position. 
He was succeeded as Professor of Divinity by the Reverend 
Edward C. Cayley, '85, Fellow in Theology since 1889. 

To the chair of Mental and Moral Philosophy the 
Reverend William Clark was appointed in the spring of 



1883. 9 To enable the College to secure Professor Clark's 
services, the Reverend John D. Cayley, Rector of St. 
George's Church, guaranteed the sum of $500 per annum for 
five years, during which period Professor Clark was the 
special preacher at that church. 

Of Professor Clark it is impossible to write without en- 
thusiasm. When he came to Trinity College in 1883 as Pro- 
fessor of Mental and Moral Philosophy he brought with him 
such power of address in the pulpit and on the platform, such 
charm of manner and breadth of sympathies that he stepped 
at once into the foremost rank of the scholars and theologians 
of this continent. It is worthy of record, as indicative of his 
character, that though in receipt of many tempting offers, he 
adhered with untiring devotion to the work of the College 
where he made his home when he first crossed the ocean. As 
a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, as an author of 
theological and biographical works, as a lecturer and preach- 
er, Professor Clark brought fame and goodwill to the College 
of his adoption. A graduate of the College 10 pays the follow- 
ing tribute to Dr. Clark: 

Every college and university, every school, has its instructor with 
some oddity of manner or expression, some little idiosyncrasy of attire, 
gesture, gait or voice which wins the regard of students and preserves 
him in affectionate esteem. Doctor William Clark, more familiarly 
known as "Billy" Clark, though Clark seemed redundant, was one of 
these. Formally speaking, "Billy" signified Professor William Clark, 
just as surely as "Archie" meant Professor A. H. Young, and "Polly" 
referred to William Jones, professor of mathematics, and so set him 
apart from the multitudinous and ubiquitous tribe of Joneses. 

Born in Aberdeen, a most truly Scottish part of Scotland, endowed 
with the burr and the dialect native to his heath, he early sought to 

9 William Robinson Clark (1829-1912), M.A. King's College, Aberdeen, 1848, and 
Hertford College, Oxford; LL.D. Hobart 1888; D.C.L. '91; deacon 1857, priest 1858; 
Curate at Birmingham, Vicar of Taunton, Prebendary of Wells; came to Canada 1882; 
Professor, Trinity College, 1883-1908; special preacher at St. George's, Toronto, 

10 M. Bruce McCausland, '06. 



acquire a true, pure English, free of cant and affectation. This he not 
only did, but so well that he became in due course a master of clear, 
precise and vivid English and professor of English in one of the Em- 
pire's universities most exacting. To the very last of a long life Bishop 
Strachan retained his burr; by studious intention and persistence 
Professor Clark managed to shed his in the days of his youth, and 
became one of the most useful and inspiring of teachers. 

One phrase associated with his class-room lectures, for he did much 
lecturing extra-murally, that became memorable through repetition 
was "He's dead now, poor fellow." Invariably, not once or twice, but 
often thrice or more times, this phrasing of the Scottish lament would 
recur. To exemplify the point he wished to make, Dr. Clark would say, 
"As John Ruskin — he's dead now, poor fellow — repeatedly expressed 
it " And then he would go on to elaborate. Or, "As William Glad- 
stone, he's dead now, poor fellow, once said " And so on. Nor was 

this conventional expression of regret confined to persons lately de- 
ceased or little known. Though his references to predeceased eminence 
hardly went back so far as, say, Disraeli or Lincoln, they often came 

An instance of Dr. Clark's remarkable versatility is re- 
membered by many of the older graduates. The Saturday 
afternoon lectures, usually held during Lent, attracted large 
audiences, distinguished speakers filling to capacity Con- 
vocation Hall. On one occasion Professor Clark Murray of 
McGill University undertook to lecture on "The Philosophy 
of Immanuel Kant." The time set was three o'clock, but 
through a misunderstanding the speaker could not arrive 
until half-past four. In order to interest the audience until 
Dr. Murray should arrive, Professor Clark was prevailed 
upon to speak. To attempt a lecture at a moment's notice 
and make it popular was no small matter. But Professor 
Clark was equal to the occasion and gave a lecture on Kant 
from his own viewpoint which in no way conflicted with Dr. 
Murray's which followed. The effort was a remarkable one 
and offered a strong proof of Lord Bacon's dictum that 
"reading maketh a full man, speaking a ready man and 
writing an exact man." 11 

11 The Review, February 1889. 



To the onerous duties of his dual professorship, Dr. Clark 
generously added extra lectures from time to time in History 
and in several branches of Theology, with all of which he 
was thoroughly conversant. He retired in 1908 with the title 
of Professor Emeritus, retaining his seat on the Corporation 
as long as his health permitted. He died in November 1912. 

Among the principles upon which Trinity College was 
founded (and enunciated by her Founder) was that it must 
be based upon the distinctly religious doctrines and practices 
of the Church of England. This side of the life and purpose 
of the University appealed to Provost Body with powerful 
and persistent force. 12 The Chapel, the full-time Professor- 
ships in Divinity, the honour course in Theology and for 
Divinity degrees all emphasized this. 13 It was logical there- 
fore that in January 1884 there should be formed a Theologi- 
cal and Missionary Society to be a centre for the spiritual 
work in the College from which missionary and other work 
undertaken by its members might be directed and de- 
veloped. 14 

The first officers of the Society were the Provost as Presi- 
dent, and a Committee consisting of Professors William 
Clark and G. A. Schneider; A. J. Broughall, J. D. Cayley, 
C. L. Ingles, John Langtry, graduates of the College; and 
others. A student, George E. Haslam, '84, was the first 
secretary. Meetings were held fortnightly during term with 
papers on missionary and theological subjects by eminent 
speakers. In addition the Society made a point of keeping in 
close touch with the clerical alumni. 

The Theological and Missionary Society did much to de- 
velop interest in the foreign missionary field, notably Japan. 
Archdeacon A. C. Shaw, '67, the first Trinity graduate to 
offer himself, had gone to Tokyo in 1873 and by his saintly 

12 Dr. J. C. Roper, Professor of Divinity 1886-88, in The Review, June 1902. 

18 At this time a shorter course for Divinity students was instituted which enabled a 
student to become a Licentiate of Sacred Theology (L.Th.) and a candidate for ordina- 
tion in three years, one year in Arts and two years in Divinity. 

"Trinity College Year Book, 1896. 



life had won the people. Following him were J. G. Waller, 
'89, W. C. Gemmill, '91, Arthur Lloyd (M.A. Cantab. 1891 
and for a short time on the staff), F. W. C. Kennedy, '90, J. 
Chappell, '93, and later, in 1900, Charles Harper Shortt, 79, 
G. E. Ryerson, '98, and W. H. M. Mockridge, '01. 

But the home district was not neglected. Many Divinity 
students assisted in outlying parishes and founded missions 
which developed into parishes. Two instances of this might 
be recalled. In 1884, two Divinity students, C. B. Kenrick, 
'82, and J. C. Davidson, '82, commenced mission services in 
a hall over an hotel for the suburban area north of Bloor and 
west of Bathurst Streets, then known as Seaton Village. 
This mission, continued by successive Trinity students, was 
so successful that the Sisterhood of St. John the Divine 
established a mission house on Follis Avenue in 1890 where 
services were held until the new parish of St. Cyprian was 
set apart with the Reverend C. H. Shortt, '79, formerly at 
Woodbridge, as its first Rector. A church was built on 
Christie Street and opened in June 1892. 

Another suburban mission more intimately connected with 
the College and called the Trinity University Mission was 
also commenced in the eighties by two Divinity students, 
Walter Creswick, '92, and Gilbert Farquhar Davidson, '95, 
for the district in the neighbourhood of Fairbank, now at the 
corners of Dufferin Street, Vaughan Road, and Eglinton 
Avenue. This mission was in the parish of Christ Church, 
Deer Park. So successful was the venture that in 1893, 
through the generous support of the College people, the St. 
Hilda's College staff and students and many friends, the 
corner-stone of a permanent building was laid on the after- 
noon of Ascension Day and the church (the original frame 
building of St. Thomas' Church, Toronto) was dedicated by 
the Bishop of Toronto on the second day of February 1894. 
It was appropriate, therefore, that the church should be 
named after St. Hilda, the English abbess noted for her 
wisdom and piety, whose monastery at Whitby in Yorkshire 



became a school for missionaries and bishops in the seventh 

Provost Body was greatly interested at this time, as were 
many other educationists in Canada, in the higher education 
of women. Before 1888 partial co-education of a sort had 
been tried in Canada in such colleges as Victoria at Cobourg, 
University College, Toronto, and at Queen's University, 
Kingston. As early as 1886 women students had been ad- 
mitted to lectures at Trinity, and were eligible for degrees, 
but the result was not entirely satisfactory. 

Provost Body sought to extend the whole system of 
Trinity, educational and residential, so that women students 
should enjoy equal privileges with the men, but with a 
separate teaching staff and the common life in a properly 
ordered residence. With the support of many friends of 
Trinity, including Dr. Sweatman, the Bishop of Toronto, 
Chancellor George W. Allan, and members of the staff, a 
modest beginning was made in a small house at No. 48 
Euclid Avenue in October 1888, under the direction of Miss 
Ellen Patteson and with a registration of five students, two 
of whom were in residence. The growth of St. Hilda's College 
was slow at first, but two removes were made to larger 
premises during the next six years, so that on Provost Body's 
retirement in 1894 the future success of his plan seemed 
assured. During that period the financial panic of 1893, 
followed by a period of stagnant trade, affected the progress 
of many educational and other institutions and Trinity was 
no exception. Unable to pay an independent staff, St. Hilda's 
had to depend upon the duplication of lectures by members 
of the Trinity staff, some of whom gave generously of their 
services for the general good. It was soon realized, however, 
that the giving of separate courses for the women students 
was impracticable and since then they have attended lectures 
with the men of Trinity, and St. Hilda's College has been 
used as a residence. 15 

16 The history of St. Hilda's College is dealt with in chapter ix. 



Another venture in the Provost's policy of University- 
expansion was not so successful. Under the Royal Charter 
the College was stated to be a University and to have and 
enjoy all "privileges as are enjoyed by our Universities of 
our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland . . . and 
that the students in the said College shall have liberty and 
faculty of taking the degrees of Bachelor, Master and Doctor 
in the several Arts and Faculties. " This was taken to include 
a Faculty of Music. 

Although Trinity and, presumably, the University of 
Toronto, had the power to hold examinations and grant 
degrees in Music, neither availed themselves of this privilege 
for many years, and it was not until Trinity showed the way 
that the University of Toronto became at all interested. 
True, Trinity had a Professor of Music almost from the 
beginning, George William Strathy, 16 on whom, in 1858, the 
University of Trinity College had conferred the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Music. Twenty-three years later the 
student periodical at Trinity, Rouge etNoir, pointed out that 
while the University of Trinity College had the power of 
granting a degree in Music (the only genuine one in the 
country) apparently it had been forgotten: "it had a Pro- 
fessor, but we have seen nothing of him — no graduates — no 
lectures — no examinations — it is time for a change/' 17 This 
seems to have stirred the authorities to action for in February 
1884 a syllabus was drawn up and it was announced that 
candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Music must pass 
three annual examinations. In 1886 four degrees were 

In 1885 a Registrar in England was appointed in the per- 
son of the Reverend Edward K. Kendall, M.A., of Southsea, 
who was authorized to accept candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Music in the University of Trinity College, 

16 In the Roll of Graduates of Trinity College appears "Strathy, G.W., Mus. Bac. 
1853, Mus. Doc. 1858." 

11 Rouge et Noir, vol. II (1881), no. 2. 



Toronto, the examinations to be held simultaneously in 
Toronto and London. Mr. Kendall, a graduate of Cambridge, 
had been Professor of Mathematics at Trinity from 1856 to 
1862 when he returned to England and became Vicar of 
Southsea. That the offer proved attractive is indicated by 
the fact that, between 1886 and 1891, 193 candidates applied 
and 89 degrees in all had been conferred. In April 1889 the 
Registrar entertained at dinner at the Holborn Restaurant 
in London a number of English musicians who had not only 
encouraged but had promised their support of the plan. 
These included the newly appointed examiners, Dr. E. W. 
Lott, organist of St. Sepulchre's, Holborn; Dr. E. J. Hopkins, 
organist of the Temple Church; Dr. W. H. Longhurst, organ- 
ist of Canterbury Cathedral, and the editor of the Musical 
Standard which had approved the course. 

But the popularity of the examinations caused alarm 
among some of England's high-ranking musicians, and repre- 
sentatives of Oxford, Cambridge, Durham, and other univer- 
sities presented a memorial to the Colonial Secretary in Feb- 
ruary 1890 praying him to take action to prevent this in- 
vasion of the Mother Country in what they considered to 
be a violation of the provisions of Trinity's Charter. They 
also pointed out the harm that, in their opinion, was being 
done to the true interests of music in England. Unfortu- 
nately the local press published a report of this action with- 
out consulting the Provost of Trinity College and a serious 
situation was created. 

A reply to the petitioners' attack was drawn up and signed 
by the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, and the Bishop of 
Toronto, refuting the charges contained in the memorial. It 
was presented in person to the Colonial Secretary by the 
Provost who left Toronto at the close of the Easter Term. 
The statement showed unmistakably that the Trinity re- 
quirements for the degrees in Music were as strict as those of 
the English universities and that by engaging eminent 



English musicians as examiners a high standard of musical 
proficiency was assured. To cap all, neither the University of 
Oxford, of Cambridge, nor of London had officially author- 
ized the attack or knew of the contents of the memorial, 
although the musicians of high rank who signed it were 
among the examiners in these Universities. 

Later in the year the Corporation decided to receive no 
more matriculants in England after the first of February 
1891. This action was taken, not because of any doubts as to 
the right of Trinity College to grant degrees in Music, or 
question as to the professional status of the examiners or 
the high standard of its examinations, but on account of the 
grave misunderstanding which had arisen among the univer- 
sities in England with which Trinity had previously had 
close and friendly relations; and mainly because the Univer- 
sity of Durham had announced its intention of granting 
degrees in Music on a basis similar to that of Trinity. The 
work of our own University in that respect (the Corporation 
felt) had, therefore, become unnecessary and it was thought 
wise to withdraw from the English field. 

The death of the Professor of Classics, the Reverend 
Algernon Boys, M.A., on the twenty-first of April 1890 re- 
moved from the College scene a figure distinguished alike in 
learning and a personality quaintly eccentric, but of a kindly 
humour and great generosity withal. Born in Simla, India, he 
was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he gradu- 
ated with high classical honours. Before coming to Trinity in 
1878, he was Vicar of Faversham, Kent. The high regard in 
which he was held was well expressed by the editor of The 
Review, who described "a man whose singular fairness of 
mind, absolute justness and freedom from all prejudice and 
partiality commanded for him the confidence and respect of 
every man in Trinity." 18 

Two important additions to the staff were made in 1891. 
The Reverend Edward Wynn Huntingford, M.A. of Merton 

™Thc Review, May 1890. 



College, Oxford, was appointed Professor of Classics in suc- 
cession to the Reverend Arthur Lloyd who had succeeded 
Professor Boys for one year. Mr. Huntingford, during his 
nine years of office, was probably the greatest character in 
the College, and, next to Professor Clark, the most brilliant. 
A great classical scholar, he did his best to impart some of 
his knowledge and inspiration to the students, but, in the 
main, he had a low opinion of their Latin and Greek. He was 
an admirer of physical prowess and urged athletic exercise 
on all; with the first-year men he made compulsory a cross- 
country run each morning before breakfast. Old graduates 
will remember his famous bull-dog "Isaac," who followed 
him everywhere and was a College institution. 

The Reverend Oswald Rigby, M.A. Cantab., was appoint- 
ed Professor of History at the beginning of the Michaelmas 
Term. An honour graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
he proved an outstanding teacher and, as Dean of Residence, 
to which position he was appointed in January 1892, was the 
most popular member of the staff. Of a firm but kindly 
discipline he exercised an excellent influence on the life of the 

Among students in the late eighties and early nineties 
there were a number who became prominent in after life. 
Leaders in the Church included Bishop F. B. Howden of 
New Mexico; Bishop Frank DuMoulin, Coadjutor Bishop of 
Ohio; Bishop de Pencier of New Westminster, later Arch- 
bishop; Archbishop C. A. Seager, who before he became 
Bishop of Ontario was Provost of Trinity College from 1921 
to 1926; the Reverend H. H. Bedford-Jones, leader in College 
affairs, an all-round powerful athlete, and for a time after his 
graduation Fellow in Divinity, and subsequently Rector of 
St. Peter's, Brockville, and Principal of the University of 
Bishop's College, Lennoxville; the Reverend T. W. Powell, 
first Rector of St. Clement's Church, North Toronto, 
founder of St. Clement's School and President of King's 
College, N.S.; Archdeacon J. H. H. Coleman of Kingston 



and the Reverend Walter H. White now of Ottawa who 
were two outstanding classical scholars; the Reverend J. A. 
Leighton, Ph.D. Cornell, of the Ohio State University; and 
the Reverend H. B. Gwyn of Chicago. 

Prominent in the practice of law have been Stewart F. 
Houston, J. G. L. Abbott, Senator R. H. Clive Pringle, the 
Honourable John D. McMurrich of British Columbia, the 
Honourable Mr. Justice M. S. McCarthy (also M.P. for 
Calgary), D'Arcy Martin of Hamilton, and Charles S. Mac- 
Innes, K.C., LL.D., C.M.G., Fellow and Lecturer in Classics 
in Trinity College 1893-94. 

Mention should also be made of Henry Campbell Osborne, 
and Harry Stevenson Southam, both graduates of '96 and 
active in the academic and athletic life of the College. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Osborne, A.D.C., was secretary to the 
Minister of Militia during the First World War, and was 
created a C.M.G. in 1918. As Secretary-General of the Im- 
perial Graves Commission (Canadian group) he rendered 
valuable service to the Department of National Defence. In 
more recent years he contributed to the artistic life of the 
community as honorary director of the Dominion Drama 
Festival. Harry S. Southam, for the past thirty years 
publisher of the Ottawa Citizen, has been chairman of the 
Board of Trustees of the National Gallery of Canada and a 
patron of the arts. For many years he was Vice-President of 
the Amateur Athletic Union of Canada and one of the repre- 
sentatives for Trinity College on the Senate of the University 
of Toronto. 

A memorable historical event which took place in Trinity 
College towards the end of Provost Body's regime was the 
formation of the General Synod of the Church of England in 
Canada. The Senior Metropolitan of Canada, Bishop Lewis 
of Ontario, summoned the Synod to assemble at Trinity 
College on the thirteenth of September 1893, where it con- 
tinued its deliberations for one week. Fourteen bishops, 
forty-one clerical and thirty-five lay delegates represented 



the seventeen dioceses of Canada on that occasion. Many 
problems were discussed and a large proportion of them 
solved. Bishop Robert Machray of Rupert's Land was 
elected Primate of all Canada with the title of Archbishop, a 
designation that thereafter was to be applied also to the 
metropolitans of the four ecclesiastical provinces into which 
the Dominion of Canada was divided. In 1949, twenty-seven 
dioceses were represented at the seventeenth session of the 
General Synod held in Halifax. 

Under Provost Body's scheme for the expansion of the 
University of Trinity College two needs were outstanding: 
first, an increase of income to provide for additions to the 
staff, and, secondly, the extension of the College buildings, 
if the hoped-for increase of students was to be attained. As 
has been pointed out, the Supplementary Endowment Fund 
now amounted to over $110,000. The Chapel, the first addi- 
tion to the College buildings, was built in 1884 at a cost of 
more than $20,000. The corner-stone of the residential west 
wing was laid by the Bishop of Toronto on the twenty- 
second of November 1889, during the celebration of the 
fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Diocese of Tor- 
onto. Erected at a cost of $35,000, it was of white brick with 
stone trim in harmony with the older part of the building. 
It comprised sixty-five rooms for students and included 
quarters for the Dean, the Bursar, and several professors, 
with a reading room and physical and chemical laboratories 
for the proposed new science department, and a dressing 
room for the athletes. Besides these improvements, nearly 
$20,000 was expended on much-needed repairs and additions 
to the older part of the College. 

On the fifteenth of June 1894 the corner-stone of the new 
cast wing was laid by the Governor-General, His Excellency 
the Earl of Aberdeen, in the presence of a distinguished 
assemblage. It was designed to provide twenty additional 
rooms for resident students and a well-equipped gymnasium 
in the basement at a total outlay of $20,000. 



This occasion was the last public event in which Doctor 
Body took part as Provost. Three months previously he had 
submitted his resignation to take effect on the thirtieth of 
September 1894, in order to become Professor of Old Testa- 
ment Literature and Interpretation in the General Theologi- 
cal Seminary, New York. 

Throughout Provost Body's regime the revenues of the 
College steadily increased with the expenditures keeping 
pace. For 1881-82 the receipts were $20,675 (including student 
fees of $6,860); the expenditures $20,332 inclusive of $9,000 
for salaries. In the Provost's last year, 1893-94, the receipts 
had increased to $28,594 (fees $11,700) and expenses 
amounted to $20,546 (salaries $14,150). The ,first-year en- 
rolment increased proportionately, from an average of ten 
students annually for the decade 1871 to 1880, to an average 
of twenty- two yearly from 1881 to 1890. When the Provost 
came to Trinity in 1881, it was to a small College teaching 
Arts and Divinity; he left it, in 1894, a well-equipped Univer- 
sity adequate for the needs of the community it served. Dr. 
Body died on the twentieth of September 1912. 

That Provost Body undoubtedly exercised a markedly 
beneficial and permanent effect upon the history of Trinity 
is evidenced by the tribute paid to him by one who was 
associated with him as Professor of Divinity for three years: 

Dr. Body gave himself to Trinity in complete and wholehearted 
loyalty. Those who were nearest to him know that the true welfare of 
Trinity was to Dr. Body not less than a personal and absorbing en- 
thusiasm. In giving himself he brought to the leadership and direction 
of the College a high ideal of comprehensive and exact scholarship, a 
quick perception of opportunities and responsibilities that were ours, 
and a spirit of courage and singular hopefulness in the face of grave and 
constant difficulties which must beset and attend all true development 
in the world as we experience it. Bishop Strachan once said "In Trinity 
College I trust the Bible will ever occupy its true place as containing 
the whole revelation of God, the source of all our hopes and the safe 
foundation of all our teaching." No sentence could describe more ac- 
curately the source and inspiration of the second Provost's influence. 19 

"Reverend J. Charles Roper, D.D., in The Review, June 1902. 





efore a successor to Dr. Body was appointed, a 
full year elapsed. In the meantime Professor 
William Jones was appointed acting Provost and 
Vice-Chancellor. In April 1895, the position was 
offered to the Reverend F. Wallis, M.A., of Caius College, 
Cambridge, and was being favourably considered when he 
was elected Bishop of Wellington, New Zealand. The Bishop 
of Ontario, Dr. Travers Lewis, was then asked to communi- 
cate with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Edward White 
Benson, and the Bishop of Durham, Dr. Brooke Foss West- 
cott, in an effort to procure a Provost. Their joint recom- 
mendation resulted in the appointment of the Reverend 
Edward Ashurst Welch, Vicar of the Church of the Venerable 
Bede at Gateshead-on-Tyne, and formerly Chaplain to the 
late Bishop of Durham, Dr. Joseph B. Lightfoot. Dr. Welch 
was a distinguished graduate of King's College School, 
London, and of King's College, Cambridge. He gained a 
first Classical Tripos in 1882, a second Theological Tripos 
in 1883, and was graduated M.A. 1885. The Provost took 
office on the first day of October, 1895, and was installed 
at a meeting of Convocation the following December, when 
the degree of D.C.L. {honoris causa) was conferred upon 
him. 1 

During the preceding year several changes had taken place. 
Dr. Jones, on being appointed Bursar and Secretary to the 

2 The University of Bishop's College, Lennoxville, conferred on Provost Welch the 
degree of D.D. in 1900 and the University of Toronto that of LL.D. in 1909. 



Corporation — he had been Registrar since 1875 — resigned as 
Professor of Mathematics, a position he filled with con- 
spicuous ability for thirty-two years. To fill this vacancy 
Michael Alexander Mackenzie, '87, a distinguished graduate 
of the College and scholar at Selwyn College, Cambridge, 
where he had been Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos, 
was appointed on October 1, 1895. Other additions to the 
staff were Professor Henry Montgomery to the Natural 
Science Department, and Walter Henry White, '90 (in his 
student days a holder of the Strachan, the Burnside, and the 
Jubilee Scholarships and the Prince of Wales Prize) to be 
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, a position he held until 
October 1899. 

Coming to this country from parochial work in a busy 
parish, the new Provost, for that reason as well as for his 
academic standing, was eminently fitted to undertake the 
duties of Dean of Divinity. Fortunately his work was con- 
siderably lightened by his having an able Dean of Residence, 
Professor Oswald Rigby, who had been appointed Professor 
of History in 1891 and Dean the following year. It had long 
been realized, even before Provost Body's time, that the 
dual position imposed duties and responsibilities too great for 
one man; but the financial problems of Trinity University 
were still such as not to warrant the division of the office. 
The depression of the nineties, partially the result of a land 
boom in the late eighties, was one of the worst this country, 
and particularly Toronto, had ever experienced. This fiscal 
stringency was soon reflected in the falling off in attendance, 
the average annual number of matriculants for the period 
1895-99 being eighteen, the smallest in many years. Further- 
more, the mismanagement of the finances of the College by 
a former official and the serious diminution in the revenue 
from investments aggravated the existing financial difficul- 
ties. The annual deficit in the budget, which had been 



$3,400 in the fiscal year 1894-95, increased to about $11,000 
per annum in the year 1899-1900. 

The (Tue^jion of federation with the University of Toronto, 
although looked upon with disfavour by the majority of 
graduates and supporters of Trinity, was again to the fore. 
It was not a new thing. It had been suggested on several 
occasions, as has been referred to in a previous chapter. 2 But 
the unfavourable financial situation brought about the crisis 
which impelled serious consideration of the whole matter. At 
the beginning of his Provostship Dr. Welch was a determined 
opponent of any thought of federation. He held no narrow 
view of the University in its relation to the Church, but re- 
garded Trinity as the University of the whole Church of 
England in Canada. After two years he became convinced 
that if Trinity was to fulfil the purpose of its Founder and be 
in fact, as well as in name, the College of the Church of 
England in Canada, the policy of federation had much to 
commend it. He was led to this opinion when he discovered 
that actually there were more members of the Church in the 
University of Toronto than in Trinity College and was con- 
vinced that if John Strachan had lived under present condi- 
tions, federation was the policy he himself would have chosen 
to -follow. But the terms proposed by the Government up to 
that time had been considered impossible of acceptance by 
Trinity, one obstacle being the basis of compensation for the 
College site and buildings, and the providing of a new site in 
Queen's Park. 

As has been pointed out, Dr. Welch's regime was a period 
of acute financial distress. But, instead of succumbing to the 

'Chapter v. University Federation had been mooted as early as 1874 in a pamphlet 
entitled University Consolidation, a collection of speeches made at a College meeting 
in Toronto. It was discussed in an editorial in Rouge et Noir in 1885 (vol. VI, no. 1) 
and even at that date the idea had been met with favour by the students although not 
unanimously by the graduates. Then in 1894 the Reverend Herbert Symonds, '86, 
wrote a strong pamphlet in favour of supporting federation. 



general depression, "the faithful few" carried on the work 
with undaunted courage and resolute purpose. The Literary 
Institute, dating from the Cobourg days before Trinity, 3 
was active and produced good debates on live subjects. A 
dramatic club, in Iwhich a future Provost, "Duke" Seager, 
was not only a competent manager, but also proved to be of 
unsuspected histrionic ability, had in six years achieved 
considerable success. Further interest in the College was 
stimulated by a new rule of Convocation whereby all 
Bachelors of Arts became eligible as full members of Con- 

The public lectures, begun by Professor William Clark in 
1886 and held in Convocation Hall, continued to be among 
the intellectual and social events of College life. They were 
given on Saturday afternoons early in the Lent Term upon 
subjects of general interest such as Kingsley's Water Babies, 
the life and work of Cowper and Carlyle, these given by Pro- 
fessor Clark; Robert Burns, by Principal Grant of Queen's 
University; Shakespeare and his influence on the English 
language, by the Reverend Canon Norman, Vice-Chancellor 
of Bishop's College; "Heathen Virtues and Theories of Life," 
by Professor Maurice Hutton of University College; and 
the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Reformation, 
by the Bishop of Western New York, the Right Reverend A. 
Cleveland Coxe. 

Over the years the extent and scope of these lectures in- 
creased and, in addition to the course in the College, lectures 
were given to alumni associations which had been formed in 
many cities and towns in the Province. During the session of 
1897-98 fifty lectures were given in centres such as Bowman- 
ville, Port Hope, Brockville, Prescott, and Stratford. Four- 
teen of these centres had been visited by the Provost. 

3 The Literary Institute originated in the Debating Society formed at the Diocesan 
Institution at Cobourg in the forties, which continued at Trinity College when that 
Institution became the Faculty of Divinity in 1852. In 1854 the name of the Debating 
Society was changed to the Trinity College Literary Institute. 



Such widely diverse themes as Archbishop Laud, Cam- 
bridge, and George Eliot by the Provost; Oliver Goldsmith 
and Richard Brinsley Sheridan by Dean Rigby; the poetry of 
Browning and Tennyson, and Christian unity by the Rever- 
end Herbert Symonds; Kipling and Sir John Mandeville by 
Professor Michael Mackenzie; and architecture, star-gazing, 
and Christian Socialism by the Reverend Charles H. Shortt 
provided subjects for some of the most popular lectures. 
According to the newspaper reports of the time these lectures 
were largely attended by members of the College and the 
public in general, Convocation Hall frequently being crowd- 
ed to the doors. 

The first issue of the Trinity University Year Book, under 
the editorship of Professor Michael A. Mackenzie and Pro- 
fessor A. H. Young, appeared about this time. A most use- 
ful compendium of information regarding the University, its 
graduates, its past and present officers, its scholarships and 
prize winners, and the College societies, the Year Book's 
discontinuance in 1928 was a loss alike to the University, its 
graduates, and its friends. 

Important events during Provost Welch's regime included 
the gift of a handsomely carved Bishop's Chair by the 
Reverend Dr. William Jones in memory of his brother Major 
Charles Jones, 4 of the Royal Artillery; the installation of 
brass tablets beneath the chancel windows in memory of the 
Founder and the first Chancellor; the presentation of a 
Litany Desk in memory of the Reverend Ogden Pulteney 
Ford, '68, Lecturer in Classics 1871-73; and of a tablet in 
memory of Algernon Boys, M.A., Professor of Classics 
1878-90. 5 

The unveiling of a portrait of the Honourable George 

4 Charles Jones (1 840-1 896), son of Mr. Justice Jones, was the winner of the Welling- 
ton Scholarship in 1858, but joined the British Army before completing his Arts 
course. He died while on active service in Algiers. 

'Professor Boys bequeathed his classical library, "1,000 volumes beautifully 
bound," to the College. _^- 



William Allan, Chancellor 1877-1901, by Mr. (later Sir) 
Wyly Grier, R.C.A., D.C.L., in January 1897, and the open- 
ing of the St. Hilda's College building which had been 
erected from the designs of Mr. Eden Smith on the College 
grounds in 1899, were also milestones in the history of 

Some men in attendance during this period were later to 
bring honour to the College and distinction to themselves: 

Charles Allen Seager (1872-1948), '95, M.A. '96, D.D. 
'14; LL.D. Toronto 1922, Western 1933; Provost, Trinity 
College, 1921-26; elected Bishop of Ontario 1926, Bishop of 
Huron 1932, Archbishop 1943. 

Harold McCausland, '00, M.A. '09; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
First World War, served in France and Siberia, M.C.; 
Rector of Trinity Church, Bay City, Mich. 
Lewis Wilmot Bovell Broughall, '97, M.A. '99, D.D. 
'26; Dean of Niagara, and Bishop 1933-49. 
Thomas Henderson Wood, '96, M.A. '98; eminent business 
man and a generous benefactor of the College. 
Henry Crawford Griffith, '99, M.A. '02, LL.D. Toronto; 
Lecturer and Professor of French 1907-11; master and head- 
master, Ridley College, 1911-49. 
Harold Struan Muckleston, '99, M.D. McGill 1905. 
Temple Stannage Boyle, '98, M.A. '01; D.D. '10, Mont- 
real Theological College 1911; D.C.L. King's, N.S., 1923; 
Dean of Divinity, Trinity College, 1912-16. 
Gerard Brakenridge Strathy, '00, M.A. '02, K.C.; 
Strachan Scholar 1897, Wellington Scholar 1898-99; member 
and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the College. 
Derwyn Trevor Owen (1876-1947), Divinity '01; D.D. '16, 
Wycliffe 1931; D.C.L. Bishop's 1928; Dean of Niagara 1914, 
Bishop 1925; Bishop of Toronto 1932; Archbishop and Pri- 
mate 1934-47. 

William James Brain (1876-1931), '98, M.A. '01; Canon, 
Diocese of Toronto; founder of the mission of Wychwood, 
now the populous parish of St. Michael and All Angels, 



Eric Trevor Owen (1880-1948), '03, M.A. '04; Fellow, 
Lecturer in Classics 1903-12; Professor of Greek, Trinity 
College, 1912-23, University of Toronto, 1923-48. 
Arthur Reading Kelley, '03, M.A. '04; Rector, St. 
Matthew's Church, Quebec; Canon of the Cathedral and 
Archivist of the Diocese of Quebec. 6 

Reginald V.Harris, '02; Wellington Scholarship and Prince 
of Wales Prize; D.C.L. Bishop's 1923; Chancellor, Diocese 
of Nova Scotia, since 1922; delegate to Diocesan Synod since 
1904, to Provincial Synod since 1923; delegate to General 
Synod since 1915, and elected deputy-Prolocutor and Pro- 
locutor of the Lower House; Registrar of the General Synod; 
Prothonotary of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia. 

During the same period, several graduates who had at- 
tained distinction and brought honour to the University 
passed to their reward. In 1895 the Reverend Henry William 
Davies died at the age of sixty-one. From Cornwall Grammar 
School he entered Trinity College on the opening day, was 
the first Burnside Scholar, 1854, B.A. '55, B.D. '65; he was 
the first graduate of Trinity to obtain the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity by examination (1870). Subsequently he was 
headmaster of Cornwall Grammar School, and master and 
headmaster of the Toronto Normal School 1866-84. A noted 
educationist and equally eminent as a Churchman, he was a 
warm supporter of Trinity College and its teaching and 
served on Corporation from 1881 to 1890. For a few months 
before his death he was Bursar of the College and Secretary 
to the Corporation. He was a nephew of Mrs. Guy Car- 
leton Wood, sister-in-law of Mrs. John Strachan, the 
Bishop's wife. 

A greatly distinguished son of Trinity was Archibald 

6 Arthur Reading Kelley had a remarkable career as an undergraduate. Entering 
College with the Bishop Strachan Scholarship and the S.P.G. Jubilee Scholarship, he 
won, during his Divinity course, the Divinity prizes, the Osier prize for reading, the 
general proficiency prize, and the prizes for New Testament Greek and Church 
History and the Hamilton Memorial for honours in Theology. He was president of 
the Lit. in 1903, editor of The Review, and scribe of Episkopon in 1905. 



Lampman, a graduate of the year 1882, whose poetry 
brought to Canadian letters a wide distinction. Lampman 
came up from Trinity College School where he headed his 
class and had won the Wellington Scholarship. Fortune con- 
tinued to favour him for he was graduated with honours. 
He might indeed have made a better showing than he did 
had he not shared the belief of Sir Walter Raleigh of Oxford 
that there were things to be had at a university no less 
worthy than academic prizes. Much of his time, and not 
always his leisure, as an undergraduate he spent in general 
reading and in writing for the College magazine, Rouge et 
Noir y of which he was editor in his final year, and in contri- 
butions to The Week. He was also Scribe of the two books of 
Episkopon for the years 1881 and 1882, when having 
"shaken the tiger's paw," he doffed cap and gown to try his 
fortune in the world outside. 

His first published volume, Among the Millet and Other 
Poems (1888), earned for him the warm praise of the review- 
ers and the respect and admiration of his contemporaries. 
Five years later Copeland and Day of Boston issued his 
second book, Lyrics of Earthy a collection of poems following 
the sequence of the seasons. Lampman's work was already 
known in Canada through its appearance in The Week> 
edited by Charles G. D. Roberts, Arcadia, and the Canadian 
Illustrated News; and in the United States through the 
medium of Harper's, Scribner's> and the Atlantic Monthly. A 
definitive edition of Lampman's poetry was published the 
year following his death, with a memoir by Duncan Camp- 
bell Scott. Both his friends Scott and William Wilfred 
Campbell were associated with him in the early nineties in 
the writing of a Saturday column for the Globe called "At 
the Mermaid Inn," inspired by tales of the Mermaid tavern 
in Shakespeare's London. The story of this unconventional 
collaboration is well told by Dr. Carl Y. Connor in his 
critical appraisal of the poet and his work published in 




/A> h>~^-r-l 7j <r ^ r J^^^-^-y / *-*^*->w <sAc^L( o^cjc ~Za< Z^F&l 

From the original manuscript of Archibald Lampman, in the possession of Trinity College. 


1929. 7 Lampman, not unlike his favourite Keats, died in the 
pride of his young years on the tenth of February 1899, aged 
thirty-seven. A medallion, executed by his friend the sculptor 
Dr. Tait McKenzie in 1903, formerly on the south wall of the 
Chapel in the Old Trinity College on Queen Street, com- 
memorates the poet in a corresponding place in the tempo- 
rary chapel of the new Trinity in Queen's Park. A more 
signal and public mark of esteem was accorded him when he 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. A 
natural boulder, inscribed with his name, dates of birth and 
death, marks his last resting place in Beechwood Cemetery, 
Ottawa. Only now is Archibald Lampman beginning to 
receive among Canadians the honour and recognition which 
his genius merits. 8 

In January 1900, Dr. E. A. Welch resigned as Provost. His 
withdrawal happened at a critical time for the College. The 
finances were at a low ebb and already serious consideration 
had been given to drastic economies, both by the reduction of 
the staff and their salaries and by the rental of vacant rooms 
in the College to outsiders to supplement its inadequate 

Although Provost Welch had done heroic work in his 
position, there is no question that his heart lay in parish 
work. On the death in 1899 of the Right Reverend Bishop 
Sullivan, D.D., Rector of St. James' Cathedral since 1896, 
Provost Welch, then in his thirty-ninth year, and with a 
wealth of experience and a broad conception of the needs of 
the Church, was a logical choice as his successor. His resig- 
nation as Provost, tendered to the Corporation on the eight- 
eenth of January, took effect on the first of February 1900. 
It was accepted with profound regret and with keen ap- 

7 Carl Y. Connor: Archibald Lampman, Canadian Poet of Nature (Montreal, 1929). 

8 A sympathetic appraisal of Lampman's poetry by Norman McGregor Guthrie 
was printed, unfortunately in a limited edition, by Musson in 1927. It may be read 
with pleasure and profit by student and general reader alike. 



preciation of his five years of valuable and self-denying 
labours as Provost. 

When, ten years later, Dr. Welch was invited to become 
Vicar of Wakefield, the loss to the community as well as to 
the Church was deeply felt. He had been keenly interested 
in many extra-parochial activities, such as the Victorian 
Order of Nurses, the Associated Charities, the Burial Re- 
form Association, the Moral and Social Reform Council, the 
St. George's Society, and the Toronto Humane Society. He 
was also actively associated with the University of Toronto 
as a member of the Senate. "When he goes," said the Globe, 
"he will carry with him the esteem and confidence not only 
of his Church, but of all who take an interest in the things 
that make for peace and purity and nobleness of life. ,>9 

Dr. Welch was regarded as a great scholar and theologian 
by all who came in direct contact with him. He had all the 
attendant grace and charm of an English university man, 
and a true grasp of university ideals from the British stand- 
point Jkit New World methods such as public relations and 
publicity were contrary to his modest nature, his thought, 
and his vocabulary. A real grief to him was the indifference 
to Trinity and its advantages of Church of England people, 
many of whom sent their sons to the University of Toronto 
because of the better facilities in the natural sciences. As a 
profound believer in the great advantages of life in residence 
this was something he could not understand. 

But the falling registration, which reached its lowest ebb 
in history in 1899, concerned him but little; his duty lay 
solely with the student body and particularly the Divinity 
men with whom he maintained a close personal relationship. 
He found it difficult, however, to adapt himself to certain 
phases of Canadian life and this did not enhance his popular- 
ity with the men; and yet, his apparent austerity concealed 

9 Dr. Welch died at Southend-on-Sea, Essex, on August 6, 1932, at the age of 



a real kindness of heart and a sympathetic disposition. And, 
as many of his former students testify, it was a privilege to 
study under his guidance, for he was a man of high ideals and 
expected the same from his students. 

The appointment of a Provost to succeed Dr. Welch came 
at a time when it was necessary to review the problems which 
confronted the College as well as to decide on some definite 
policy for the future. In looking for a suitable appointee the 
Corporation decided at the outset that the person selected 
should be a Canadian and might be either a priest or a layman 
of the Church of England. Among those considered for the 
position were the Reverend R. H. Starr, B.A. Victoria 1864, 
B.D. '82, D.D. '87, Professor in the University of the South 
at Sewanee, Tenn.; the Reverend John Langtry, '54, D.C.L. 
{honoris causa) , '92; and the Reverend Herbert Symonds, 
'86, Professor of Divinity 1889-92. Finally the unanimous 
choice fell upon the Reverend Thomas Clark Street Mack- 
lem, M.A. Cantab., of Toronto. 10 Born in Canada of United 
Empire Loyalist stock and educated at Upper Canada Col- 
lege and St. John's College, Cambridge, his entire ministry 
had been in the Canadian Church. For two years he had 
been Curate at All Saints', Toronto, and, since 1888, Rector 
of St. Simon's Church. The Toronto Globe described him as a 
man of tact, with an aptitude for finance, possessing decision 
of character, statesmanship, and ability to lead. 

Before coming to a decision Mr. Macklem submitted to 
the Corporation a brief setting forth his views upon the 
general policy which he believed the University of Trinity 
College should follow and which he made a condition of his 

At a special meeting called by Corporation, the views of 
the Provost-elect were submitted. They were almost un- 

10 Thomas Clark Street Macklem (1862-1944); deacon 1885, priest 1886; B.A. 
Cantab. 1887, M.A. 1896; D.D. {honoris causa) '01; LL.D. New Brunswick 1900, 
Toronto, 1904; D.C.L. Bishop's 1903; Provost and Vice-Chancellor, Trinity College, 



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animously endorsed, and a resolution was passed pledging 
the hearty support of the Corporation in his endeavour to 
give effect to them. Mr. Macklem thereupon accepted the 
Provostship and entered upon his duties on the first day of 
May, 1900, at the same time taking up his residence in the 
College. On the eighteenth of the same month he was formal- 
ly installed Vice-Chancellor of the University. 

At the meeting of Corporation on the ninth of May two 
important measures were carried. One was the appointment 
of a Commission of three empowered to confer and complete 
negotiations with the Provincial Government and the Uni- 
versity of Toronto looking to ultimate federation. For a 
time the negotiations seemed to progress rapidly but strong 
opposition blocked them for the time being. 11 The other was 
the constitution of a new Board of Endowment and Fin- 
ances for Trinity University composed of men prominent in 
the business and financial world, which would endeavour to 
raise funds for a large supplementary endowment for the 
College, and enable Trinity to take that prominent place in 
the Federation which it was felt the representative College 
of the Church of England should occupy. 

The Board of Endowment and Finances, to be an aux- 
iliary of the Corporation, was a strong one and was to take 
in hand the entire management, investment, and control of 
all new funds raised for the proposed endowment. The new 
Board consisted of Mr. (later Sir) Edmund B. Osier, M.P., 
Mr. W. R. Brock, M.P., Mr. Joseph E. Seagram, M.P., 
James Henderson, Esq., D.C.L., Colonel (later Sir) Henry 
M. Pellatt, and the Provost; a year and a half later it was 
strengthened by the addition of Mr. (later Sir) William Mac- 
kenzie and Mr. Frederic Nicholls. It was the object of the 
Board to appeal for the sum of $500,000, subscriptions to be 
conditional upon not less than $250,000 being subscribed 
by the thirty-first of December 1903. At the annual meeting 

n See infra, p. 125. 



of Corporation in October it was announced that $60,000 of 
this amount had been subscribed by the members of the 

The year 1900-01 showed marked progress, and many 
changes. The death of the Chancellor, the Honourable 
George William Allan, D.C.L., on the twenty-fourth of July 
1901, caused general sorrow and regret especially among 
those connected with Trinity who knew of his deep and 
abiding interest in the welfare of the College. 12 

The Reverend E. W. Huntingford, M.A., Professor of 
Classics since 1891, resigned his chair at Christmas 1899 and 
returned to England; the Reverend Edward C. Cayley's 
appointment to the rectory of St. Simon's Church in succes- 
sion to the Provost, and that of the Reverend Gilbert F. 
Davidson 13 to St. George's Church, Guelph, made two vacan- 
cies in the Faculty of Divinity. As Professor of Classics, G. 
Oswald Smith, M.A. of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and 
more recently on the staff of Bishop's University, Lennox- 
ville, was appointed in January 1901 to succeed Professor 
Huntingford. The vacancies in the Divinity staff were filled 
by the Reverend Arthur W. Jenks, M.A., B.D., of the 
General Theological Seminary, New York, and the Reverend 
H. T. F. Duckworth, M.A., of Merton College, Oxford. 

The improvement in the finances of the College made pos- 
sible the foundation of a Professorship in English, and two 
Fellowships in Philosophy and English. To the former was 
appointed the Reverend William Clark, D.D., D.C.L., whose 
name stood in the very forefront of English scholarship in 
England, Canada, and the United States. Dr. Clark retained 

12 George William Allan (1822-1901), D.C.L., F.R.G.S.; educated at Upper Canada 
College; called to the Bar 1846; Alderman and Mayor of Toronto 1855; M.L.C. 
1858-67; Senator, Dominion of Canada, 1867-1901 (Speaker 1888-91); Chancellor, 
Trinity University, 1877-1901; Privy Councillor 1891. In 1897 the graduates and 
undergraduates presented to Trinity University his portrait by E. Wyly Grier, in 
recognition of his forty-five years of service to the University. 

"Fellow in Divinity 1899. 



the chair of Philosophy, which he had filled since his coming 
to Trinity in 1883, and had as his assistant in English Herbert 
Clayton Simpson, M.A., of Magdalen College, Oxford, who 
had been lecturer in Chemistry and Physics since 1896. 
These new appointments relieved from extra duties Dean 
Rigby and Professor Archibald Hope Young, who, with the 
assistance of Professor Cayley, the Reverend H. H. Bedford- 
Jones, and the Reverend W. H. White, had undertaken the 
work in pass and honour English gratuitously for the further- 
ance of the College's interests during the lean years. 

To the new Fellowship in Philosophy the Corporation 
appointed the Reverend Edward Ley King, an honour 
graduate of the University of Manitoba. In 1903 he became 
Lecturer in Divinity, a position he held until 1905, when he 
was appointed Vicar of St. Thomas' Church, Toronto. 

At a special convocation held on the fifth of December 
1901, the degree of Doctor of Divinity, jure dignitatis^ was 
conferred on the Bishop-elect of the Philippine Islands, 
Charles Henry Brent, '84, already one of Trinity's most dis- 
tinguished graduates. A brilliant scholar in classics through- 
out his college course and a man of saintly character, he was 
a recognized leader in the American Church, and held eleven 
honorary degrees in addition to that of his Alma Mater. He 
later declined the Bishoprics of Washington, D.C., and of 
New Jersey. He served as chairman on committees for the 
Philippine and the American Governments appointed for the 
suppression of the opium traffic. During the First World 
War he was Chief of Chaplain Services for the American 
Expeditionary Force, and in 1918 was elected Bishop of 
Western New York. In 1927 he was appointed President of 
the World Conference on Faith and Order. He died suddenly 
while on vacation in Lausanne, Switzerland, on the twenty- 
sixth of March 1929, at the age of sixty-seven. The Bishop's 
death caused universal sorrow in Europe where, in peace and 



war, at Geneva and Stockholm, at Lausanne and on the 
battle fields of France, his Christ-like spirit was so potent an 
influence and an example to all Christians. 

In 1902, the fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the 
College was celebrated with enthusiasm and appropriate 
ceremonies. The first event to mark the Jubilee year was the 
installation of the fourth Chancellor in Convocation Hall on 
the evening of the fifteenth of January, the actual date of the 
opening of the College in 1852. It was appropriate that the 
new Chancellor should be a distinguished son of the first 
occupant of that office. Mr. Christopher Robinson, K.C., 
was, like his father, the most eminent Canadian jurist of his 
day and had always been closely identified with Trinity and 
her interests. 14 At his installation as Chancellor, there was 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil 
Law before a brilliant assemblage, the Reverend Professor 
Clark acting as Vice-Chancellor. The Chancellors of the 
University of Toronto, Victoria University, McMaster Uni- 
versity, the Minister of Education for Ontario, Messrs. E. B. 
Osier, M.P., J.P. Whitney, K.C., later Premier of Ontario, 
H. M. Pellatt, and Dr. J. A. Worrell, K.C., were present and 
delivered congratulatory addresses suited to the occasion. 

The Jubilee programme was arranged for the twenty-third, 
twenty-fourth, and twenty-fifth days of June 1902; to it 
friends and benefactors of the University were invited, 
together with former graduates, and representatives of all 
sister universities in Ontario and of universities of the 
Church of England throughout the Dominion. On the Sun- 
day preceding, the clergy throughout Ontario were asked to 
preach sermons on religious education with special reference 
to Trinity College. Each day of the proceedings commenced 

"Christopher Robinson (1828-1905), third son of the Honourable Sir John Beverley 
Robinson, Bt.; educated at Upper Canada College and King's College, Toronto (B.A. 
1846); M.A. '53, D.C.L. '02; took an active part in Federation negotiations; died on 
the eve of All Saints' Day, October 31, 1905. He was an acknowledged leader of the 
Bar, but always declined high preferments including knighthood. 



with a celebration of Holy Communion in the College 

At 1.45 on the Monday the University luncheon took 
place in Convocation Hall with a large gathering of invited 
guests. The toast list was a short one: The King, Trinity, and 
the Sister Universities. Immediately afterwards the guests 
adjourned to the natural amphitheatre in front of the Pro- 
vost's Lodge to witness the performance of The Frogs of 
Aristophanes by the students and staff of the College. It was 
directed by the Professor of Classics, G. Oswald Smith, with 
a well-trained chorus which sang effectively the admirable 
and beautiful incidental music composed by the Reverend 
G. F. Davidson, '95, and Professor Arthur W. Jenks, and 
altogether justified the many months of hard work on the 
part of the performers. 

The cast included members of the staff, graduates, and 
undergraduates. The leading parts were taken by Eric T. 
Owen, '03, as Dionysus, Patron Deity; H. F. D. Woodcock, 
'02, as Xanthias, his slave; A. R. Kelley, '03, as iEacus, 
judge of the lower world. To Allan E. Taylor, '02, was 
assigned the part of Pluto, but of this more presently. F. G. 
Allen and W. S. Greening combined to form one of the most 
remarkable donkeys ever perpetrated on the Canadian stage. 
Allen portrayed the head, Greening the nether extremity. 
They gave Xanthias a most uncomfortable ride. Among 
others in the large cast were Professor H. T. F. Duckworth; 
the Reverend R. B. Nevitt, '00; J. D. Dunfield, '02; E. M. 
Sait, '02; W. E. Kidd, '02; F. N. Creighton, '03; C. C. 
Robinson, '04; and Lloyd C. A. Hodgins, '04. 

The dramatic critic on the Globe was evidently impressed 
with the performance and wrote as follows: 

The Frogs of Aristophanes presented a very considerable amount of 
amusing action and the business of the actors was very clever so that 
their work, aided by the witty translation of Professor E. W. Hunting- 
ford, proved not only intelligible but extremely amusing to the audi- 



ence. The open air scene, the naive and ingenuous simplicity of the 
stage setting, the vivacity of the action, the beauty of the Greek 
costumes, the fine musical effect of the choruses combined to make the 
experiment a triumphant success. 15 

An unexpected summons to several of the soldier students 
on account of the street railway strike caused some confusion 
on the day of the play. At the last minute Professor Michael 
A. Mackenzie was pressed into service to take the place of 
Taylor, one of the military officers called out. At one point, 
forgetting his lines, he had the presence of mind to repeat, 
to the amusement of the cast, a verse of Me? Agona, which, 
he often said, was the only Greek he remembered. 

The annual meeting of the St. Hilda's College Alumnae 
Association and an informal reception for the members of the 
staff and the men of Trinity in the evening, at which the 
Reverend Dr. Body, the founder of St. Hilda's, was present, 
concluded the proceedings of the first day. 

A cricket match, a garden party (partly marred by a 
heavy downpour of rain), and a reunion of the men graduates 
on Tuesday imparted to the College halls and grounds a gay 
and festive atmosphere. 

On the Wednesday a special Convocation was held for 
conferring the M.A. degrees and the honorary degrees of 
D.C.L. and D.D. These included, for the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity, jure dignitatis: the Very Reverend Lewis Evans, 
'66> Dean of Montreal; the Very Reverend Frank Vernon, 
'93, Dean of Portland, Maine. For the degree of Doctor of 
Civil Law, honoris causa, were presented the following re- 
presentatives of the six Dioceses of the Church of England 
in Ontario: the Venerable Thomas Llwyd, Archdeacon of 
Algoma; the Reverend Garland Crawford Mackenzie, Rural 
Dean of Brant (Diocese of Huron); the Very Reverend 
Stewart Houston, '57, Dean of Niagara; the Venerable 
Clarendon Lamb Worrell, 73, Archdeacon of Ontario; the 

™Globe y June 24, 1902. 



Venerable James John Bogert, '55, Archdeacon of Ottawa; 
the Venerable Thomas William Allen, '61, Archdeacon of 
Peterborough; the Venerable Samuel Johnson Boddy, Arch- 
deacon of York. For the same degree, in recognition of dis- 
tinguished service in the cause of Education, the following 
were presented: the Honourable Richard Harcourt, M.A., 
Minister of Education for Ontario; William Osier, Esq., 
M.D., F.R.C.P., Physician-in-Chief, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, Baltimore, Maryland; the Reverend John Ormsby 
Miller, M.A., Principal of Ridley College, St. Catharines, 
Ontario; James Bain, Esq., M.A., Chief Librarian, Toronto 
Public Library; the Reverend James Pounder Whitney, M.A., 
D.C.L., Principal of Bishop's College, Lennoxville, Quebec. 
The following distinguished Canadians also received this 
degree: the Honourable Sir Oliver Mowat, G.C.M.G., Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Ontario; the Honourable Sir John Boyd, 
K.C.M.G., Chancellor of Ontario; the Honourable Mr. 
Justice Irving, Victoria, B.C.; His Honour Judge Senkler, 
Perth, Ontario; James Pliny Whitney, K.C., M.P.P., Morris- 
burg, Ontario; Edward Douglas Armour, Esq., K.C., 
Toronto. The degree of Doctor of Music, honoris causa, was 
conferred on J. Humfrey Anger, Mus. Bac. Oxon., of Toronto, 
and that of Master of Arts, honoris causa, on the Reverend 
Francis W. C. Kennedy, of Japan. Replies on behalf of the 
several groups were made by the Very Reverend Dean Hous- 
ston, the Honourable Richard Harcourt, Dr. (later Sir) 
William Osier, J. P. Whitney, Esq., and Dr. J. Humfrey 

The celebration closed with a service of Thanksgiving in 
St. James' Cathedral on the Wednesday evening with a 
sermon by the Right Reverend John Philip DuMoulin, 
Lord Bishop of Niagara, on the importance of knowledge 
and the relation of religion thereto. 

The end of the fiftieth year of the College showed that in 
that period there had been granted 3,178 degrees in course, 



as follows: Arts 943, Medicine 1,767, Law 178, Music 182, 
Divinity 56, Dentistry 49, Pharmacy 3. 

The negotiations looking towards federation with the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, which had been blocked by the Univer- 
sity Act of 1901, did not in any way deter the Provost and 
the Corporation from continuing their efforts in this, one of 
the main conditions contingent upon Dr. Macklem's accept- 
ance of the Provostship in 1900. It might be well at this 
point to review the situation. 

Within a week after Dr. Macklem's appointment as 
Provost in May 1900 the Corporation passed a resolution 
authorizing negotiations with the Provincial Government to 
consider federation on the following basis: 

1. All Federated Colleges in Arts to stand in the same relation to the 
Provincial University, with the proviso that present undergraduates 
should be allowed to proceed to their degrees under the regulations in 
force at the time of their matriculation. 

2. Each College and Faculty to retain in perpetuity the right to vote 
separately for representatives on the Senate of the University. 

3. Each College and Faculty to agree on Courses of Instruction (on a 
common basis) with the stipulation that University Lectures should be 
delivered (or duplicated) in any federated College when necessary. 

4. In order to enable Trinity as a federated college to move into 
Queen's Park, Trinity College to agree to hand over its present site of 
thirty-one acres and extensive College buildings to the Government, 
in exchange for #400,000 and a suitable site in Queen's Park of suffi- 
cient size for College purposes. 

5. Failing mutual agreement upon these lines alternative proposi- 
tions may be considered. 

The Commission appointed to negotiate with the Govern- 
ment consisted of the Provost, Dr. Macklem, Edward 
Martin, K.C., D.C.L. {honoris causa) '91, Chancellor of the 
Diocese of Niagara, and John Austin Worrell '71, K.C., 
B.C.L. '80, D.C.L. '98, Chairman of the Finance Commit- 
tee of the College and Chancellor of the Diocese of Toronto. 16 

16 Dr. Worrell was to become fourth Chancellor of the University of Trinity College 
in November 1914, a position he held until his death in February 1927. 



In the preliminary discussions with the Premier, the 
Honourable George W. Ross, who had also been Minister of 
Education for Ontario since 1883, the Committee found a 
more friendly and receptive attitude on the part of the 
Government, 17 except in regard to the clause in the resolution 
referring to the purchase by the Government of the site and 
buildings of the College on Queen Street West and the pro- 
viding of a site in Queen's Park. But when the University 
Bill of 1901 came up for discussion in the House, the other 
Colleges and the University of Toronto strongly objected to 
some of the clauses essential to the safeguarding of Trinity's 
interests. Amendments were introduced at the third reading 
that might have led to the undoing of all that Trinity would 
have gained by the Act. One serious obstacle was the proviso 
that while the terms of federation would be binding upon 
Trinity they would not be binding on the University of 
Toronto. So, for the time being the conditions of the bill were 
not entirely acceptable to Trinity. 

After an interval of more than a year negotiations were 
resumed, as provided for in the Act of 1901, this time with 
the'Trustees of the University of Toronto. By the summer of 
1903 the Commission was able to report that, except for a 
few unimportant details which still remained to be discussed, 
an agreement had been reached between the representatives 
of the two Universities which embodied the acceptance of 
every principle for which Trinity had been contending and 
provided for everything which Trinity could reasonably 
expect to gain by the proposed Federation. 

The Commission in its report also referred with apprecia- 
tion to the most courteous consideration with which Trinity's 
representations had been received by, first, the Government, 
and latterly, by the University. This fact was mentioned 
because it seemed to augur well for harmonious co-operation 
in the future. 

17 See chapter v, supra, p. 117. 



The main features of the new agreement gave Trinity 
College the right to provide for its students religious instruc- 
tion and influences in accordance with the teachings of the 
Church of England. It provided that the curriculum in Arts 
of the University should include the subjects of Biblical 
Greek, Biblical Literature, Christian Ethics, Apologetics, 
the Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion, and Church 
History, distributed as evenly as possible over the years of 
the courses, with the examination and instruction in these 
subjects entirely in the hands of the several Colleges as here- 
tofore. Optional subjects were to be provided also for any 
of the above-named courses. 

In the clause of the Act which provided against religious 
tests in the University of Toronto the rights of the federated 
Colleges were secured by the following rider: "Nothing here- 
in contained shall be considered as interfering with the rights 
of any federated University or federated College to make 
such provision in regard to religious instruction and worship 
for its own students as it may deem proper/ ' 

The distinction between College subjects and University 
subjects which had already been inserted in the Act of 1901 
was again stated as follows : College subjects: Theology, Greek, 
Latin, Ancient History, English, French, German, Oriental 
Languages, and Ethics; University subjects: Mathematics, 
Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Mineralogy, Chemistry, Bio- 
logy, Physiology, History, Ethnology, Philology, Italian and 
Spanish, Philosophy, Psychology, Logic, Metaphysics, Edu- 
cation, Political Science, Jurisprudence, Constitutional Law, 
and Constitutional History. 

The advantages to the students of a comparatively small 
College in the larger Federation were obvious. The new 
system provided free access to many expensive courses of 
instruction and to scientific laboratories and museums which 
could only be provided by a smaller institution at immense 



Provision was also made for the duplication of certain 
lectures where the number of students in Trinity College 
warranted it, all costs in this connection to be met by the 
Government; the transfer to the University staff of certain 
professors and other instructors under equitable terms; and 
the provision of a suitable site, free of charge, on or near 
Queen's Park on which to erect a building to serve as a 
centre for Trinity students. 

One_otJierJmpQrtant- amalgamation-— w-as.- provided for, 
namely in the case of Trinity Medical College which, since 
1871, had been in close affiliation with Trinity University 
and had acquired and maintained a high reputation. As a 
first step Trinity Medical College became in fact as well as in 
name the Medical Faculty of Trinity University and the 
College charter was surrendered to Trinity University to be 
held in abeyance as long as the Act of Federation was in 
Torce. All teaching in Medicine was discontinued, provision 
having been made for the amalgamation of the Trinity 
faculty with the Medical Faculty of the University of Tor- 
onto, which union was brought about during the summer of 
1903. The Medical Building was opened on the first of 
October when the inaugural address of the new Faculty of 
Medicine was delivered by a former student of Trinity, 
Professor (later Sir) William Osier, D.C.L. '02, of Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

The report of the Commission on federation was presented 
to the Corporation on the twenty-fifth of June 1903, and 
adopted by that body. At a meeting of the graduates and 
friends of Trinity College held in Convocation Hall on the 
thirtieth of July, the following resolution was moved: 

1. That the policy is in the best interests of our Church University 
and will serve to promote the well-being of Higher Education generally 
in Ontario; 

2. That the position of the Church of England in this Province will be 
strengthened thereby and her highest welfare promoted; 



3. That under the altered conditions of today the purpose and inten- 
tions of the Founder and the original Benefactors of the University of 
Trinity College can be better served and the sacred trust reposed by 
them in the Bishops of the Province and in the University Corporation 
more faithfully fulfilled, by this policy than in any other way. 

This resolution was carried by a vote of 121 to 73. The 
agreement between the University of Toronto and the Uni- 
versity of Trinity College was completed and the seal of the 
College affixed on the first of October 1903. It was pro- 
claimed by the Lieutenant-Governor on the eighteenth of 
November, to come into effect on the first day of October 

It will be noticed that the vote in favour of Feo^ratior£ 
was not unanimous. The nays were thirty-seven per cent of 
those who attended the meeting on the thirtieth of July and 
some of them were men prominent in the Church as well as 
in College affairs. Many of those who voted in favour of 
Federation did so reluctantly, realizing that it seemed the 
only practical way of solving Trinity's many problems. Their 
feeling was well expressed in a letter written to the Provost 
by the Bishop of Toronto, the Right Reverend Arthur 
Sweatman, than whom Trinity never had a better friend. 
Elected to the Bishopric of Toronto in 1879 he, throughout 
his long episcopate of thirty years, attended the meetings 
of the Corporation regularly and presided as chairman. In 
this letter, dated the eighth of July 1903, after deploring the 
suspension of University powers as "a calamitous necessity," 
and referring to "my first great predecessor," the Founder, 
the Bishop went on: 

But it appears to my mind, after reviewing the past history of 
Trinity, that the intentions of the Founder were frustrated and set 
aside before I was called to the Diocese, when the party attacks upon 
the teaching of the College led to the establishment of a rival Church 
of England seminary in Huron College, London, and that this frustra- 
tion was further accomplished by the subsequent establishment of 
WyclifFe College. 



I am convinced too that the divisions in the Church, during the 
period when these two rival institutions were brought into being, are 
largely responsible for that lack of support, financial and otherwise, 
accorded to Trinity University which has reduced it to the position 
which has made federation with the Provincial University a practically 
vital necessity. 

In spite of the favourable terms of the Federation agree- 
ment the "die-hards" did not give up without a struggle, and 
application was made in the High Court of Justice for an 
injunction to restrain the College authorities from complet- 
ing the agreement. The case came up for trial early in the 
autumn but the protesting element failed in their efforts. 
The injunction was dissolved by the Court on the thirtieth 
of September. 

The only serious result of this opposition was its effect on 
the campaign for funds then being carried on by the Board 
of Endowment and Finances. By this action the Board was 
seriously handicapped in its appeal and it was found neces- 
sary to extend the time limit to the thirty-first of December 
1905, in order to secure the desired quarter of a million 
dollars. During the year ending the thirtieth of September 
1904 less than $20,000 had been subscribed, bringing the 
total amount to $158,594 or over $90,000 short of the objec- 

On the other hand, due to the increased number of stu- 
dents the financial position of the College was steadily im- 
proving. The number of matriculants increased from twenty- 
two in October 1900 to fifty-five in 1904, while the total 
registration for 1903-4 was 134, namely, ninety-two in re- 
sidence and forty-two non-residents. The income increased 
in consequence, but the annual expenditures were still con- 
siderably in excess of the receipts to the amount of from five 
to six thousand dollars. This deficiency was met to some 
extent by income derived from the new endowment fund. 
Even so a general rise in the cost of living and necessary 
additions to the staff required continual vigilance over the 



expenditures of the College if Trinity was to come out on the 
right side of the ledger. It was only by a substantial increase 
in the endowment that a sound financial basis could be 
hoped for. 

In September 1904, Canada was honoured by a visit of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, the most Reverend Randall 
Thomas Davidson. The University of Toronto, at a special 
Convocation, conferred upon him the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Laws, for which he was presented to the Chancel- 
lor, Sir William Ralph Meredith, by the Chancellor of 
Trinity University, Dr. Christopher Robinson, K.C. Later 
in the same day the Synod of the Diocese held a reception for 
His Grace at Trinity College. 

The last general Convocation of the University of Trinity 
College for the conferring of degrees in Medicine, Arts, Law, 
and Music was held on the twenty-ninth of September 1904. 
It was a memorable occasion. Forty-one received the M.A. 
degree, thirty-one (including sixteen from St. Hilda's) that 
of Bachelor of Arts; three, B.C.L.; one, D.C.L.; one, M.D.; 
one, Bachelor of Divinity; three, Licentiate of Theology; 
and three, Bachelor of Music. The Chancellor, Christopher 
Robinson, K.C, presided and among the distinguished 
guests were the Right Reverend C. H. Brent, '84, D.D. '01, 
Bishop of the Philippine Islands, and the Reverend E. A. 
Welch, D.D., former Provost. 

Hereafter, as long as Trinity College remained in federa- 
tion with the University of Toronto, she relinquished her 
rights as a University to grant degrees, as heretofore, in Arts, 
Medicine, Law, Music, Pharmacy, and Dentistry, and con- 
fers degrees only in Divinity. There are still some graduates 
who think Trinity in Federation has lost more than she gave. 
Others are certain that the Founder himself would have 
approved of the union of the two Universities founded by 
him, and that in union Trinity will contribute to the corpor- 
ate life of the University the influence of those principles 
upheld by John Strachan. 





he college year 1904-1905 was marked by the 
most significant changes in the history of Trinity; 
it was the first year under Federation, and it was 
the first year when a graduating class, under the 
new dispensation, received its sheepskins from the University 
of Toronto. It was also the fifth year of the fourth Provost, 
Dr. Thomas Clark Street Macklem. 

These were years of transition; the old order was being 
unceremoniously ushered out, and the new order fast becom- 
ing an established fact. The general appearance of the 
grounds and buildings had been greatly improved by new 
walks, a handsome iron fence, and impressive wrought-iron 
entrance gates; the gates, suitably inscribed to the Founder 
in stately Latin, were appropriately dedicated on St. Peter's 
Day. A former private residence with five acres of land, to 
the east of the College, was acquired from the Bickford 
estate to provide urgently needed accommodation for the 
first-year men. An increased enrolment filling residences 
augured well for the future. 

But it was soon realized that the perennial insistent de- 
mand for a balanced budget still had to be met. The loss of 
fees for examinations and degrees in Arts and Medicine on 
the one hand, and mounting expenses, including augmented 
salaries of an enlarged staff, on the other, posed acute and 
perplexing, if not vexatious, problems in College finance — 
problems not to be solved by Federation as some of its more 
enthusiastic proponents had prophesied. 



The change in the curriculum, the additional year added 
to the former three-year course, the shorter annual session 
(examinations early in May instead of late in June), the 
duplication of some lectures, and the travelling to and fro for 
others, sometimes at inconvenient hours for Trinity students, 
created a situation at times well-nigh intolerable. 

Free transportation to Queen's Park was considered at 
first, and the College authorities went so far as to acquire, at 
a cost of $1,707, a piece of land on the south side of Arthur 
(now Dundas) Street to provide a right of way to the rear of 
the College buildings for a possible special street-car or bus 
service. This scheme having proved unworkable, the Univer- 
sity of Toronto provided funds to cover the cost of street-car 
fares for Trinity students obliged to take lectures and attend 
laboratories at the University. 

Through the co-operation of the staff of the two institu- 
tions, many of these grievances were in time removed. But 
the science lectures were not duplicated, and this omission 
added greatly to the inconvenience of the honour students in 
these courses. Moreover, the change from Trinity's three- 
year course in Arts to the University's four years with earlier 
examinations, seriously affected Trinity's athletic traditions 
and particularly cricket games, which had been maintained 
since the foundation of the College. The holding of final 
examinations in May instead of June prevented both cricket 
practice and the arrangement of matches, as well as spring 
training in other sports. 

Viewing the ten-year period from Dr. Macklem's appoint- 
ment as Provost, however, one finds the general picture one 
of increasing vigour and expansion. In the academic year 
beginning in September 1909 the enrolment had increased to 
180: eighty-eight men and sixty-one women in Arts and 
thirty-one men in Divinity. Including thirty-six of the Arts 
men, there were sixty-seven proceeding to Holy Orders. 
Students' fees in the same year amounted to $24,38 5, while 



the salaries of the staff had reached a total of $18,461. The 
over-all expenses of the College, however, resulted in a 
deficit for the year of $12,000, the largest in its history up to 
that time, a sum which could only be met from subscriptions 
raised by Convocation and from the funds collected by the 
Board of Endowment and Finances under the chairmanship 
of Mr. E. B. Osier. 

During this period the staff had been greatly strengthened 
by the appointment of young and vigorous men, many of 
whom made their influence felt in the life and work of the 
College. Among them might be mentioned Harold Victor 
Routh, B.A. Cantab., Lecturer in Classics and German 
1905-7, Professor of Latin 1907-12; George Oswald Smith, 
Professor of Classics from 1901 to 1907, when he joined the 
staff of the University of Toronto; the Reverend H. T. F. 
Duckworth (a master of Greek and Latin), Professor of 
Divinity 1901-7, Lecturer and Professor of Classics 1904-27, 
Dean of Residence 1903-14, Dean of Arts 1914-23; the 
Reverend Arthur Whipple Jenks, also Professor of Divinity 
1901-10; George Sidney Brett, M.A. Oxon., Lecturer in 
Classics 1908, Professor of Ethics 1909-21; Eric Trevor 
Owen, Lecturer in Classics 1903, Professor of Greek 1912-23; 
Henry Crawford Griffith, Lecturer and Professor of French 
1907-11; John Neville Woodcock, Lecturer in Classics 1907, 
Professor 1919-39; William Alexander Kirkwood, M.A., 
Ph.D. Harvard, Lecturer 1909 and Professor of Latin 1912- 
39, Registrar 1914-22, and Dean of Arts 1923-43; and the 
Reverend Francis Herbert Cosgrave, M.A., of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, Lecturer in Hebrew 1907, and Professor in 
1909, Dean of Divinity in 1916, and finally Provost of 
Trinity College from 1926 until his retirement in 1945, when 
he was succeeded by the present Provost, Dr. R. S. K. Seeley. 

Among other changes severely felt was the withdrawal 
from active work of Professor William Clark, D.C.L., in 
1908, after a long period of twenty-five years; the removal to 



the University of Toronto, under the Federation agreement, 
of Michael Alexander Mackenzie, Professor of Mathematics 
since 1895, who, apart from his genius as a teacher, main- 
tained throughout a busy life a keen interest in athletics of 
the College and the University; and of Henry Montgomery, 
Professor of Natural Science. 

A striking thing about many of these men was their in- 
tense loyalty to the College. They were brilliant scholars in 
their respective branches and could have commanded large 
salaries in more flourishing universities either in Canada or 
in the United States, but they were content to accept the 
modest remuneration that the College could afford in order 
to contribute of their best to the education of the young 
men who came up to Trinity. 

The liberality in time and effort and money of Mr. (after- 
ward Sir) Edmund B. Osier and his associates on the Board 
of Endowment and Finances cannot be overlooked. In May 
1905, Sir Henry Pellatt (he was knighted in 1905) expressed 
his willingness to accept the position of honorary financial 
director if the College, through its graduates, Convocation, 
and other organizations, would undertake to raise the sum of 
not less than ten thousand dollars annually for a period of 
five years, the estimated deficit for that period. 

Up to the thirtieth of September 1905, the Board of En- 
dowment had raised the sum of $158,594 out of which it 
acquired the Bickford house and the five acres of land east of 
the College property for $26,000; it had paid to the Trinity 
Medical College for the surrender of its charter, $4,706.75; 
and had expended for improvements to the grounds, includ- 
ing the iron fence and entrance gates, $5,371. It had also 
invested $25,000, provided for bursaries to the extent of 
$1,000, and had paid to the Bursar to meet current expenses 
the sum of $9,171. 

Shortly after the Federation agreement had been com- 
pleted the Whitney Government, which came into power 



in February 1905, appointed a Royal Commission to examine 
the whole University situation, including the relationship of 
the affiliated Colleges to the University of Toronto. The 
Commission consisted of Mr. J. W. (afterward Sir Joseph) 
Flavelle as Chairman; Professor Goldwin Smith; the Chan- 
cellor, Sir William Meredith; Mr. B. E. (afterward Sir 
Edmund) Walker; the Reverend Henry John Cody, a dis- 
tinguished scholar and graduate of the University who 
afterwards became a member of the Board of Governors, 
and who was successively Chairman of the Board, President, 
and finally Chancellor of the University; the Reverend 
Donald Bruce Macdonald, an eminent educationist; and Dr. 
A. H. U. Colquhoun, journalist and subsequently Deputy 
Minister of Education for Ontario, as secretary. The scope of 
the Commission was such that Trinity became vitally in- 
terested in many of the questions to be discussed. To protect 
her interests Mr. Justice Featherstone Osier, Sir Henry M. 
Pellatt, Mr. J. A. Worrell, K.C., Canon E. A. Welch, D.D., 
D.C.L., a former Provost, and Mr. N. F. Davidson, were 
appointed a committee to observe and report the proceedings 
of the Commission. 

The personnel of the Commission, a distinguished one, 
took their responsibilities seriously. After seventy-seven 
meetings the Commission submitted an exhaustive report 
which was virtually embodied in the University Act adopted 
by the Legislature in June 1906. It contained several sections 
relative to Trinity which showed a sympathetic interest in 
her problems and again brought to the fore the much- 
debated question of her removal. In the Act the rights of 
Trinity were acknowledged and provision was made for a 
site for the College on the grounds of the Provincial Univer- 
sity, at any time it might be deemed advisable to move to 
Queen's Park. Further than this, the Ontario Government 
provided for a loan to the College, if needed, and permission 
for it to borrow on the Queen Street property such sum of 



money as might be deemed requisite in order to carry out 
the removal. 

These generous terms, in marked contrast to the niggardly 
policy of former Governments, prompted the chairman of 
the Commission to request the College to take up again the 
question of removal. Provost Macklem, from whose mind 
the ultimate transfer of the College from Queen Street to 
Queen's Park was never absent, immediately circularized all 
members of the Corporation and Convocation, the graduates 
in Arts, many clergymen, and the recent subscribers to the 
College funds. The replies showed 126 in favour of removal, 
seventy-four opposed; sixty-nine were non-committal, and 
four declined to express an opinion. Those in favour stressed 
the existing inconvenience to the student body, the desira- 
bility of a closer contact with the University whereby Trinity 
would be able to wield a stronger influence than she could 
hope to do in her then isolated position, and the wisdom of 
her availing herself of the advantageous terms offered. These 
privileges included a site free from taxation, the use of the 
extensive University library, and the laboratories, the gym- 
nasium, and other buildings, all of which would make unneces- 
sary large expenditures by Trinity for new buildings, or the 
modernization of the old. Those against the removal stressed 
the great expense involved, the smallness of the site pro- 
posed, which provided no playing fields (with the consequent 
adverse effect upon College athletics), the departure from 
the promise to give Federation a four years' trial and, above 
all, the probable loss to Trinity of her identity, her individu- 
ality, and old associations, as well as the weakening of 
disciplinary control and Church influence. 

It is worthy of note that, during this discussion, there 
passed to his rest on the twenty-second of August 1906, full 
of honours and ripened wisdom, the leader of the forces 
against Federation, the venerable Archdeacon John Langtry, 



M.A., D.C.L. Dr. Langtry was born near Burlington, Ont- 
ario, in 1832, and entered Trinity on her opening day. He was 
thus not only the first graduate of Trinity College (B.A. '54), 
but was the first graduate of the College to be ordained by 
Bishop Strachan (January 1855). For three years he was the 
travelling missionary in Simcoe and Grey counties, then in- 
cumbent of Collingwood, and curate for a year at St. Paul's, 
Toronto, before founding in 1870 the parish of St. Luke, in a 
then new residential district in Toronto between College and 
Bloor Streets. Dr. Langtry was also instrumental in es- 
tablishing in 1867 the Bishop Strachan School for girls (the 
first of its kind in Ontario), and a Church school for boys. 
The holder of many offices in the Synods of his Church, he 
received the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law from his 
Alma Mater in 1892, and that of Doctor of Divinity from the 
University of Bishop's College, Lennoxville, Quebec. He ex- 
celled as an extempore preacher, as a controversialist, as a 
writer on many subjects, and was a prominent member of the 
College Council from 1880 until his death. In 1905 he was 
appointed Archdeacon of York. Like the Founder of the 
College and the first Provost, though he met with many 
reverses, he never acknowledged defeat but fought to the 
very end, fearless and unflagging in his devotion to the 
Church and to the cause of religious education. 

The year 1907 brought another change of great moment 
to the College, the death of Dr. William Jones, student at 
Trinity from 1855 to 1857; B.A. Cantab. 1862; Professor of 
Mathematics at Trinity 1863-95; Registrar 1875-1907; Dean 
1875-91; acting Provost and Vice-Chancellor, 1894-95; 
Bursar and Secretary to the Corporation from 1895 until his 
death on the seventh of October. The Review paid tribute to 
Dr. Jones in these words: "To live almost the Psalmist's 
allotted span of life, to serve continuously and faithfully in 
one place for nearly five and forty years, to do his duty con- 



scientiously and to win the esteem and respect of the majori- 
ty of those with whom he had to do, may well be accounted 
an enviable thing for any man. Such was the lot of Dr. 
William Jones." 

But his death was the passing of an institution. Trinity 
without "Polly" was unthinkable. He was a kindly old 
bachelor, good in finance and "given to hospitality," who 
made it not only a point but a solemn duty as Dean to 
entertain every undergraduate in turn in his comfortable 
quarters, for a time in Deneside, as the Provost's Lodge to 
the north of the College was called, and later in the suite of 
rooms at the southwest corner of the College buildings. His 
name, too, will long be remembered for his generosity to St. 
Hilda's and his influence on its behalf. His portrait by Sir 
Wyly Grier, R.C.A., now in Strachan Hall, was unveiled in 
the old College in November 1905. 

A graduate of 1908 who achieved great distinction in the 
scientific world was the late Lawrence V. Redman. His out- 
standing success in the field of chemical research was re- 
warded by the Grasselli Medal in 1931 and the degree of 
Doctor of Science {honoris causa) from the University of 
Toronto. He also held the high office of President of the 
American Chemical Society for 1932. While the greater part 
of his professional life was spent in the United States, he 
always remembered the land of his birth and his College with 
strong affection. He died on the twenty-fifth of November 
1946 and by his will bequeathed a substantial legacy to 

The Provost's report for 1908-9, an optimistic one, stated 
that after four years' experience it was felt that Federation 
had been fully justified; that while the present educational 
conditions were not perfect they were far better than the 
old. The enrolment had increased and was now 185, includ- 
ing ninety-five men in residence and forty women. To pro- 
vide accommodation for the women, the Provost's Lodge 



had been taken over by St. Hilda's College for an additional 

Early in 1909, the committee on removal reported that 
after negotiations with the University extending over the 
past two and a half years a suitable site for the College on 
Hoskin Avenue and for St. Hilda's College on the west side 
of Devonshire Place had been offered finally by the Board of 
Governors of the University of Toronto, the sites to be free 
of ground rent, taxation, and all other charges as long as 
Trinity College remained in federation with the University. 
It was stipulated by the Board, however, that the removal 
to Queen's Park should take place within five years, the 
Government undertaking to guarantee the repayment of 
any funds borrowed for new buildings. 

With Federation achieved, the Provost proffered his resig- 
nation on the grounds that he had accepted the position as 
Provost and Vice-Chancellor nine years before with the 
declared purpose of bringing about the federation of Trinity 
College with the University of Toronto. This he had ac- 
complished. Such pressure, however, was immediately 
brought to bear upon him by the Corporation, the staff, the 
undergraduates, and many friends of the College, that he was 
prevailed upon to withdraw his resignation and to continue 
for a time at least as Provost. 

To relieve him of a portion of his heavy duties the office 
of Vice-Provost was revived after a lapse of some forty-five 
years. To this position the Reverend John P. D. Llwyd, B.D. 
'05, D.D. '08, was appointed on the first of October 1909. 
The main purpose of his appointment was to raise money to 
increase the endowment of the College. In the three follow- 
ing years Dr. Llwyd travelled from Winnipeg to Quebec, 
and from Toronto to New York, and, in addition, made 
three trips to England. The entire sum obtained in cash and 
subscriptions amounted to more than $156,000 for the En- 
dowment and $12,660 for the Convocation Fund, a magnifi- 



cent showing at that time. In October 1912 Dr. Llwyd 
resigned to become Canon-in-Residence and Vicar of All 
Saints' Cathedral, Halifax, and, in 1913, Dean of Nova 

Early in 1910 a movement to induce a closer relationship 
between Wycliffe College and Trinity was initiated and a 
committee was appointed consisting of the Archbishop of 
Ottawa (Dr. Charles Hamilton), Bishop James Fielding 
Sweeny of Toronto, the Vice-Provost of Trinity College (Dr. 
Llwyd), and Messrs. J. A. Worrell, K.C., E. B. Osier, W. R. 
Brock, and N. F. Davidson, K.C., to discuss the question 
with those interested. About the same time an anonymous 
Churchman, a friend of the two Colleges, offered, through 
Dr. Llwyd, a gift of $200,000, and more if necessary, if a 
satisfactory and workable union could be effected. Consider- 
able correspondence resulted and meetings were held, but 
the Wycliffe authorities, lukewarm throughout, declined to 
consider the proposal. 

The terms laid down in April 1909 by the Board of Gover- 
nors for the removal to Queen's Park were not entirely satis- 
factory to Trinity, and it was late in 1910 before the final 
agreement was approved by Corporation. A questionnaire 
sent to those closely interested resulted in the following 
report, dated the fifteenth day of February 1911. Of the six 
Bishops on the Corporation, four were in favour of remov- 
al and one opposed; of the College staff all but two were in 
favour; Convocation, while regretting the necessity, was 
forty-eight in favour with five against. At a subsequent 
meeting of graduates at which thirty-one were present, 
twenty-nine were in favour and a resolution was carried, 
with two dissenting votes, "that Trinity College should 
avail herself of the offer [of the University of Toronto] as 
soon as financial and other considerations warrant." 

At a later meeting of the Corporation a committee was 
appointed to consider plans for the proposed new building 



and to appoint an architect. The Land, Finance and Execu- 
tive Committee was instructed to sell the Trinity College 
grounds. On the first of August 1912, the City of Toronto 
offered $625,000 for the thirty-one acres and all the College 
buildings (except the Chapel), the College being allowed 
five years' free occupancy of the buildings. This offer was 

On the twenty-eighth of December 1911, Trinity lost one 
of her most distinguished graduates and generous bene- 
factors, James Henderson, '58, M.A. '65, D.C.L. '00. Elected 
a member of Corporation in 1872, he served his College with 
enthusiastic loyalty, self-sacrificing zeal, and great personal 
devotion. When his will was probated it was revealed that 
the College had been made the residuary legatee of his 
estate, valued at something more than $700,000. x 

With the income from this estate and the revenue from the 
funds collected by the Board of Endowment and Finances, 
the Corporation was in a position to meet the rapidly rising 
expenditures and to increase the salaries of the staff which 
were lamentably low and considerably less than those paid 
by the University and the other federated Colleges. 

In June 1912, Provost Macklem again tendered his resig- 
nation and pressed that it be accepted. Considerable con- 
sideration was given to the choice of a successor. The position 
was first offered to the Right Reverend Charles Henry Brent, 
one of Trinity's most distinguished graduates. As Bishop of 
the Philippines, Dr. Brent had already assumed such re- 
sponsibilities that he felt compelled to decline. The Reverend 
Thomas Wesley Powell, '93, a man of great power and 
influence, with a record of notable success in parochial work 
and in the cause of religious education, was then invited to 
the office. In his college days and after his ordination he had 
worked faithfully and zealously in the parish of York Mills 

1 A portrait of Dr. James Henderson, by Sir Wyly Grier, was unveiled in Convoca- 
tion Hall on June 3, 1912. It now hangs in Strachan Hall. 



in a mission which had been established in 1888 by the 
Reverend John Langtry. In 1900 this mission became St. 
Clement's parish, North Toronto, with Mr. Powell as Rector. 
In the following year, he founded St. Clement's School (now 
conducted by Miss E. G. M. Waugh, B.A. '08, M.A. King's 
N.S., 1911), for the purpose of providing religious as well as 
secular instruction for the children of the parish. In 1910 Dr. 
Powell accepted the Presidency of King's College, Windsor, 
Nova Scotia, a position he filled with marked success. When 
Dr. Powell declined the Provostship, Dr. Macklem con- 
sented to continue in that office until the new buildings 
of the College were completed. 

A request from the students that attendance at chapel 
service be purely voluntary was presented to the Corporation 
about this time. The reply of that body was that in its 
opinion "present regulations are reasonable, wise and salu- 
tary, and every resident student of the college, being also a 
member of the Church of England, should conform to them 

In the autumn of 1913, a committee on new buildings was 
appointed, consisting of Dr. J. A. Worrell as chairman, Sir 
Edmund Osier, Sir Henry Pellatt, the Very Reverend Dean 
Starr, the Venerable Archdeacons G. F. Davidson and J. J. 
Bogert, the Reverend E. C. Cayley, and Messrs. Gerard B. 
Strathy, J. A. Kammerer, N. F. Davidson, Dr. R. J. Reade, 
Professor A. H. Young, and the Provost. This committee 
authorized the architect, Mr. Frank Darling, to prepare 
tentative plans and drawings for buildings with accommoda- 
tion for 350 students, to cost not more than $400,000. One 
year later the committee submitted to the Corporation the 
drawings presented by the architect, which included resi- 
dences for 150 men, class room accommodation for 350 men 
and women, a dining hall to seat 250, and a chapel to provide 
seating for from 300 to 350 persons. Provision was also made 
for a library of 20,000 volumes, working laboratories, a 



gymnasium, a squash racquets court, and an infirmary. But a 
year having elapsed since the first estimate, the architect 
now reported that the proposed buildings could not be pro- 
vided for anything like the specified amount. It was there- 
upon decided that the maximum expenditure should be in- 
creased to $630,000 (about the amount received from the 
sale of the Queen Street property), to be apportioned as 
follows: for the Trinity College building, $500,000; for St. 
Hilda's College, $100,000; and for furnishings, $30,000. The 
architect therefore was instructed to revise the plans accord- 
ingly. In the meantime, a private house at 111 St. George 
Street had been purchased at a cost of $23,000 as a temporary 
residence for the students of St. Hilda's College. 

The year 1913-14 was a banner year in the history of the 
College. The office of Chancellor, which had been vacant 
since the death of the fourth Chancellor, Mr. Christopher 
Robinson, in 1905, was filled by the election on the fifteenth 
of June 1914 of Mr. John Austin Worrell, M.A., K.C., one of 
Trinity's most distinguished graduates. His installation took 
place at the annual meeting of Convocation on the eighteenth 
of November following. A general prosperity in the country 
was reflected in an increased enrolment, and improved 
finances. The prospect of a more comprehensive curriculum 
and fine buildings, now that federation with the Provincial 
University had been completed on satisfactory terms, also 
promised well for the future. 

But, on the fourth of August 1914, war with Germany was 
declared, and eight weeks later the University session opened 
with staff and students returning to face a situation un- 
dreamed of. Already many of the professors and students 
had heard the call and had left for overseas, or were drilling 
with the local militia units to which they belonged. As the 
conflict grew increasingly critical, more and more responded 
to the call for recruits, either singly or in groups, until before 
long practically every man physically fit had enlisted. Two 



hundred members of the University of Toronto were in the 
first contingent which left Valcartier late in September 1914, 
four brigades consisting of 33,000 men of all ranks. From the 
autumn of 1914, when some men of all the years left college, 
Trinity continued to send men in increasing numbers; even 
freshmen (class of 1918) were keen to follow the example of 
their senior brothers-in-arms. During the first year of the 
war 111 graduates, undergraduates, and other alumni en- 
rolled for active service. 

Shortly after the opening of Michaelmas Term, 1915, the 
numbers in attendance had been so reduced that Trinity 
House, the residence of freshmen, was closed. 2 The following 
year when the total student body had fallen to ninety-nine 
(the male enrolment being thirty students in Arts and 
seventeen in Arts and Divinity) the whole west wing was 
closed and remained so until 1918. In the final year of the 
war there were less than twenty-six men in residence, some 
of them returned men unfit for further duty, a few medically 
unfit for active service, the rest under military age. 3 The 
women of St. Hilda's, like their associates in the sister Col- 
leges, were active in Red Cross work, in medical care, nurs- 
ing, sanitation, ambulance driving, clerking, and other simi- 
lar duties both at home and overseas. Like other universities, 
both in Canada and in the Old Land, Trinity provided 
accommodation for military units, such as the west wing for 
the officers of the 28th Battalion (Northern Fusiliers), 
Convocation Hall for officers' classes, Trinity House for con- 
valescent soldiers, the gymnasium for musketry drill, and 
the playing fields for parade grounds. 

2 The former Bickford house, acquired by the College in 1903, was adapted as a 
residence for freshmen with the appropriate name of Greenland attached to it. But 
the students, learning that it had more recently been the home of the Keely Institute 
for inebriates, applied the obvious name of "Jag House" to it, and so it was known 
until the end. 

8 It is significant that in Michaelmas Term 1918 there were but 4 men in fourth-year 
Arts, 5 in the third year, 5 in the second year, and 15 in the first year. In Divinity 
there were 8 in all. 



The total enlistment of Trinity men during the war 
amounted to 543: seven members of the staff, seventy-three 
undergraduates, 387 graduates, and seventy-six other 
alumni. Of casualties there were fifty-six dead, 4 eighty-six 
wounded, one missing, eighteen invalided home, and 225 
discharged. Of the men who enlisted, 413 obtained their 
commissions and twenty-three were non-commissioned offi- 
cers. Altogether 149 honours were awarded, including to one 
the C.B., one the K.C.V.O., nine the C.M.G., four the 
C.B.E., six the O.B.E., seven the D.S.O., twenty-two the 
Military Cross (five with Bar), one the Air Force Cross, 
three the Royal Red Cross, four the Military Medal, one the 
D.C.M.; forty-three were mentioned in despatches (three of 
them three times, eight twice) and twenty-two mentioned 
for services. 

From France three received the Croix de Guerre, one the 
Legion d'Honneur, and three, other decorations. Bishop 
Brent, '84, D.D. '01, Chief of Chaplain Services for the 
American Expeditionary Force, received the Distinguished 
Service Medal (U.S.) and Commander of the Order of 
Leopold of Belgium; Colonel Sir Edward Worthington, Med. 
'97, C.B., C.M.G., was created Knight Commander of the 
Victorian Order, Knight of the Order of St. John of Jeru- 
salem, and Officer of the Order of Leopold of Belgium. 

A fine war memorial volume, compiled with meticulous 
care by Professor A. H. Young and Professor W. A. Kirk- 
wood, was published in 1922. It is a magnificent record of the 
services of Trinity's men and women on behalf of the Empire 
and will ever be treasured by all Trinity men. 5 When the 
Carillon was installed in the Soldiers' Tower at the time of 
the Centenary celebrations of the University of Toronto in 
1927, one of the bells, with the inscription Mef Agona 

4 See Appendix for list of names. 

h The War Memorial Volume of Trinity College ; Toronto ed. by A. H. Young, M.A., 
D.C.L., and W. A. Kirkwood, M.A., Ph.D. (Toronto, 1922). 



Stephanos^ was given by graduates and friends of Trinity 
College in memory of her members, graduates and under- 
graduates, who fell in the Great War, 1914-18. 

As each year showed a steady decrease in the enrolment, 
so there was a comparable falling off in revenue. Fees, from a 
high of some $24,000 in 1913-14, fell to $10,000 in 1916-17 
and the annual over-all deficit of $26,700 was increased to 
nearly $55,000 by 1918-19. Contributory to this increasing 
deficit, in addition to the falling off in fees, were the lower 
rentals received on properties owned by the College, the 
higher cost of living induced by the war, and the salaries 
paid to the staff, which had been materially increased for the 
fiscal year 1914-15. Apart from the financial problem, the 
dwindling number of Divinity students had been giving the 
College authorities grave concern for some years. Since 1910 
when the number of students proceeding to Holy Orders had 
reached the high mark of seventy-five a more than average 
decline had taken place until by 1918 the numbers had 
fallen to twenty-one, owing in part to the war. 

The building programme was of course halted, but the 
City of Toronto was prevailed upon to extend for a further 
two years, to August 1919, the free use of the grounds and 
buildings, with the exception of Trinity House which was 
required as a military hospital. In 1919, by paying a rental of 
$2,500 per annum, the time for vacating was extended for a 
further period of five years. 

The reorganization after Armistice Day 1918 brought new 
problems to the College. Extra costs of maintenance as a 
result of the war were considerable. The salary question 
again demanded attention, for it was generally known that 
the University of Toronto had already granted a general in- 
crease of twenty-five per cent on all salaries and wages pend- 
ing a review of the whole question. 

The year 1918-19 unfortunately brought no addition to the 
enrolment, though the future seemed bright, provided the 



construction of the buildings in Queen's Park could be pro- 
ceeded with. The year also brought with it some changes in 
the personnel of the staff, chief among which was the resig- 
nation of Miss Mary Elizabeth Strachan, former assistant to 
the Principal of St. Hilda's College for eleven years and dean 
in charge of the women students in Deneside, the former 
Provost's Lodge. She was a granddaughter of the Founder 
and daughter of Judge John Strachan of Goderich. Some 
time after the death of her father, Miss Strachan had come 
with her mother and sister to live in the College with her 
mother's brother, the Reverend William Jones, then Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics. She remained there until his death in 
1907, assisting him in his duties as Bursar and Registrar, and 
taking an active interest in the work of the College, parti- 
cularly of St. Hilda's. She was born in 1852, the year of the 
opening of the College, and was thus the last link with a 
generation long since passed away. Her death at the age of 
seventy-five occurred on the fourth of September 1927. 

Changes in the staff also included the appointments of 
Sinclair MacLardy Adams, an honour graduate of 1913, and 
Miss Susan Gertrude Morley, 'OS, as Lecturers in Classics, 
and the Reverend James Boath Fotheringham, a former 
Lecturer in Divinity, as Lecturer in Homiletics. 

EarlxJn_May_1920 > after twenty years of service to the 
College, years which were distinguished by devoted energy 
and great business capacity, the Provost felt that the time 
had come for his retirement. Elected to the position at the 
age of thirty-eight, he had given the best years of his life to 
bring about the federation of Trinity (which he believed to 
be in its best interests) with its consequent removal to the 
precincts of the University. Dr. Macklem's early vision of 
the mutual benefit to the College and to the University had 
now been fully realized, he said, and he wished to step aside 
to allow a younger and more vigorous man to cope with post- 
war difficulties, to promote the campaign to increase the 



endowments, to proceed with the plans for the new build- 
ings, and to arrange for the eventual removal of the College 
to Queen's Park. 

A committee was appointed to consider a successor, and 
that there should be no hurried choice, Dr. Macklem agreed 
to remain until the beginning of Michaelmas Term 1921, by 
which time he would have more than completed his twenty- 
one years as Provost. 

On the twenty-first of June 1921 the Reverend Charles 
Allen Seager, D.D., a graduate of 1895, formerly Principal of 
St. Mark's Hall, Vancouver, and for the past four years 
Rector of St. Matthew's Church, Toronto, was elected to 
succeed Dr. Macklem, his appointment to take effect the 
following September. On the twenty-second of November, 
Dr. Seager was installed as Provost in Convocation Hall of 
the University of Toronto. 

A graduate of 1902 and of the Divinity class of 1904, 6 has 
paid the following tribute to Dr. Macklem : 

Dr. Macklem had the qualities of a statesman. He foresaw that 
Trinity's destiny was linked with the University of Toronto. What had 
been suggested by a gentle hint, resulted in a bombshell to her votaries 
to whom union with the secular institution would be traitorous and 
would be a denial of the whole purpose of her life history. Even the 
student body was up in arms. But the Provost was clever — diplomacy 
was his second name — and gradually he broke down the barriers by his 
arguments that Trinity could not live in isolation. The apparent sacri- 
fice she would have to make to enter the federation of Colleges would 
be more than compensated by the benefits she would obtain. 

The move was made, for better or worse. Trinity took her place in 
the great federation. Provost Macklem did it. He instituted the plan, 
convinced the authorities, procured the new free site, sold the old at a 
good price to the city, engaged the architects, superintended the plans 
and after twenty-one years made way for a successor. Truly a great 
achievement for one man. 

The finance and executive committee which had been 
instructed to consider and advise upon the whole question of 
staff and salaries brought in a constructive report, which 

6 Canon H. F. D. Woodcock, M.A., D.D. 













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''federation" (a leap in the dark) 

From left to right: H. C. Simpson, A. H. Young, Dr. Wm. Clark, A. W. Jenks, Dean Duckworth, 

Provost Macklem 

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Dr. Wm. Clark Provost Macklem Professor A. H. Young 

Dr. Wm. Jones Dean Duckworth 

Drawings by Fergus Kyle {Courtesy of T. W. Lawson, '05) 
















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came into effect in the fiscal year 1920-21. It was recom- 
mended that a staff adequate to carry on the work of the 
College should consist of seven officers in addition to the 
Provost, namely, a registrar, a bursar, a librarian, and four 
deans, one each in Arts and Divinity, a dean of residence for 
men and one for women. They further recommended an 
academic staff of eight professors, four associate professors, 
five lecturers, and two instructors. A definite scale of salaries 
was also drawn up which increased the annual payments on 
this account by nearly forty per cent. 

In June 1920 it had been decided to proceed with the 
erection of only that portion of the new building facing on 
Hoskin Avenue, designed to contain lecture rooms, the lib- 
rary, the chapel, and the administrative offices, that being the 
extent the state of finances would permit. Realizing that the 
residences included in the original plans could not be built 
for some years, the St. George Mansions, a large apartment 
house close to the University, had been purchased, to pro- 
vide a residence for men students when the new building 
was ready for occupation. It consisted of 160 rooms and 
thirty bathrooms and was estimated to be sufficient to 
accommodate one hundred students and several professors; 
with minor alterations a dining room could also be provided. 

On a cold wintry day, the thirteenth of December 1922, 
the first sod for the new College building was turned by the 
Right Reverend Dr. James Fielding Sweeny, Bishop of Tor- 
onto, in the presence of the Right Reverend J. Charles 
Roper, Bishop of Ottawa and a former Professor of Divinity; 
Canon C. L. Ingles; the Provost, Dr. C. A. Seager; Dr. F. H. 
Cosgrave, Dean of Divinity; Professor H. T. F. Duckworth, 
Dean of Arts;. Dr. W. H. Pepler, Chairman of Convocation; 
Mr. John A. Pearson, the architect, and a few friends of the 
College. The ground was frozen and a small area had to be 
thawed out with a brazier to enable the Bishop to perform 
the ceremony. 

Six months later, on the fourth of June 1923, the founda- 



tion stone was laid by His Grace the Archbishop of Algoma, 
Dr. Thorneloe, assisted by the Bishop of Toronto, the 
Bishop of Ottawa, His Honour Colonel Henry Cockshutt, 
Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, and Sir Robert Falconer, 
President of the University, in the presence of a large gather- 
ing of clergy, graduates, students, and friends of Trinity. The 
trowel used on this occasion was the one used by Bishop 
Strachan at the laying of the foundation stone of the first 
building on Queen Street on the thirtieth day of April 1851. 
It is a matter of interest that the foundation stone from the 
old building was discovered in time to be placed with the 
new one, on the left side of the main entrance to the College. 
The ceremony was an impressive one. The form of service 
followed closely that used for the old building, seventy-two 
years before, the music on this occasion being provided by 
Dr. Albert Ham and the choir of St. James* Cathedral. The 
opening hymn "Forward! be our Watchword/' and the 
closing one, "O God, Our Help in Ages Past," were both 
significant of the past history of the College and of its hopes 
for the future. 

Dr. Macklem's last report showed an encouraging increase 
in the enrolment for 1920-21 : ninety-seven men (of whom 
sixteen were proceeding to Holy Orders) and sixty women. 
The total prospective ordinands numbered forty. Before his 
retirement, another effort was made to discuss a possible 
union with Wycliffe and a strong committee was appointed 
consisting of the Provost, the Chancellor, the Bishops of 
Ottawa, Ontario, and Toronto, Dean Owen of Niagara, 
Canon J. B. Fotheringham, Mr. Justice Hodgins, Mr. 
Justice Orde, Dr. D. J. Goggin, and Mr. A. H. Campbell. 
But nothing came of it. 

A loss to the College, but a gain to the University was the 
transfer of Eric Trevor Owen, a graduate of Trinity in 1903 
and a member of the staff in Classics from his graduation 
until 1923, when he was appointed Professor of Greek in 



University College. To the study and teaching of Greek he 
brought a rare distinction of mind, to which students who 
were fortunate enough to sit under him bear witness, and, 
to quote one of them, "he made Ancient History live." His 
death in March 1948 at a comparatively early age was a 
distinct shock to his associates and his many friends. 

George Sidney Brett of Christ Church, Oxford, came to the 
College as Lecturer in Classics in 1908 and was appointed 
Professor of Ethics and Ancient Philosophy the following 
year, a position he held until 1921. In that year he trans- 
ferred to the larger field of the University as Professor of 
Philosophy and head of the Department, eventually becom- 
ing Dean of Graduate Studies. He was a Fellow of the Royal 
Society of Canada, a writer of many treatises on philosophy 
and kindred subjects, and a member of the corporation of 
Trinity College School and the executive of the University 
of Toronto Alumni Association. He died suddenly on the 
twenty-seventh of October 1944. 

Progress in the erection of the new building was such that 
the removal from the old College was planned for the sum- 
mer of 1925, that all might be in readiness for the opening of 
the Michaelmas Term. 

Before the departure of Trinity for Queen's Park several 
farewell functions were held at the old building on Queen 
Street. On Sunday, the nineteenth of April, a service to mark 
the end of the Divinity term was held in the College Chapel 
at which the preacher was the Reverend Herbert O. Tre- 
mayne, B.A. '86, M.A. '88, Rector of Christ Church, Mimico; 
his father, the Reverend Canon Francis Tremayne, who pre- 
ceded him at Mimico, had been one of the first class of 
students to enter the College in 1852. 

The special service to mark the end of the Arts term was 
held on the seventeenth of May, the Reverend Canon F. J. 
Sawers, B.A. '01, Rector of St. Peter's Church, Cobourg, 
being the preacher. The concluding ceremonies, from June 



the fourth to Sunday, June the seventh 1925, consisted of a 
special service each day in the Chapel, a dinner and informal 
dance in Convocation Hall, and a special Convocation, re- 
ception, and garden party. About the same time it was 
announced that the family of the late William Rees Brock, 
a staunch friend of the College for many years, had gener- 
ously donated the sum of $50,000 to the endowment in his 

In September the women students took up residence in the 
three houses, Nos. 99, 111, and 113 St. George Street, which 
had been acquired at a cost of $97,500 as temporary resi- 
dences of St. Hilda's College, and the men occupied the 
former St. George Mansions at the corner of St. George and 
Harbord Streets, thereafter known as Trinity House. 

Academic work began in the new building on the opening 
of the Michaelmas Term, and on the twenty-first of October 
1925 the formal opening and dedication took place. This 
event was preceded by a special Convocation in Arts of the 
University of Toronto in Convocation Hall at which the 
Chancellor, Sir William Mulock, presided. Addresses were 
given by the President, Sir Robert Falconer, and the Pro- 
vost, the Reverend C. A. Seager. The Provost referred with 
feeling to the late Mr. Frank Darling, the architect of the 
beautiful new Trinity College, in which he had so faithfully 
adapted the architectural features of the old, and to Dr. 
T. C. S. Macklem, who, during twenty-one years as Provost, 
had championed Federation and brought his work to a happy 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was then con- 
ferred on the following distinguished alumni of Trinity: the 
Right Reverend James Fielding Sweeny, B.D. '83, D.D. '88, 
Bishop of Toronto, the third in succession to the illustrious 
Founder, the first Bishop of Toronto; Colonel Charles 
Stephen Maclnnes, '92, K.C., C.M.G., a brilliant graduate 
and classical scholar and grandson of the first Chancellor of 



the University of Trinity College, Sir John Beverley Robin- 
son, Bt.; and Miss Mabel Cartwright, Principal of St. Hilda's 
College since 1903 and Dean of Women. 

Following Convocation, a long impressive procession to 
the new building was formed headed by the Esquire Bedells, 
each carrying a mace, and followed by the Chancellor of the 
University and Dr. John Austin Worrell, Chancellor of the 
University of Trinity College, members of the Board of 
Governors, the Senate, members of the faculties of the 
University, and the staff, graduates, and undergraduates of 
Trinity. Brilliant in vari-coloured hoods in the bright 
autumn sunshine, the gathering proceeded slowly across the 
lawn through the Soldiers' Tower to the entrance of the new 
building, where the Chancellor of Trinity presented a peti- 
tion to the Prime Minister of Ontario, the Honourable 
George Howard Ferguson, asking him to open the new 

With this portion of the ceremony concluded, His Grace 
the Most Reverend the Archbishop of Algoma and Metro- 
politan of Ontario, Dr. Thorneloe, began the service of 
dedication with the words: "Peace be to this house from 
God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost. O 
Lord, open Thou our lips"; to which the people responded, 
"And our mouth shall show forth Thy praise." This invoca- 
tion was followed by Psalm CXLV, Exaltabo te> Deus, "I will 
magnify Thee O God my King: and I will praise Thy Name 
for ever and ever," the appropriate cadences of which could 
not fail to impress the large gathering assembled. 

The prayer of dedication read by the Archbishop followed 
closely the form drawn up by Bishop Strachan in 1852. 7 Then 
followed the recitation of the Apostles' Creed, the collect for 
the Festival of Saints Simon and Jude and other collects, the 
General Thanksgiving, the hymn, "O God, Our Help in Ages 
Past," the National Anthem, and the Benediction. 

7 See Henry Melville, M.D.: The Rise and Progress of Trinity College, Toronto 
(Toronto, 1852), p. 211. 



At eight o'clock the same evening the dedication cere- 
monies were brought to a close by an impressive service of 
thanksgiving in St. James' Cathedral, the building of which 
was another of the achievements of the Founder, coincident 
with the establishment of the College. The music was by the 
Cathedral choir under the direction of Dr. Albert Ham, and 
the sermon by the Right Reverend Derwyn Trevor Owen, 
Bishop of Niagara. At the close of the service the Bene- 
diction was pronounced by His Grace, the Most Reverend 
George Thorneloe, the Archbishop of Algoma. 



It was in May 1880 that Archibald Lampman, the poet, then a 
student at Old Trinity College, Toronto, read Orion and Other Poems 
by Charles G. D. Roberts, and knew that this was the birth of a 
distinctively Canadian literature. 

This place is holy. Though the crowded city 
Has brought her squalor to the College gate 

It neither merits scorn nor asks for pity. 
Its ancient honor is inviolate. 

This is where Lampman walked on that May morning 

With Roberts's Orion in his hand, 
Reading its rich, evocative, sure warning 

That rhythmic words would wake this sleeping 

His was no longer, now, a lone voice singing; 

Here was a master he was proud to own; 
Here was a prophet of his own age, bringing 

Transcendent themes he had not sung, alone. 

This carillon in song's high-soaring steeple 
Would peal across the deepest, farthest wood, 

And from this choir a newly-wakened people 
Would hear the call to conscious nationhood. 

This place is holy. These old gates adorning 

A shabby street, in proud remembrance stand .... 

This is where Lampman walked on that May morning 
With Roberts's Orion in his hand. 

Verna Loveday Harden 




o those who had lived in Old Trinity and had 
moved with the College to the new building, so 
empty as yet of any cumulative tradition of its 
own, the change inevitably invited comparisons. 
The facade of the new building suggested that of the old, 
but the copper-covered cupolas were innocent of patina. In 
three-quarters of a century Old Trinity had become vener- 
able through the passing by of many generations of student 
life. The very atmosphere of the old building was of a 
Victorian way of life that had almost vanished. The smudges 
of gas jets could still be seen on the walls of "Wall Street" 
and "Brewery Lane." Students' rooms (usually a larger 
room for studying with a smaller bedroom, the "Coffin," 
adjoining it) had an extra door of solid oak which could be 
"sported" when the student wanted to exercise his right to 
be free of intrusion when studying. Inside the rooms open 
fire-places invited meditation before the embers while the 
breast of the thinker roasted and the back froze in accor- 
dance with the sturdy res angustae of Victorian days. Kettles 
simmered for tea, and on the dingy varnish of the mantel- 
pieces successive generations had made their mark with 
white-hot pokers. In the Library, which seemed to have 
grown a little ramshackle with the years, old folios leaned 
with familiar ease against modern volumes on shelves that 
were certainly not the latest in library equipment. The very 
air seemed to have a concrete and quite physical smell of 



tradition, though no doubt that was no more than the slight 
mustiness of an old building. 

Old Trinity was a tightly knit community, consciously 
proud of possessing an atmosphere of its own. Its numbers 
were small compared with the teeming populations in the 
Queers Park colleges. In a real sense the College body, staff 
and students, were "members one of another" in a way they 
might never be again. For one thing, nearly all Trinity 
students lived in residence and nearly all of them came from 
homes outside Toronto. For both good and ill Old Trinity 
was isolated. A student "went up to the University" for 
certain lectures or for labs, or to visit the University Library, 
but when he returned it was as if he came back to his real 
home and as if he were not now quite "in" the University. 
No one was a stranger in Old Trinity. The strong and the 
weak qualities of every man were known to his fellows, as in 
a family they are known. Students studied at battered desks 
or, on nights of athletic triumph, rolled bottles in dark 
corridors or sat before the fire into the small hours exploring 
and arguing about the geography of knowledge — well aware 
that many students before their day had studied or rolled 
bottles or argued in those same places. There were intangible 
but very real "presences" in the old building. 

That sense of the past would in part vanish with our move. 
At Queen's Park the twentieth-century atmosphere waited 
for us. That it would change and mould us in many respects 
was beyond doubt, and it was desirable that it should do so 
provided it did not cut us off from our roots. A whirl of 
University student activities awaited us where once we had 
lived almost self-surliciently in our own smaller society. 
There would be much gain and some loss in that; we were 
anxious to pull our weight and a little more, if possible, in 
University life. In due course our numbers would swell and 
perhaps never again would each member of the College know 
every other member as a matter of course. The time might 



come when a student and a don might pass in the halls of 
New Trinity, neither knowing who the other was — that 
would be a strange thing. In Old Trinity attendance at Even- 
song in the College Chapel was compulsory and, though there 
was much objection to the compulsion, chapel was a part of 
Trinity life; when in the new building the compulsion would 
come to be removed and only a small minority of students 
would attend, something vital in the College life would be 
lost. In smaller matters there would be changes; we would 
even wear our gowns with a difference — no longer quite as a 
matter of course — in ungowned Queen's Park. Still, come 
what might in the future, we were embarked on the adven- 
ture of carrying a living spirit across a gap into a new 
habitation. One could hope that something of the old tradi- 
tion would make its imprint on the new ways of life. 

It soon became clear that Trinity could adjust herself to 
her new surroundings, profit by them, and make a greater 
contribution to University life without losing her identity. 
In many respects Trinity became less parochial, more in- 
tegrated in the cultural life of the University; for instance, 
the proportion of Trinity students taking "University 
courses" 1 became, and remained, far greater. Students made 
full use of Hart House and took their full share in campus 
activities and profited intellectually and socially by their 
closer associations with men of other colleges. While many 
of the traditions which had grown up in the old building went 
by the board, the loyalty to Trinity was not sacrificed. The 
general improvement in academic standing was soon indi- 
cated by the selection of five members of the College for 

bourses built around subjects such as History and Mathematics, to give two 
examples, the teaching of which is, by the Federation Act, given by the University 
rather than by the colleges. Subjects reserved for College teaching are Latin, Greek, 
English, French, and German Languages and Literature; Greek and Roman History; 
Oriental Languages, History, and Archaeology; Ethics; and Religious Knowledge. 
"University courses" usually contain some college subjects which are taught in the 
colleges and vice versa. 



Rhodes Scholarships in the period from 1927 to 1932 2 and by 
the award, during the same period, of the John H. Moss 
Memorial Scholarship, for which nominations are made by 
each of the Arts Colleges of the University of Toronto, to 
three Trinity students. The improvement in academic stand- 
ing has been maintained down to the present time, Trinity 
students securing many of the most important awards made 
by the Senate of the University. 

It was soon evident, however, that two immediate needs 
were an increased endowment and the completion of the 
College buildings according to the original plans. The new 
administrative building on Hoskin Avenue was beautiful to 
see and modern in its equipment. But the lack of a chapel, 
after the very beautiful Henderson Memorial Chapel at Old 
Trinity, was severely felt, and the inadequacy of funds sub- 
scribed for the proposed War Memorial Chapel postponed 
indefinitely the realization of that objective. Further, the 
great room planned as the reading room of the new Library 
had to be taken to serve as a temporary chapel — in 1952 
it still serves that use — and for public meetings and other 
functions. The Library could not function properly until 
housed in its own quarters, and a convocation or assembly 
hall was needed for academic and social gatherings for which 
there was now no suitable accommodation. 

Most urgent of all was the need for new residence build- 
ings which would adjoin the new administration building. 
The separation of the men's residence from the College was 
beginning to have an injurious effect upon the residence 

2 Up to 1952 eleven Trinity students have been awarded Rhodes Scholarships, as 
follows: Arthur Kent Griffin, M.A. '16, awarded for 1915; John Lowe, M.A. '22, 
awarded for 1922; Escott Meredith Reid, '27, awarded for 1927; William Lyndon 
Smith, '27, awarded for 1928; George Stevenson Cartwright, '29, awarded for 1929; 
Charles Herbert Little, '30, awarded for 1930; John Leslie Stewart, '33, awarded for 
1932; George Ignatieff, , 2>6 i awarded for 1936; James George, '40, awarded for 1940; 
William M. Cox, '51, awarded for 1951 for Bermuda; Ronald Lampman Watts, '52, 
awarded for 1952. 



system which had been a conspicuous feature of student life 
since the opening of the College seventy-five years before. 
Trinity House, as the adopted apartment building had been 
renamed, was a very indifferent substitute. The students of 
St. Hilda's, accommodated in three separate houses on St. 
George Street, were worse off still. Though Trinity House 
did serve to hold together the people who lived in it, it could 
not be anything but a makeshift arrangement throughout its 
sixteen years of service as Trinity's residence. In it the 
Literary Institute saw some of its best days and other College 
societies seemed to survive satisfactorily. In Trinity House 
the difficult position of Dean of Residence was filled by 
Professor Lloyd Hodgins 3 and Dr. W. A. Kirkwood in the 
session 1925-26; by Dr. G. F. Kingston from 1926 to 1940; 
and by Professor Lyndon Smith in 1 940-41. 4 The problems 
of preserving that intangible something called "College 
spirit" or sometimes even of preserving the usual necessities 
of College discipline in such an unsuitable building were not 
always easy. Great credit is due to the successive Deans dur- 
ing this period, particularly to Dr. Kingston, who shouldered 
this difficult responsibility for fourteen years and who was 
rewarded by the sincere respect and affection of several 
generations of students. Thanks to these men and to their 
colleagues living in residence and to the good spirit of the 
student body, the residential system, another great tradition 
of Trinity College from 1852 onwards, was maintained in 
difficult circumstances. During Dr. Kingston's term of office 
the Board of Stewards was instituted, and it has been ever 
since a most valuable instrument of student government. 

The number of students enrolled at Trinity rapidly in- 
creased as soon as the move was made. In the session 1925-26, 

3 Appointed Dean of Residence in 1922. 

4 Professor Lyndon Smith continued in this post until 1947 and was therefore the 
first Dean of Residence in the new residence building. From 1947 to 1949 Provost 
Seeley undertook the duties of Dean of Residence with the Reverend H. V. R. Short 
as his assistant. The latter was acting Dean 1949-51. 



the first year at Queen's Park, the enrolment was 220 ; 5 it 
rose to 247 in 1926-27, to 296 in 1927-28, and to 332 in 1928-29. 
At this point the Corporation of the College ordered that 
the number of regular students in the Faculty of Arts was 
not to exceed 325 until further action might be taken. This 
was done in order that classes might be limited in size, and 
that students might continue to have that intimate associa- 
tion with their teachers and with one another which had 
been a feature of Trinity life from the beginning. A policy of 
restricting the number of students has been held to ever 
since, though the limit had to be placed far above 325 after 
the Second World War when the veterans returned to college 
and Trinity desired to do its utmost to accommodate them. 6 
Trinity has not returned to the original limit. 

One aspect of enrolment which brought new problems, 
never to be completely solved, was the growing proportion 
of non-resident to resident students. In the first freshman 
year at Queen's Park the non-residents outnumbered the 
residents — a situation that would have been impossible in 
Old Trinity where the ratio of non-residents to residents was 
less than one to twenty. Soon the non-residents vastly out- 
numbered the residents. This fact has militated against the 
unity of College life and has inevitably resulted in a thinning 
out of many traditions built up in the past by residence life. 
After the war at the peak of enrolment it was found necessary 
for a time to accommodate in the residences no students 
from homes in Toronto unless they held College scholarships. 
The result was that nearly all Toronto students had to be 
debarred from the educational advantages of residence life. 
It might have been feared that the growing numbers would 
have resulted in the breaking up of College unity into cliques. 
This seems, however, to have happened to a far less degree 

'This enrolment was made up of 134 men (66 in Arts and 68 in Arts and Divinity) 
and 86 women. 
6 Trinity's peak enrolment was 671 in 1947-8. 



than might have been expected. College societies and College 
activities, open to all, have of course helped to counteract 
the danger. Perhaps the greatest problem in preserving unity 
of spirit has been that of finding devices to minimize the 
inevitable differences in the ways of College life as between 
resident and non-resident. 

In 1926, at the conclusion of the first session in the new 
building, Dr. Seager resigned his Provostship after a term of 
five years in that office, to become Bishop of Ontario. On 
him had fallen the responsibility of moving the College from 
Queen Street to its present site and of initiating a new rela- 
tionship between the College and the University. His 
counsel, his administrative powers, and his qualities of 
statesmanship contributed much to the welfare of the Col- 
lege. Bishop Seager's career after leaving Trinity was dis- 
tinguished. In 1932 he was elected Bishop of Huron and in 
1943 Archbishop and Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical 
province of Ontario. He died on the ninth of September 
1948. 7 

On the twenty-first of July 1926, the Reverend Francis 
Herbert Cosgrave, M.A., B.D., of Trinity College, Dublin, 
who had been a member of the staff from 1907 to 1923, was 
unanimously elected Provost. He was installed in office on 
the fifteenth of January following, the seventy-fifth anni- 
versary of the opening of Trinity College. 

Serious financial problems awaited the new Provost. The 
larger enrolment, far from lightening the financial burden of 
the College, added to it. 8 The cost of maintaining five build- 
ings instead of two had increased the strain on College 
finances, already serious before the move. In the five years of 

7 A fine portrait of Archbishop Seager, painted by Clare Bice, R.C.A., hangs in 
Strachan Hall. 

8 The tuition fees are the same for all the colleges. They do not meet the tuition 
overhead for the College. The result is that a larger enrolment increased the deficit 
proportionately. Tuition fees for the colleges have had to be increased by the follow- 
ing stages: in 1924 the tuition fee for an Arts student was $40, by 1932 it rose to $75 
and was then increased to $100; in 1935 it became $115, and at present it is $216. 



Dr. Seager's Provostship expenses had increased by nearly 
twenty per cent whereas regular income had gained by only 
ten per cent. Now the College found itself, not for the first 
nor for the last time in its history, faced with an operating 
deficit which had grown to an alarming amount. In these 
circumstances the Corporation appealed, in February 1927, 
to the friends of the College for assistance, and a sum of 
approximately three hundred thousand dollars was sub- 
scribed. Thanks to this help, the staff, which had had to be 
reduced, could be increased, and the College could now 
institute on their behalf a plan for retiring allowances. 

While this appeal was being made, the Chancellor, Dr. 
John Austin Worrell, K.C., died on the twenty-seventh of 
February. He had been the most active member of the 
Corporation for many years, and had an unrivalled know- 
ledge of the affairs of the College. He showed his confidence 
in the future of Trinity by arranging shortly before his death 
that his whole estate should ultimately revert to the College 
for the purpose of endowing professorships in the Depart- 
ment of Classics. 9 Dr. Worrell's place as Chairman of the 
Executive Committee of the Corporation was taken by 
Charles S. Maclnnes, K.C., LL.D. '92, at one time a Fellow 
in the Department of Classics. 10 From 1927 until the out- 
break of the war in 1939, Dr. Maclnnes devoted much of his 
time and attention to the affairs of the College and by his 
energy and skill contributed greatly to the solution of its 
most pressing problems. 

In the late twenties and early thirties there was a con- 
siderable change in the personnel of the staff. In this period 
several staff members who are still teaching at the College in 
this centennial year began their long periods of service at 
Trinity. Professor R. K. Hicks came from Queen's University 
in 1927 to head the Department of French, being the first to 

9 Portrait heads of Dr. Seager and Dr. Worrell are cut in the corbels at the main 
entrance of the College. 

10 Since Dr. Worrell's death Trinity has not elected a Chancellor. 



hold the W. R. Brock Chair in French; Professor G. M. A. 
Grube joined the staff in 1928 as Professor of Classics and 
became head of that department in 1931; Professor Lyndon 
Smith, a Rhodes Scholar from Trinity, came to the Divinity 
staff in 1931; and Professor C. Lewis joined the German 
Department in 1931. Among others who came to us to serve 
for shorter periods were Professor Felix Walter, who joined 
the French Department in 1930, and left the College to 
enter the Canadian forces where he did distinguished service 
as a colonel in the Intelligence Service; and Professor G. 
Wilson Knight, the first to fill the Chancellors' Chair in 
English, founded in 1931 by descendants and friends of 
former Chancellors of Trinity College. Of others appointed 
about that time one, the Very Reverend John Lowe, is now 
Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and has been recently Vice- 
Chancellor of Oxford; another, Dr. K. C. Evans, is Dean of 
Montreal; while a third, Dr. W. C. de Pauley, is Dean of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin. In 1927, Professor R. E. L. 
Kittredge, who had joined the Department of French in 1911 
and had been Professor and head of the Department since 
1912, and who had done such excellent work in superintend- 
ing the removal of the Library to Queen's Park, resigned 
from the staff. 

In those early days at Queen's Park three notable Trinity 
figures, each of whom made a mark on Trinity life and tradi- 
tions, finished their active service to the College : the Rever- 
end Professor Henry Thomas Forbes Duckworth (Professor 
of Divinity 1901-7, Dean of Residence 1903-14, Professor of 
Greek 1907, Professor of Ancient History from 1912 until his 
death); Dr. Archibald Hope Young (Lecturer in Modern 
Languages 1892-1900, Librarian 1896-1902, Professor of 
Modern Languages 1900-5, Dean of Residence 1914-22, 
Professor of German from 1905 until his retirement in 1931); 
and the Reverend Canon William Rollo, a member of the 
Divinity staff from 1913, Professor of Divinity from 1915, 



who retired in 1930. Since all of them have passed away 11 
some memories of their vivid personalities should be per- 
manently recorded in Trinity history along with recollections 
of earlier worthies. 

Professor Duckworth was a fine scholar with a loyalty to 
scholarly truth which would not permit him to cheapen, 
diminish, or in any way distort the sacredness of historical 
fact. So earnest was his pursuit of the scholar's truth that he 
did not often permit humour to lower the tension of that 
search; many a student learnt from him the nature and worth 
of scholarly loyalty. But if in the classroom he reminded one 
a little of Browning's Grammarian, there was another side of 
his character which endeared him to students. In friendly 
conversation or as an after-dinner speaker, humour and wit 
flashed forth through a natural shyness and a natural impas- 
sivity of countenance with an effect of the greatest charm. 
He had a loveable rough-hewnness of countenance of the 
kind that often goes with distinction of mind and character. 
Perhaps an irreverent undergraduate, unconcerned as yet 
with the polite pieties of official history, might have thought 
that his cast of countenance resembled in texture and feature 
that of a wooden African idol, not formidable but striking in 
its impassivity — all the more charming, then, was the wide 
smile which suddenly would transfigure the face to life and 
warm humanity. 

This traditional Trinity jest is associated with Professor 
Duckworth (we hope, rightly). In the dark western wing of 
Old Trinity he came one day upon an undergraduate whose 
mother-nakedness was covered by nothing but a tattered 
gown and a nimbus of smoke from a cigarette. Wit and 
memory inspired Dean Duckworth to quote: 

Not in entire forgetfulness, 

And not in utter nakedness, 

But trailing clouds of glory do we come. . . . 

"Professor Duckworth died in 1927, Professor Young in 1935, and Canon Rollo in 



Professor A. H. Young, "Archie" Young to the genera- 
tions of students who knew him, had in a high degree those 
qualities of wisdom and humanity which enable a good 
teacher to become in the memories of his students a symbol 
of the college in which he taught, as well as of his subject. He 
showed students how a humane mind could touch know- 
ledge and bring it to life in the imagination. Memory reveals 
"Archie" Young discoursing with his slow and deliberate 
speech, digressing now and then from his subject into gnomic 
utterances about the art of living. He had a gentle humour, a 
whimsical and tolerant understanding of the rebellions of 
young students, but he could be firm as a rock when that was 
necessary. Or one pictures him in a Trinity blazer giving tea 
in his room in Old Trinity (he would never allow it to be 
called an "office"), stooping to poke the fire, then turning 
back with some remark, or perhaps some anecdote of men or 
events, spun out, and pitched deliberately in a key of low 
tension to put his students and guests at their ease. On the 
occasion of his retirement a dinner was held in his honour; it 
was attended by over four hundred persons, and messages, 
received from Trinity men and women in many parts of 
the world, showed the high esteem in which he was held. 
His portrait by Evan Macdonald, R.C.A., looks down from 
the walls of Strachan Hall. The white beard, the quizzical 
and kindly twinkle in the eyes, never seem more fittingly at 
home there than when, on the occasion of a College dance, 
he watches the stream of youth, perpetually renewed in 
Trinity, flow by him. 

Remembering the special quality which Canon Rollo had 
for many, one thinks of the phrase "the good man and 
teacher." His prototype lived in The Canterbury Tales: 

A good man was ther of religioun . . . 

He was also a lerned man, a clerk, 

That Cristes gospel trewely wolde preche. 



In his modesty Canon Rollo would certainly have denied the 
aptness of that ascription, but it is a true one. Like Bishop 
Strachan he had come to us from Scotland and there was 
Aberdeen granite in his integrity and sometimes a Gaelic 
lilt in his voice when he was thinking and speaking of the 
poetry of the Christian way of life, a subject on which he 
spoke with unassuming and natural simplicity, though with 
learning and wisdom, not merely because that was a part of 
his academic subject, but also because it was dear to his 
heart and the centre of his being. He had grown up in the 
hot turmoil of the Victorian controversies concerning the 
interplay of science and religion. Science was a lifelong inter- 
est which he would bring to bear in his lectures on dogmatic 
theology. To some of the "war generation," sharply caught 
by the challenge to many anciently revered beliefs and 
values, Canon Rollo's teachings may occasionally have 
seemed a little "old-fashioned," but upon every one of that 
generation who was capable of seeing how a man's life and 
character and quality of thought can bear testimony to the 
essential truth of a living faith, Canon Rollo's influence was 
very great. 

The general business depression which began in the 
autumn of 1929 added to the financial difficulties of the 
colleges and universities in Canada. There was less interest 
from invested funds and many friends of these institutions 
were unable to continue making contributions for their main- 
tenance. Trinity College was fortunate in having on its 
Corporation a considerable number of men who by their 
experience and ability were competent to deal with the 
serious financial and administrative problems which arose 
out of the depression. Largely at the suggestion of the late 
Mr. Kirwan Martin of Hamilton, the committees of Corpora- 
tion had been reorganized and small bodies of men with the 
appropriate knowledge and experience were appointed to 



advise the Executive Committee of Corporation. From that 
time to the present all the administrative and financial 
affairs of the College have been carefully considered at the 
monthly meetings of these sub-committees. We can form 
some estimate of the calibre of the men who have served on 
these committees by the names of Graham Campbell, 
Gerald Larkin, and Frank G. Venables, and some who 
have passed from us: F. Gordon Osier, Archibald H. Camp- 
bell, Victor R. Smith, Craufurd Martin, and Harry Keen. 

The coming of the Second World War affected Trinity life 
in various ways. Those members of the staff who remem" 
bered the impact of the First World War on the College sup- 
posed that what had happened then would happen again. 
They remembered the gradually emptying rooms and cor- 
ridors and classrooms until in 1917 there had been a mere 
handful of students left in residence. 12 Actually during the 
last war the decline in numbers was proportionately less, 
owing to the Government's policy of conscription, at least 
for home defence. Students were encouraged to feel that they 
would be called up when they were needed, and that in the 
meantime they would be serving best by preparing their 
minds and bodies for the responsibilities of command in war, 
or alternatively by preparing themselves to be leaders in the 
post-war world. Nevertheless there was a great deal of 
restlessness and of heart-searching, and it was often hard to 
teach and hard for students to set their minds and hearts on 
learning. Inevitably many students entered the Services 
before their college course was finished and once again, as 
had happened during the First World War, women were in 
the majority in most classes, even though a far larger pro- 
portion of women went into auxiliary services than in the 
earlier war. Those of us who taught during the war years 
saw students coming into College as boys, and each year we 
saw a class of serious and mature young men leave us for the 
Services, vanishing from our ken except for letters from 

"Sec supra, p. 144. 



overseas and for the growing list of names on the Roll of 
Service outside the College Library. Those who taught them 
wondered what things of the mind and spirit they might 
have carried with them from the classroom and from their 
College life. Once again khaki and the blue of Navy or Air 
Force blossomed on the campus and in the classroom. 
Lectures, of course, continued to be given, often on subjects 
that seemed far removed from the harsh and crude realities 
of war, and while a lecturer discussed, it might be, the 
civilized subtleties of Henry James there would come in at 
the window the sound of marching feet and of crisp com- 
mands as, to the north and south of Hoskin Avenue, men 
and women trained for overseas. Instructors could not but 
feel the irony of teaching a humane culture to those who 
must presently go to war. But the strange thing was to dis- 
cover that in spite of restlessness a majority of students 
were almost tensely eager to seize what they might of the life 
of the mind, knowing that their time for it might be short. 

From Trinity in the Second World War 918 men and 97 
women enlisted, a total of 1,015. Of these, eight were mem- 
bers of the staff (five academic and three domestic), 546 
were undergraduates, and 461 graduates and other alumni. 
Sixty-six were killed, 13 thirty-seven wounded, and twelve 
became prisoners of war; six were invalided home and 
seventy-two others received their discharge before the end 
of hostilities. The honours awarded were as follows: of the 
Order of the British Empire two were made Commanders, 
eleven were made Officers and fifteen were made Members; 
one was made a Member of the Royal Red Cross and one an 
Associate Member; one was awarded the Military Medal 
and thirteen the Military Cross (one with bar), two the 
D.S.O., four the D.S.C., five the A.F.C., one the D.F.M., 
and ten the D.F.C. Sixteen were mentioned in despatches 
(one twice). Two received the Croix de Guerre (one with 

13 Scc Appendix, p. 299. 



Gold Star) from the French Government, one the Bronze 
Star and one the Legion of Merit from the United States, 
and two were made officers of the Order of Orange Nassau 
with Swords by the Government of the Netherlands. A 
wood-framed Roll of Service containing, under the motto 
Mef Agona Stephanos •, the names of all those on active ser- 
vice, was placed in the main corridor of the College early in 
the war and extended from time to time until its close. It 
gives the academic year of all who enlisted, and indicates 
those who were killed, or taken prisoner, or who received 
any decoration for their services. A permanent record awaits 
the building of the College chapel, in which it will hold an 
honoured place. 

Much of the restlessness of the war years, the sense that 
one's future was uncertain and that the culture one learnt 
was out of gear with the reality of a world growing increas- 
ingly barbarous, has persisted since the war. It has been a 
difficult era in which to teach effectively and in which to 
learn. As the war progressed, however, more and more re- 
turned men began to come back to college. They brought 
with them an earnestness and steadiness of purpose and a 
maturity of experience which had a very marked effect on 
class atmosphere and college life. 

There were some hundreds of veterans at the College after 
the war. Their average age must have been about four years 
older than that of those fresh from school. It was shown once 
again, as after 1918, that even a long period spent quite 
away from books and formal study nevertheless brings, apart 
altogether from a deepening of purpose, that sense of pro- 
portion and quick intellectual grasp which is summed up in 
the word maturity. These men and women did much, both 
in class and outside, to imbue their juniors with seriousness. 
All who taught them felt the finer quality of response from 
this generation. Even after their departure one can observe 
a more active and critical spirit among their successors than 
was common before the war. 



The need of new residences was felt more and more acutely 
as the years passed. It was clear that the College could not 
do its best work until both Trinity House and the houses on 
St. George Street in which women students were accom- 
modated were replaced by regular residences built for the 
purpose. The new St. Hilda's came first. In 1937 the women 
graduates and others interested subscribed the necessary 
amount of money, and a fine building including a recreation 
room appropriately called Cartwright Hall was erected on 
Devonshire Place. 14 In the meantime, in the College building, 
a distinguished graduate of the College had furnished an 
additional common room in honour of Trinity Rhodes 
Scholars present and future. An energetic building committee 
under the chairmanship of Mr. Gerald Larkin was charged 
with the duty of exploring the problem of new buildings for 
Trinity. Before long a most generous gift enabled Trinity to 
build two blocks adjoining the east and west ends of the 
administration building. 15 Included in these new buildings 
were a Senior and Junior Common Room, Strachan Hall 
with a recreation room (the Rounthwaite Room) beneath it, 
kitchens with the best possible equipment, an infirmary, and 
above all the long-desired residences large enough to accom- 
modate about seventy-five students. These three new resi- 
dence units have been named respectively Welch House, 
Whitaker House, and West House. Two residences on St. 
George Street accommodate an additional number of fresh- 
men. Portrait heads of Provost Cosgrave and Archbishop 
Owen were cut in the quadrangle entrance to Strachan Hall, 
similar to those of Dr. Seager and Chancellor Worrell at the 
entrance to the administration building. The first sod for 
these new buildings was turned in April 1940, by His Honour 
Judge F. M. Morson, '73, the oldest living Trinity graduate, 
and they were officially opened by the Lieutenant-Governor 
of Ontario in September 1941. 

14 See chapter ix below. 

16 These buildings, like the new St. Hilda's, were designed by George and Moorhouse. 



The new buildings made a great difference in Trinity life. 
Trinity House, the remodelled apartment building, was no 
longer a part of Trinity; in its place there were suitable 
residences adjoining the rest of the Trinity buildings. The 
residential system, always a fundamental feature of Trinity's 
educational principles, could be continued under far more 
favourable circumstances even though, with the greatly in- 
creased number of non-residents in the College, it could 
never perform the same unifying function that it had on 
Queen Street. 16 

The building of the new Strachan Hall was scarcely less 
important in its effect on College life. Once again after six- 
teen years Trinity had a fine hall as a centre for its social 
life. 17 Well-remembered portraits which once presided over 
College gatherings in the hall of Old Trinity are back in 
their places. Bishop Strachan and Provost Whitaker con- 
front the visitor or the student as he enters at the south door. 
Chancellors, Provosts, and other distinguished men of Old 
Trinity hold a place on the side wall and to them have been 
added portraits of three men who belonged both to Old and 
to New Trinity — Provost Seager, Provost Cosgrave, and 
Professor Young. Over the south entrance is a minstrel's 
gallery, and above that the Royal Coat of Arms was added 
in 1946 to mark the fact that Trinity was founded by Royal 
Charter. The hall now accommodated all Trinity students 
and staff except for a brief period after the war during the 
high peak of enrolment, when some students had to take 
turns for lunch or else overflow downstairs to "the Buttery." 

16 In some ways the move to the new residences in spite of its many striking advan- 
tages, had more serious effects upon what might be called the unity of the under- 
graduate body. This was partly due to the war conditions at the time of the move, 
which meant that the proportion of younger men to seniors was high for several 
years. After the war three outside residences were still needed to accommodate the 
increased number of Trinity residents, and one outside residence to accommodate St. 
Hilda's residents. 

17 A member of Corporation donated the fine tables and chairs with which Strachan 
Hall is furnished. 



After the years of apartment house residence, Trinity now 
possessed a place where students could dine together in 
dignified and fitting surroundings, and where convocations, 
dances, and large social gatherings could be held. For in- 
stance, in 1950 the annual series of public lectures by mem- 
bers of the staflF, formerly given in Lent in Old Trinity, and 
given for a time in the thirties in the College Chapel, could 
now be revived in a suitable hall. Immediately after its 
erection, the tradition of holding Sunday evening concerts 
there, at which either talented students or professional mu- 
sicians perform, was instituted by the late Mr. Campbell 
Maclnnes. Strachan Hall has been a distinct addition to the 
amenities of Toronto in that the Earle Grey Players have for 
the last three summers given Shakespearean plays either in 
the Quadrangle or, in bad weather, in the Hall, in an archi- 
tectural setting in harmony with the plays. The erection of 
Strachan Hall made it possible to invite the General Synod 
of the Church of England in Canada to hold its sessions there 
in September 1943. Exactly fifty years before, in 1893, the 
first session of the General Synod had been held in Old 
Trinity College. 18 

In November 1944, in the last year of the war, Provost 
Cosgrave announced his intention of retiring in June 1945. 
He had reached the official retiring age for staff members of 
the College and to the regret of everyone who knew the 
nature of his service to the College he firmly asserted his 
belief that his successor should be appointed at once so that, 
before the end of the war brought the heavy responsibilities 
that would ensue from the large influx of men and women 
from the Services, he might have time to become familiar 
with the duties of his office. What Provost Cosgrave had 

18 By a strange coincidence the President of the Synod of 1943 (the Most Reverend 
D. T. Owen), the Prolocutor and Deputy Prolocutor of the Lower House (Canon H. 
F. D. Woodcock and Dr. R. V. Harris, K.C.), and the Secretaries of the Upper and 
Lower Houses (Canon W. E. Kidd and Canon F. J. Sawers) were all Trinity graduates. 



accomplished for Trinity is well described in an official 
minute of the Executive Committee of Corporation: 

The eighteen years 19 of his Provostship have probably been the most 
outstanding in the whole history of the College. The academic standard 
of the graduates and undergraduates has never been higher, and the 
list of scholarships won during his incumbency includes eight Rhodes 
Scholarships, several John H. Moss Scholarships, a Guggenheim 
Fellowship, and many others. The addition of well-qualified professors 
and lecturers to the academic staff and their original contributions to 
learning and research; the development and improvement of the 
Library for which generous grants have been obtained from the 
Carnegie Corporation, as well as bequests of private collections of 
books from friends of the College; the large increase in number and 
value of scholarships, exhibitions, and student loan funds; the outstand- 
ing place which Trinity College holds in the University of Toronto; and 
the erection of the new St. Hilda's College and the splendid new men's 
residence and . . . Great Hall are due in large measure to the leader- 
ship and personality of the Provost. Of him it may well be said — "A 
great man who neither sought nor shunned greatness, who found glory 
only because glory lay in the plain path of duty." 20 

On the sixteenth of November 1944, the Very Reverend 
Reginald Sidney Kingsley Seeley, D.D., Dean of Ontario, 
was unanimously elected the seventh Provost of Trinity, 
to assume his duties in the following June. He came to his 
office in the prime of life, at the age of thirty-seven, with a 
rich background of scholarly and administrative experience. 
He had been a scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge; Tan- 
cred Student and Bell Exhibitioner in 1927; Curate of Rugby 
1932-34; Chaplain of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1934-38; 
Professor of Exegetical Theology in St. John's College, Win- 
nipeg, and Canon of St. John's Cathedral, Winnipeg, 1938-43; 
Warden of St. John's College in 1941. He had been Rector 
of St. George's Church, Kingston, and Dean of Ontario 
since 1943. The degree of D.D. {honoris causa) had been con- 
ferred upon him by St. John's College in 1943. 

"Nineteen years, by June 1945. 

20 Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, November 16, 1944. 



In the late forties a major crisis in the College's finances 
arose and an active group of alumni organized a drive for 
funds among the alumni themselves. Their will and energy 
was an active force in blunting the impact, if not solving the 
problem, of increasing annual deficits. Thanks to their efforts 
the office of Convocation was reorganized on a permanent 
basis to carry on their work, Dr. J. A. Philip being appointed 
Executive Secretary in December 1949. 21 

During the last fifteen years in Queen's Park there were 
many changes in the staff. The death of the Bursar, Mr. 
Sydney H. Jones, in 1937 ended a life largely devoted to 
Trinity College and allied institutions such as Bishop 
Strachan School. His successor as Bursar and Superintendent 
of Buildings was Mr. Elliot G. Strathy. Many new members 
joined the staff in the period shortly before or during the 
Second World War, a number of whom were graduates of 
Trinity. It is desirable that a just balance should be main- 
tained between fidelity to tradition and receptivity towards 
new ideas from without. Fortunately the new appointments 
to the academic staff in the past fifteen years have been 
divided in due proportion between alumni and scholars from 
outside. Among those who retired from active teaching at 
Trinity during those years were a number who had given 
long and devoted service to the College, all of them men or 
women of stature as teachers and scholars and all of them re- 
membered with affection by the generations of students 
whose education they had a hand in moulding. Professor 
W. A. Kirkwood retired from teaching in 1939 but held the 
post of Dean of Arts until 1943. Professor J. N. Woodcock 

21 The office of Convocation, as an administrative organization under Convocation, 
had its beginnings in the twenties. The Reverend Sidney Childs, as Secretary, was 
then assigned as his principal task the recruiting of students. So well was this per- 
formed that it ceased to be urgent soon after the removal of the College to Queen's 
Park. The office of Convocation then undertook routine duties connected with alumni 
activities and the collection and acknowledgment of subscriptions to the Convocation 
Fund. Miss Jacqueline Martin, a graduate of the College, has been, since she entered 
this office, the moving spirit in maintaining contact with alumni. 



retired from teaching in 1939 and as the Registrar of the 
College in 1943. 22 He had joined the Department of Classics 
in 1907 and Professor Kirkwood in 1909. The Venerable 
Archdeacon J. B. Fotheringham, a much-loved Trinity 
personality, whose teaching in the Faculty of Divinity 
had begun in 1907 and had continued with some breaks in the 
sequence and sometimes as an additional duty to his career 
in the active ministry of the Church, retired in 1951. Dr. 
S. A. B. Mercer, a distinguished orientalist, who had joined 
the Divinity staff as Professor in 1923, retired in 1946. Miss 
Laila C. Scott, an honour graduate of Trinity who had 
joined the staff of the German Department in 1916 (Associ- 
ate Professor since 1923), retired in 1951. Miss Gertrude 
Morley, who had joined the Classics Department in 1919, 
retired in 1947. All of these men and women, though they 
have retired, still belong to the larger Trinity community 
where, happily, their friendship can still be enjoyed by their 
former colleagues and by the many students whom they 
taught. But in the last decade two Trinity figures, each of 
whom in his own way contributed to that tradition of a 
College which is made not out of brick and stone but out of 
the living efforts of teachers, have passed away from the 
Trinity community. Professor Herbert Clayton Simpson died 
in 1947, Professor L. C. A. Hodgins in 1948. It is fitting that 
we should quote words from the tribute to their memory 
delivered to the meeting of the Corporation of Trinity. 

Professor Simpson was born in Northampton, England, and received 
his early education at Magdalen College School and at Magdalen 
College, Oxford. In 1896, he came to Canada as Lecturer and Fellow 
in the Department of Physics and Chemistry in Trinity College. In 
1900 he was appointed Lecturer in English and in 1907 Professor and 
Head of the Department. In this position he served the College ably 
for more than forty years. . . . 

22 Thc following were Registrars of the College during the period 1925-52: Professor 
W. A. Kirkwood (1914-23), Professor J. N. Woodcock (1923-43), Professor R. K. 
Hicks (1943 to the present). Professor Hicks has been Dean of Arts since 1950. 



Generations of students knew him as a ripe scholar widely versed in 
English literature, a scientist with a well trained mind, a philosopher, 
mellow and human. Essentially and notably witty he was ever kind 
and tolerant. By the charm of his high spirits he was an unfailing 
inspiration to his students and a constant support to his colleagues. 
Modest, generous and retiring he was to his intimates an unchanging 
friend and counsellor. 23 

Lloyd Clifford Arnott Hodgins entered Trinity College with the 
Burnside Scholarship in English and History in 1900 and graduated 
with a First Class in these departments. After a period of study and of 
teaching in the United States he was appointed in 1920 to the teaching 
staff of this University and served as Professor of English [1922-1947] 
and Dean of Residence [1922-26]. In the academic, administration and 
athletic life of the College he took a zealous and active interest. He 
retired in December, 1947 after twenty-seven years of service. Beloved 
by the students, respected by the graduates and trusted by his fellow- 
workers on the staff he made a worthy contribution to the history of 
this College. 24 

At the first College function held in the new Strachan Hall 
in 1941, a speaker, in proposing a toast to the College, had 
commented on the fact that while New Trinity reproduced 
many of the architectural features of the old building it was 
not, and ought not to be, exactly the same, and he remarked 
that the life of a college does not lie in the permanence of 
stone, but in the living generations of teachers and students 
who compose it, and that traditions ought not to be fixed and 
immutable but should develop and alter flexibly and organ- 
ically with the generations. 

Indeed, for better and sometimes for worse, many changes 
have come to Trinity life during the quarter of a century in 
Queen's Park. Some Trinity customs, founded in far-off 
decades, have either vanished or have been so changed that 
it is doubtful whether their founders would recognize them. 
No longer do year yells (from the earliest years present to the 
latest) and "Auld Lang Syne" resound in the darkened Hall 

"Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, May 15, 1947. 
"Ikid., November 18, 1948. 



after dances and College functions. Met 9 Agona is still sung, 
though few students seem to know more than the words of 
the chorus. Even the colour of Trinity's blazer has altered, 
for graduate students, from red to blue. If Strachan Hall is 
the centre of Trinity's formal social life, the Rounthwaite 
Room, commonly called "the Buttery," is certainly the 
centre of informal social life. Here sandwiches and coffee may 
be bought and consumed at small tables. The Buttery might 
have proved to be nothing but a coffee-shop, but in it in- 
structors often find themselves meeting their students after 
class without premeditation and being drawn into further 
discussion of points raised in class. Here students may have 
among themselves those informal conversations in which 
mind sharpens itself against mind and which are so im- 
portant a part of a student's education. 

Trinity institutions have had their ups and downs. Father 
Episkopon still observes the mores of Trinity students. The 
"Conversat," survives and flourishes. New societies like the 
Arts and Letters Club come and go. The Glee Club, once a 
popular feature of College life in the old building, is no more, 
but its place has been taken by the Trinity Dramatic Society 
which began in the early twenties in Old Trinity and which 
now gives two or three performances a year. 

Over the years, the Dramatic Society has done notable 
work and at almost every point has had talent at its disposal. 
In each year since 1927, except for three years during the 
war, it has put on a full-length play. In addition, it has 
performed many shorter plays, both as part of the University 
Drama Festival and within the College. Talks on drama, 
acting, stage management, and make-up have filled out the 
annual programme. The use of Cartwright Hall at St. Hilda's 
opened up new possibilities which have been eagerly ex- 
ploited. During this period the Society has been constantly 
encouraged by the experience and ready help of Professor 
Hicks, while the major productions, usually given in Hart 



House Theatre, have commanded the services of some dis- 
tinguished directors (including, outside the College, Edgar 
Stone, Dixon Wagner, Earle Grey, and Herbert Whittaker). 
Some of the productions have been very polished and dis- 
tinguished in direction, acting, and sets, while the prompter 
has never played a major role. When Mr. Wilson Knight 
was on the staff, many members of the Society took part in 
his Shakespearean productions, and since Mr. Robert Gill 
has been director of Hart House Theatre they have taken a 
prominent part in plays produced by him. "What, No Crum- 
pets!" (1947-48) and "Saints Alive" ( 1948-49) 25 were entirely 
new ventures into musical comedy; although not sponsored 
by the Society, they were triumphantly successful. The Dons' 
Play has become a somewhat intermittent tradition, with 
a record of eight plays, of which two were revived later, in 
twenty years. Starting modestly in Room 4 and graduating 
to Hart House Theatre, they have given pleasure to large 
audiences and have aided the exchequer of the Dramatic 
Society. 26 

The Trinity College Literary Institute ("The Lit.") has 
had its share of ups and downs, sometimes attracting a group 
of the brightest students and sometimes appearing to sur- 
vive only because no one had the initiative to administer the 
coup de grace. A fine flowering in the thirties found the leaders 
also participating heavily in the Hart House Debates; the 
war brought a break in the tradition of Friday evenings and 

25 Both plays by Ronald Bryden, '50, with music by Keith MacMillan, '49. 

26 The following is a list of full-length plays produced by the Dramatic Society 
during the twenty-five years in Queen's Park: Cyrano de Bergerac (in translation), 
1927-28; The Dragon, 1928-29; Trelawney of the Wells, 1929-30; The Three Sisters, 
1930-31; Much Ado about Nothing, 1931-32; The Beaux' Stratagem, 1932-33; See 
Naples and Die, 1933-34; Berkeley Square, 1934-35; Jonah and the Whale, 1935-36; 
The Tidings Brought to Mary (in translation) 1936-37; The Perfect Alibi, 1937-38; 
Hay Fever, 1938-39; The Romantic Young Lady, 1939-40; Symphony in Two Flats, 
1940-41; The Male Animal, 1941-42; 1942-45, no full-length plays; Chicken Every 
Sunday, 1945-46; Getting Married, 1946-47; The Wild Duck, 1947-48; The Linden 
Tree, 1948-49; Vanity Fair, 1949-50; The Enchanted (in translation), 1950-51; Tartuffe 
(in translation), 1951-52. 



of regular weekly debates. The enthusiasm of the immediate 
post-war years partly by-passed the Lit. Topical subjects 
have alternated with old stand-bys, serious with flippant. 
Joint debates with St. Hilda's have maintained a particular 
type of popularity, but the short experiment of inviting the 
"Saints" to all debates was not successful. Taking all things 
into account the Lit. is, at the time of writing, in as strong a 
position as it has held in the last twenty-five years, and pre- 
sents less need for the reminder that numbers are not every- 
thing, which has been the comfort of some periods. Many 
distinguished debaters have passed out of the Lit.; some of 
them being formed from what at first seemed recalcitrant 
material, others polished by experience in a not too easy 

In the new setting in Queen's Park, The Trinity University 
Review has not merely maintained the tradition developed 
under Dr. Young. It has continued to foster original com- 
position in verse and prose and has even achieved the distinc- 
tion, rare for an undergraduate journal, of mention by the 
late E. K. Brown in his annual review of poetry in "Letters 
in Canada" in the University of Toronto Quarterly. It has also 
been deposited regularly in the Junior Common Room of a 
university in a sister Dominion in the hope that it would 
inspire emulation. Although the summer issue is now a year 
book, recording in detail and with photographs the activities 
of College societies, the other issues give themselves whole- 
heartedly to literary creation and display great catholicity of 
taste. The Review's prosperity is not injured by the founding 
of two other undergraduate publications: The Riot, which 
makes a 'sporadic and often spirited appearance, and Sal- 
terrae y a mimeographed leaflet of Trinity news. 

Just before the recent war The Review had the great good 
fortune to receive powerful reinforcement by its amalgama- 
tion with The St. Hilda's Chronicle. Under that arrangement 
men and women have shared in perfect unity and equality 




Sir John Beverley Robinson, bt., 1853-1862 

The Honourable John Hilly ard Cameron, Q..C, 1863-1877 

The Honourable George William Allan 1877-1901 

Christopher Robinson, k.c, 1902-1905 
John Austin Worrell, k.c, 1914-1927 

Dr. E. A. Welch 1895-1899 Dr. C. A. Seager 1921-1926 

Dr. F. H. Cosgrave 1926-1945 Dr. R. S. K. Seeley 1945- 


Miss Ellen Patteson 1888-1903 
Miss Mary E. Strachan (Assistant 1908-1919) 


Miss Mabel Cartwright 1903-1936 
Mrs. W. A. Kirkwood 1936- 

•W* v .^ff-'^ 

st. Hilda's college i 899-1925 
st. Hilda's college i 93 8 


The first students 1888: Miss Mina Elliott, 
Miss Mabel Cartwright, Miss Constance 
Laing, Miss Ethel Middleton, Miss Ellen 
Patteson, Principal 

The laying of the corner-stone 1937. 
Dr. M. Cartwright and Archbishop 

At the opening of the new building September 1938. Dr. Cartwright, Mrs. Albert 
Matthews, Mrs. W. A. Kirkwood 


Emily M. Shepherd, Gladys Greenwood, Caroline MacGregor, Isabel Jackson, 
Jean Walker, Frances Endacott, Laila Scott, Margaret Haney, Christine Kammerer 


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the positions on the board. It was probably only the presence 
of a succession of able women which enabled publication to 
continue throughout the period when so few men were 
present. The very responsible and onerous duties of the 
business manager have always been performed with remark- 
able efficiency by undergraduates. 

Another highly important change concerns the relations 
of The Review with Convocation. This body had, since 1889, 
given generous support both by its subvention and its sub- 
scriptions and through the counsel of its representative on 
The Review board. Mr. W. G. Colgate for many years 
rendered this valuable service. After the Second World War, 
the vast increase in size and in the scale of activities of both 
the undergraduate and the graduate bodies made necessary 
the separation of the old Convocation Notes from The 
Review and their appearance in much greater detail in a 
monthly bulletin. At the same time, Convocation continued 
its financial support and thus made possible the survival of 
The Review in a difficult period. The knowledge that they are 
writing for other generations besides their own is a valuable 
discipline for undergraduates. It is good, also, that the older 
generations should be enabled to keep in touch with the 
minds of their successors. 

As in Trinity's institutions, so in her educational problems 
and methods there have been both changes and permanen- 
cies. The last quarter-century has seen a large increase in the 
size of the College community. The expansion immediately 
after the move to Queen's Park was rapid, and it became 
necessary to limit the number of undergraduates to 325. This 
number was more than doubled just after the Second World 
War, and it has declined relatively slightly since then, for 
Trinity reflects the increased demand for a university educa- 
tion which has become evident throughout Canada. It is 
everywhere admitted that universities now more than ever 
incur the danger of being turned into mass-production 



establishments where large classes listen for the minimum 
information required by the examiners. Trinity has always 
laid stress on the importance of live contact between teachers 
and taught and has striven, successfully it is believed, to 
maintain this relation in the new and more difficult condi- 
tions. The true aim of education, the development of the 
whole man, has been kept steadily in mind and the value of 
study for its own sake, and not as a means of passing exami- 
nations, has remained our aim. 

The College has never tried to hand pick the applicants 
for admission. It is, indeed, less well endowed with scholar- 
ships than some of its sister colleges, yet the quality of its 
students has remained remarkably high. It has never looked 
with favour upon a too-exclusive concern with studies, and 
its men and women, even the most successful academically, 
have almost always taken their full part in College and 
University activities. But study must be the supreme con- 
cern. It is noteworthy that in this centenary year the 
Provost has with great success inaugurated a ceremony for 
the Admission of Scholars, in which annually the achieve- 
ments of the College's more gifted members will be fitly 

Teaching methods have by no means remained unchanged. 
The College has not rested content with the time-honoured 
method whereby the professor alone gives utterance. There 
has been a steady development of the "seminar" or discus- 
sion method designed to induce a more active participation 
by the student in the work of a group. This is now the 
recognized ideal of instruction, but elsewhere the excessive 
numbers of students often make it impossible. Our own 
seminars are usually just right for the method, which re- 
quires about a dozen pupils for its most effective operation. 
If the number be too small, it may not include the two or 
three exceptionally able and vigorous students whose ex- 
ample is often of incalculable benefit to their fellows. In 



every possible way the student is now encouraged to abandon 
the old passive attitude in favour of active participation. To 
some extent this has been easier to foster owing to the 
necessity, forced upon us by the limited number of lecture 
rooms, of taking classes in the professors' offices, where the 
prevailing atmosphere is less formal. Where the old lecture 
technique is retained, it is now easier for the lecturer to do 
justice to the specific needs of the group. If the aim of educa- 
tion is to "humanize man in society," the first step in the 
process must be to turn the class itself into a human society 
of individuals equally engaged in the pursuit of humane 

Another and most effective means of knowing the students 
personally has been provided by the institution of the tutor- 
ial system in 1946. Upon enrolment, each man and woman 
is assigned for the first college year to a tutor, whose duty it 
is to supervise more closely than would be possible for the 
Registrar the student's work and general activities in con- 
nection with the College life. In most cases it will happen 
that the tutor is not formally teaching his pupil, or "tutee," 
as he has somewhat regrettably come to be called. His task 
is rather to take advantage of the softening process set in 
motion by the judicious administration of food and drink in 
order to induce in his proteges that confiding mood in which 
they will freely seek such counsel as an older person may 
offer. The system has certainly not solved all our problems. 
Some students remain deaf to all offers of hospitality and 
shun all the chances for sage advice held so temptingly before 
them. There have, however, undoubtedly been many stu- 
dents who have been rescued by their tutor from unsuitable 
courses (academic certainly, and social perhaps), and have 
been helped to adjust themselves to the new and strange 
responsibilities and freedoms which come to them at college. 
It is certainly a great gain that in College Committee we 
now seem to possess a more assured knowledge of our 



students than was sometimes the case when numbers were 

A measure of co-operation with other colleges has often 
enabled us to obtain just the right number of students for the 
discussion group. At the same time much duplication of 
teaching has been avoided and teachers have been able to 
devote more effort to developing special interests in their 
studies. It is certainly a great gain that students should 
come in contact with a wider range of minds and methods 
than would be possible if they were to remain throughout 
their four years solely in the hands of the two or three pro- 
fessors in a College department. It is desirable also that 
they should not graduate without having heard scholars of 
distinction who teach elsewhere in the University. 

The move to Queen's Park had important consequences 
for the teaching staff no less than for the undergraduates. 
Its members were brought into much closer relations with 
their Arts colleagues in other colleges and have played their 
full part in the vital work of administration as members of a 
multiplicity of committees of the Council of the Faculty of 
Arts and of the Senate. In scholarly production the staff well 
holds its own with the rest of the University. This is per- 
haps most clearly evidenced in the important part played by 
Trinity in the University's School of Graduate Studies. This 
School, which for many years owed so much to the late Dean 
Brett, once a well-loved Trinity figure, has been thoroughly 
reorganized since the recent war to enable it to offer teach- 
ing on the highest level and to take, if possible, a position of 
equality with the graduate schools of the great American 
universities. Under the present system each subject of study 
is under a permanent chairman, and one of these appoint- 
ments has recently been given to a member of the Trinity 
staff. The share taken by our staff in the teaching of gradu- 
ates is high in relation to its numbers. The work is of the 
utmost importance in keeping our scholars abreast of de- 



velopments in their fields and undoubtedly imparts greater 
vigour and freshness to their teaching at the undergraduate 
level as well. In this connection it should be stated that 
several Trinity professors have been invited to teach gradu- 
ates in the summer schools of Columbia, Chicago, and 

During the period in Queen's Park there have been four 
major developments in the Faculty of Divinity. (1) Under 
the firm hand of Dean Lowe 27 academic standards were 
raised and maintained, so that the College was able to 
secure accreditation by the American Association of Theologi- 
cal Schools. Trinity graduates can now be accepted, without 
condition, for graduate study at any of the major centres of 
theological learning. (2) In 1943, the staff joined with the 
staffs of Emmanuel, Knox, and WyclifFe Colleges to form the 
Toronto Graduate School of Theological Studies, a co-opera- 
tive teaching and examining body which recommends 
properly qualified graduate students for the degree of M.Th. 
to each of the four Colleges. (3) The next few years saw the 
establishment of a new curriculum consisting of required 
courses in the major theological disciplines and a wide range 
of elective courses. This enables the student to specialize, 
and to prepare for the degree of S.T.B., established by the 
Corporation in 1951, in accordance with the general provi- 
sions of the American Association for students of high stand- 
ing. (4) In response to the persistent demand for more 
practical training, an increasing emphasis has been laid on 
the use of the two summers during the course for clinical 
pastoral training in hospitals, penal institutions, and rural 

l7 Dr. John Lowe, now Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, was Dean of the Faculty of 
Divinity from 1933 to 1939. Others who have served in this position since the removal 
of the College to Queen's Park have been the Reverend Dr. K. C. Evans from 1940 
to 1944 and the Reverend Dr. C. R. Feilding from 1944 to the present time. Under 
the old statutes the office of Dean of Divinity was joined to that of the Provost. The 
growth of the College since Federation has led to a separation of these offices. The 
first Dean of Divinity apart from the Provost was the Reverend Dr. T. S. Boyle, 
appointed in 1912. 



institutes. During the academic year all students are re- 
quired to take some practical part in the life of a parish, 
and all this activity is now supervised by a Director of Field 
Work. In these ways it has been possible to avoid the intro- 
duction of too many "practical" courses into the curriculum 
to the detriment of the major theological disciplines, and at 
the same time to provide the student with an increased 
amount of supervised pastoral training. The future will 
probably see further development along these lines as oppor- 
tunities for clinical training open up in Canada. 

A Conference of Clerical Alumni of the College has been 
held annually in the month of September since 1922, except 
in the years 1931 and 1943 when the General Synod met in 
Toronto. The lectures endowed by the late Dean George 
Lothrop Starr 28 of Kingston have been an important feature 
of these conferences. The first Dean Starr Lecturer was the 
late Bishop Charles H. Brent, '84, in the year 1923, and since 
that time many distinguished scholars from Great Britain, 
the United States, and Canada have delivered the Starr 
Lectures. For nearly twenty years the Reverend Harry S. 
Musson and the late Mrs. Musson gave a reception for the 
members of the Conference and their wives at the Toronto 
Hunt Club, and many clerical graduates of the College still 
speak of these gatherings and of the witty speeches made by 
their host and hostess in reply to votes of thanks tendered to 

Trinity has held fast to the best in its educational tradi- 
tion. It has begun to develop new methods designed to pre- 
serve that tradition in new and more difficult conditions. 
There is room for much greater development and a need for 
yet greater freedom to experiment. More space is an urgent 
need for offices and seminars and all the amenities which 
promote personal and individual contacts. If Trinity is en- 
abled to continue to experiment, her example may greatly 

28 George Lothrop Starr, '95, D.D. '14, Rector of St. George's Cathedral and Dean 
of Ontario. 



benefit higher education in Toronto and in the country at 

These are some of the educational concerns which seem 
uppermost in the minds of those who teach in Trinity in this 
year of Trinity's Centenary. The latter half of Trinity's first 
hundred years has seen changes in the world more far reach- 
ing and violent than those which occurred in the preceding 
five centuries. To the accompaniment of two world wars and 
of world revolutions we have moved from the horse-and- 
buggy era into the age of the air and finally into the atomic 
age. Our culture was born and bred in a framework of Christ- 
ian influences to which it seems to be growing increas- 
ingly indifferent. Trinity College was founded in an ancient 
and revered faith and in a culture and a theory of educa- 
tion developed through centuries, and successfully trans- 
planted a hundred years ago to a new college in a new 
land. How much of our spiritual ethos can we carry with us 
over currents of change so swift and so troubled? Let that 
historian who in a.d. 2052 will tell the story of Trinity's 
second hundred years, answer this question. 





elen Gregory, afterwards better known as Judge 
MacGill of the Vancouver Juvenile Court, was 
the first woman to apply for admission as a stu- 
dent at Trinity College. She entered in 1884 and 
after receiving the degrees of Mus. Bac. in 1886 and B.A. in 
1889 took her M.A. in 1890. She had all her lectures at 
Trinity and was never enrolled at St. Hilda's. 

Meanwhile higher education for women was becoming 
a problem which the Provost, the Reverend C. W. E. Body, 
faced with far-sighted statesmanship and an understand- 
ing mind. He was resolved that women undergraduates 
should have, as far as possible, all the privileges which the 
Trinity Charter secured for men. 

His excellent judgment was shown in the appointment of 
Miss Ellen Patteson, later Mrs. Rigby, as the first Principal, 
the two working together most harmoniously in the found- 
ing of a new college. Miss Patteson was the eldest daughter 
of George Lee Patteson, of London, England, a cousin of the 
heroic Bishop John Coleridge Patteson, of Melanesia, and 
was intimately connected with the Coleridge family. On the 
death of her father, she came to Canada with her family and 
took up teaching as a life-work. For a short time she was on 
the staff of Miss Machin's well-known school in Quebec, and 
for many years she was governess in the family of the 
Honourable G. W. Allan, Chancellor of Trinity University. 
A tribute to her has come from a member of the class of '04: 

Mrs. Rigby was gracious . . . she must have made us utterly at ease in 
any circumstances. She never made us feel inadequate. . . . When I was 


st. Hilda's college 

with her I was too young and inexperienced to study her character. 
Looking back, comparing her with other women I have worked with 
(occupying positions of similar opportunities and responsibilities), I 
realize she was outstanding. Not in the way she dealt with crises — the 
way she forestalled crises. Her discipline was the kind one doesn't 
notice, one just gets comfort and security from it. As a girl, I could not 
understand or appreciate her. I only loved her. 

St. Hilda's, like Trinity, was a religious foundation. Its 
name came from the great woman of Whitby, Yorkshire, 
who combined in herself devotion, learning, and statesman- 
ship and who has given her name to so many educational and 
missionary institutions in different parts of the world. Tak- 
ing as its motto, Timor Dei Principium Sapientiae, the new 
College began with the Principal and two resident students 
in a house on Euclid Avenue, rented at twenty dollars a 
month. The Principal's salary was to be $500 a year and it 
was suggested that the yearly fees be $250. For three years 
subscriptions were sought and, at the end of the first year, 
May 1889, the income amounted to $1,659, with disburse- 
ments of $1,442. The first move was to a pair of houses on 
Shaw Street in 1889; the next to two larger houses on the 
same street in 1892, with a house adjoining added in 1895. 

Under the chairmanship of the Bishop of Toronto, a 
Council had been formed, its first recorded meeting being 
held in January 1888, the Reverend J. C. Roper acting as 
secretary and the Honourable G. W. Allan, the Chancellor, 
signing the minutes. The Charter, dated the eleventh of 
February 1890, contains the declaration for the incorpora- 
tion of St. Hilda's College, which was to provide higher 
education for women, in affiliation with Trinity University, 
the trustees or managing directors to be called the Council 
of St. Hilda's College. The minutes of the Council meetings 
give a clear picture of the difficulties of the undertaking, and 
the time, care, and patience devoted to establishing this new 
institution. Various methods to raise funds were begun. 
For instance, in the first year, a series of ambulance lectures 
were given by the staff of Trinity Medical College and 



"every year the friends of St. Hilda's devise some scheme for 
adding to the building fund. ,, 

In 1893 extensive "immediate repairs" were needed on the 
occupied houses and it was thought the time had come to 
appoint a sub-committee to consider the matter of a per- 
manent residence. Although the depressed state of business 
forbade any immediate action, it was not long before a com- 
mittee was appointed to study ways and means of raising an 
adequate sum for the building. It was decided that the loca- 
tion should be close to Trinity College. The College author- 
ities were asked for a loan of $7,000, on condition that the 
Council of St. Hilda's should raise an equal amount. Pro- 
fessor William Jones generously offered a loan of $10,000, 
until the number of students increased to fifteen. With this 
support and faith in the future, the new building was begun 
and Her Excellency the Countess of Minto laid the corner- 
stone on the fourth of April 1899. 

The new building, designed by Mr. Eden Smith with sug- 
gestions from Miss Mary Elizabeth Strachan, and financed 
by the generosity of Dr. Jones and the devoted members of 
the Council, was remarkably well suited to its purpose. 
Situated on the northwest corner of Trinity's grounds, the 
windows of its long front looked south, so that the sun 
poured into many of the rooms, while north and east sides 
looked out upon the picturesque Gore Vale ravine. A distinc- 
tive feature, adding much to the sense of spaciousness of the 
whole building, was the main staircase, a gift from Dr. Jones. 
The students' rooms, well lighted and comfortable, many 
with attractive small fire-places, were naturally the centre of 
much of the social life of the undergraduates; the L-shaped 
dining and common rooms with their folding doors could 
easily be thrown into one; while the large, well-lighted kit- 
chen and pantry, opening from the dining room, were 
efficiently planned for the serving of meals. 

In the meantime, Miss Patteson had become Mrs. Rigby, 
by her marriage with the Reverend Oswald Rigby, Dean of 


st. Hilda's college 

Residence of Trinity, in June 1896. An undergraduate of the 
time has reported on what she terms "the chief event of the 

After one of the Lenten lectures, in 1896, the Dean accompanied Miss 
Patteson to St. Hilda's. The engagement was announced and the 
wedding took place in June, a few days after Convocation. At the 
church, St. Mary Magdalene, we got a real surprise. Where was the 
shepherd check tailored wool dress, with buttoned basque and little 
velvet details, the cute little bonnet with flowers and veil? It was a hot 
day and Miss Patteson had chosen a mauve and white seersucker dress 
and a shady white hat. . . . For the rest of my time, we lived in Shaw 
Street, the Dean and Mrs. Rigby in 331, we in 333 and 335. Of course, 
we watched the slow building progress and hoped that we might, at 
least, move before we left. 

The east end of the new building became the home of Dr. 
and Mrs. Rigby, with sitting room, study, and office on the 
ground floor, bedrooms on the floor above, and doors divid- 
ing both floors from the students' quarters. When this divi- 
sion was no longer needed, the doors were removed and the 
extra rooms freed for students. 

The genial reign of Dr. and Mrs. Rigby came to an end in 
1903, by the appointment of Dr. Rigby as headmaster of 
Trinity College School, Port Hope. Miss Mabel Cartwright, 
the newly appointed Principal, entered upon her duties that 
year. She was the daughter of John Robison Cartwright, 
Deputy Attorney-General for Ontario, and had been edu- 
cated at Cheltenham Ladies' College and Lady Margaret 
Hall, Oxford University, where she obtained honours in the 
School of Modern History. Miss Cartwright taught in Oxford 
High School and in Bishop Strachan School, Toronto, for 
four years, before her appointment to St. Hilda's. Conditions 
were changing because of the increase in the number of 
students and the recently accomplished federation with the 
University of Toronto; but difficulties were gradually over- 
come and the necessary adjustments made. A small advisory 
committee of four men and women, in 1903 and for several 
succeeding years, gave most welcome and ready help in the 



solution of problems which were bound to occur and special 
thanks are due to Professor G. Oswald Smith, Professor 
Michael Mackenzie, and Mr. Fraser Scott who acted as 
Bursar and whose firmness was of great value in settling 
various troublesome questions. Later, when the finances were 
put in charge of the Bursar of Trinity, this small committee 
was no longer needed. Mr. Sydney Jones, Bursar for many 
years, is warmly remembered, and when Louise Hill, '15, 
became his assistant, St. Hilda's was very happy in the 

As numbers increased, some of the larger bedrooms in the 
new residence had to be shared by two students and the 
problem of extra accommodation was, at times, urgent. 
Various expedients were tried, but the most lasting was the 
occupation of the Provost's Lodge across the driveway. This 
house became vacant in 1908 and, to the great good fortune 
of all concerned, Miss Mary Elizabeth Strachan was per- 
suaded to live there as its chatelaine. Undergraduates under 
her care felt themselves blest indeed. Miss Strachan was 
already one of the College institutions; she was the grand- 
daughter of the great bishop and, with her mother and 
sister, had lived in Trinity College with her uncle, Dr. 
Jones, who was a fairy godfather to the new College. Miss 
Strachan's charm and kindly, somewhat ironic, wisdom and 
her unrivalled knowledge of College traditions and history, 
made her an invaluable member of the little staff. "Sympa- 
thetic but not sentimental, understanding but not officious, 
old world in her leisureliness and courtesy, new world in her 
approachableness and her appreciation of fun — the magic 
spirit of that magic room — she has helped in her quiet, de- 
lightful way, to make every one of us." 1 Students also lived 
with Professor and Mrs. Duckworth in their Crawford Street 
house, where they enjoyed much kindness and the stimulus 
of Professor Duckworth's wit and learning. Later this house 

1 St. Hilda's Chronicle , Graduate Supplement, 1925. 



was managed very happily by Christine Kammerer, '08, 
who was very popular with her charges. 

Financial problems were always present, and among de- 
vices for increasing funds was the establishment by Mrs. 
Body of the Lenten Lectures, given annually to supplement 
the College income. This undertaking was energetically sup- 
ported by Miss C. L. Playter, always an enthusiastic friend 
of the College. Lectures of this type were then a new thing 
and the Saturday afternoons at Trinity, with the pleasant 
mingling of social intercourse and mental nourishment, drew 
many friends to Convocation Hall. They were both popular 
and profitable and the College and public were greatly in- 
debted to those scholars who so generously brought ideas, 
old and new, from their storehouse of learning. Members of 
the Trinity staff took a great part of this work but visiting 
lecturers also shared in it. Among the names recorded are 
those of Professors William Clark and H. C. Simpson, and 
others of the Trinity staff, Professors Maurice Hutton and 
James Mavor, Professor John Watson of Queen's, Mr. J. F. 
Waters of Ottawa, Mr. Wyly Grier, Professor G. S. Brett, 
Mr. Gay Andras, and many others. Subjects were varied: 
books and authors, ideals in contemporary art, unrest in 
India, and Dr. Clark's famous interpretation of The Water 
Babies which had obtained the commendation of the author, 
Charles Kingsley. 

The College had opened in 1888 with two students in 
residence, and in 1903 there were twenty in the three aca- 
demic years of that period. Thanks to the enthusiasm and 
organization of the early undergraduates, it quickly became 
a well-knit little community, basing its customs and institu- 
tions on those of Trinity. Various organizations, such as the 
"Lit.," debating and sports clubs, grew naturally and quick- 
ly, the members later taking their share in University and 
intercollegiate activities. 

At first the plan was to preserve a certain independence 



on the academic side; honours lectures were taken at Trinity 
where groups were small, pass lectures at St. Hilda's, thus 
giving the little college from the first a collegiate character: 
it was a college, not merely a residence. Much gratitude is 
due to the members of the Trinity staff who for several years 
undertook to act as teachers: the Reverend J. S. Broughall, 
the Reverend E. C. Cayley, the Reverend H. H. Bedford- 
Jones, Professor E. W. Huntingford, Charles S. Maclnnes, 
and others. But the additional work proved too onerous and 
in 1894 the Corporation of Trinity opened all lectures to 
women. A member of that day writes: 

A radical change was made in the arrangement of lectures: Trinity 
professors had lectured at Trinity in the morning and repeated the 
lectures at St. Hilda's in the afternoon. Now a small room just inside 
the west door was set aside for the women students and their chaperons. 
Miss Patteson went over with the first ones in the morning and came 
back with the last at noon: all morning she sat writing letters and 
answering questions on various academic subjects. I think she must 
have been bored to tears. 

During this time of separate pass lectures at St. Hilda's, 
Miss Patteson lectured in French and German, but after the 
opening of all lectures to the women, she lost this privilege 
and no teaching was hereafter done in St. Hilda's nor did 
any woman teach with the Trinity staff. However during the 
war of 1914-18, as the younger members of the staff volun- 
teered for active service, it was found expedient to call upon 
women graduates to fill vacancies. The first to be given 
appointments were Christine Kammerer, '08, and M. M. 
Waddington, '11, both of whom lectured for several years. 
Later Gertrude Morley, '05, Laila Scott, '05, and the Prin- 
cipal of St. Hilda's became permanent members of the 
Trinity teaching staff. Having met with approval, this sys- 
tem soon was firmly established, to the benefit of the women 
undergraduates and the better balance of the life of the 


st. Hilda's college 

For the first fifteen years this record has been largely 
concerned with moves from one rented house to another. 
Then no sooner had the College taken possession of the 
excellent new building than Federation became an accom- 
plished fact and the agitation for moving began again. Trin- 
ity was thought by many to be too far from the University 
centre; students would never be willing to go there for the 
required lectures and laboratory work, nor would University 
instructors be willing to go out to Trinity. The advantages of 
the slight degree of isolation were not realized until they had 
become departed blessings. 

There were many critics of the new policy. Good friends of 
Trinity felt that more would be lost than gained by the move 
to Queen's Park. The Alumnae Association threw itself into 
the controversy and was very outspoken in its opposition. 
In 1903 the Chronicle had become reconciled to Federation 
and wisely admonished its readers to "be content to sigh 
once and then cheerfully seize all advantages offered." Two 
years later it was stated that "so far, our hopes rather than 
our fears have been realized . . . the social and intellectual con- 
tact with hundreds of other students has been stimulating. ,, 

Yet when the move took place in 1925 it was not the end 
of the moving period: 99 St. George Street, the late Sir 
Edmund Walker's house, became the temporary centre with 
the addition of first one, then two houses, and finally of the 
three immediately to the north. But St. Hilda's still looked 
forward to another move into a permanent building, so that 
until the jubilee in 1938 a spirit of unrest prevailed. The 
same careful economy was necessary, for the quarters were 
temporary and possible alterations or repairs had to be close- 
ly scrutinized, since no unnecessary expenditures could be 
undertaken. Great credit is due to the house superintendent 
and her assistants for the cheerful and skilful way in which 
they overcame the difficulties which arose. St. Hilda's has 
always been fortunate in her administrative staff. In the old 



College Miss Cotterill was remarkable for her meticulous 
attention to every detail and her conscientious devotion to 
the interests of the students. In the St. George Street houses 
the new superintendent Miss Harraden carried through the 
adaptation to new conditions with the energy and ardour 
which characterized her capable work throughout the ten 
years she spent in the College. 

The thirteen years from 1925 to 1938 were attended by 
many inconveniences for the students. They still had to 
share rooms and some of the extra large rooms in 99 St. 
George Street had at times to house three. It spoke well for 
the generally good spirit that these drawbacks were accepted 
cheerfully and partnerships were usually harmonious. The 
open spaces around the old College were exchanged for a 
front door on a busy city street. A little more formality 
became necessary; St. Hildians were now in the public eye. 
The old care-free attitude had to make way for more discip- 
line than formerly. The College was surrounded by tea shops, 
movies, new attractions and distractions, new influences of 
many kinds; the old way of making one's own fun died out 
for there was so much else to do, and the Chronicle regret- 
fully alluded to the "feeds that are no more," as one of the 

There were other losses. One of the charms of the old order 
had been the long summer term — cricket on the pitch at the 
west side of Trinity and tea on the terrace when cricket en- 
thusiasts and social enthusiasts mingled in the enjoyment of 
that gracious sport and shared in the kindly welcome and 
hospitality always given by Mrs. John Strachan and her 
daughters. The Chronicle lamented: 

We at last arc federated, 

And with Varsity united, 

Their strange habits imitated 

Make this summer term our last one. 

Ne'er again through all the summers 

Shall we sit upon the terrace, 



See the men defeat all comers, 
Playing many games of cricket, 
Cricket matches on the campus 
Played in our lamented summer term. 

The new home, most fittingly furnished by the Alumnae, 
was a fine house with large dining room and library, part of 
which became the common room, and a spacious entrance 
hall with a big open fire-place. Then there was the garden 
with its noble trees, said to be "the only college garden in 
Toronto." These things helped to ease the pangs of regret for 
the old building and the excitement of moving and the new 
life and environment proved very engrossing. The move 
swept the student body into the wider life of the University 
and the city, subjecting everyone to the distractions of a 
larger world and different customs and usages. The College 
ceased to be as purely residential as hitherto; the immediate 
increase in the number of non-residents necessitated various 
adjustments, but it brought to St. Hilda's many city girls 
who were a delightful and valuable addition and who identi- 
fied themselves completely with the College. St. Hilda's 
had "acquired the enviable reputation of having no griev- 
ances and no friction over the non-resident question." 

Flowers had never been carried by St. Hildians at Con- 
vocation, and this custom was jealously guarded. Members 
of the graduation class in procession with the women from 
other Colleges were noticeable and often received sympa- 
thetic glances from onlookers who did not realize that the 
absence of flowers was no sign of unpopularity or disregard; 
the "Saints" were secretly proud of their distinction in being 
strictly academic. 

The new environment was exciting, even intoxicating. It 
was hard to remember that St. Hilda's had moved to "Main 
Street." The daily procession to the Chapel at 113 St. 
George Street gained for the students the nickname of "black 
angels," and though discretion and self-restraint were more 



necessary than in the old quarters, it was somewhat difficult 
to exercise these virtues. One of the most helpful influences 
in this transitional period was the wise counsel of the gradu- 
ates in residence with their knowledge of precedents and 
traditions. This change was one of the compensations for the 
move. The additional houses in St. George Street required 
supervision and there was an advantage in having a graduate 
in residence in each house, whose conscientious oversight 
was of great value. They were a welcome addition to the life 
of the College, near enough in age to the undergraduates, and 
yet with recollections of the unwritten events of past years 
which were a source of interest to new-comers and a help 
in solving new problems and meeting new situations. 

The internal administration was based on the year system, 
each year forming a unit with its own place and duties and 
its own character, adventurous and tempestuous, placid and 
comfortably quiet, experimenting, enterprising, "growing in 
beauty side by side" as an observer remarked of one year. 
The Chronicle could boast: 

The year system is our own and we are proud of it. One of the greatest 
of our traditions is the unity of each year. Tradition says no cliques, no 
divisions, let the year be one. If the year system causes unhappiness, 
this is due to lack of courtesy or consideration. It is an encouragement 
to do one's best in work or sport. Out of the diverse elements in a year 
is formed a more or less composite whole which develops its own 
family code. Our year has so far amalgamated that though we argue 
incessantly, and our year meetings invariably end in a riot, we can 
present a united front to the world, and so in removal you will, no 
doubt, in true British fashion effect a workable compromise. 

Possible rigidity found a corrective in inter-year activities 
and friendly rivalries. The system ensured for each student 
a definite place in College and opportunities for her talents 
and interests. The Heads of the four years formed a sort of 
advisory council. In matters of procedure and in planning of 
events, discipline, and regulations the Head of College was 
always a very important person. Appointment as Head was 


st. Hilda's college 

originally based on academic standing, as of course was 
necessary; but it was found wise to consider other qualities: 
tact, straightforwardness, ability to work with others, in- 
difference to popularity, and a willingness to sacrifice time to 
official duties, a necessity which sometimes interfered with 
academic work and the opportunity of distinction in it. 
The College Meeting was the general assembly of under- 
graduates for discussion of problems, redress of grievances, 
and other matters of general concern. The whole system was 
informal, nothing was laid down in writing; it evolved gradu- 
ally to meet needs as they arose. It was a means by which 
disputes could be settled by consent and suggestions or de- 
sires placed before the right authority. 

In the old College, prior to 1925, undergraduates had to 
supply much for themselves in the way of equipment as well 
as entertainment. The period of removals did not provide the 
amenities which later came to be taken for granted, and 
there was little money available for extras. The library was 
built up slowly from very small beginnings. The purchase of 
a piano by the undergraduates, of course with help from the 
generous Alumnae and Council, required careful planning. 
Apart from regularly organized social events, all entertain- 
ment was carried on within doors with plenty of ingenuity 
and fun, one year entertaining another, one floor acting as 
hostess to another. Life was simpler, but there were excellent 
opportunities for the exercise of mental and social talents in 
the societies and in the informal round of what were called in 
the vernacular "college feeds." 

When the question of sororities was raised, as it was bound 
to be sooner or later, the formation of one was sanctioned, 
and Delta Sigma came into being in or about 1905. This was 
an inter-year group whose avowed purpose was to work for 
the College and also to supply special social opportunities 
for its members. It was strictly an internal society with no 
outside affiliations; for a time it worked happily and in- 



conspicuously except when a strange costume would appear 
at dinner and was recognized as an initiation test. But those 
who were not within the charmed circle became conscious of 
a division, too marked in such a small community. It was 
gradually realized that everyone would have to be enrolled 
in some sorority or no one should be. Permission was 
naturally sought by a second group, for the petitioners felt 
themselves excluded from certain privileges, real to them if 
undefined. After careful deliberation it appeared that two 
such groups within so small a community would divide the 
College too seriously. The problem was squarely faced and 
the patriotic purpose of the original sorority was seen in its 
generous offer to suspend operations and cease to enrol new 
members, in fact to go into abeyance on the understanding 
that should the matter ever be reopened Delta Sigma would 
become active again. This generous decision involved real 
sacrifice on the part of the members of Delta Sigma, but it 
averted a serious danger and the College became once more 
united on the foundation of St. Hilda's. 

Relations with the Trinity students were harmonious on 
the whole, with a proper sense of what was fitting, though 
from time to time there was some difference of opinion about 
the degree of responsibility attaching to men or women 
students in case of any irregularity. St. Hilda's provided the 
women with a sphere of their own in which they could be 
themselves, free from the disturbing influences of members 
of the opposite sex. Opportunities for students of Trinity 
and St. Hilda's to meet socially and to share work and games 
were frequent and the tendency was for men and women to 
work together increasingly, but neither College was to lose 
its identity. 

Perhaps the most important institution in St. Hilda's for 
more than forty years was the Chronicle^ which is the main 
source of the information contained in this record. Its ac- 
counts of activities, teas, dances, games, plays, and debates, 



its articles on current topics which give glimpses into the 
thinking of the undergraduates, provide a vivid and realistic 
picture of life in St. Hilda's. Its policy was to take a cheerful 
view and put the best construction on events; little mishaps 
were recorded with a jest and some of the more serious ones 
passed over. Disciplinary difficulties were reflected in edi- 
torials on self-government and on college spirit, but for the 
most part the story moved along lightly, giving food for 
thought and entertainment. 

In its faithful and lively picture of day to day in St. 
Hilda's the Chronicle looked backward and forward. "Cannot 
we hope for a covered tennis court and gym ? Miss Strachan, 
our fairy godmother, has given us box seats and chairs for the 
verandah. The Dean has given pictures to relieve the deso- 
late walls of the so-called Women's Common Room at 
Trinity." "How much we need a piano!" sighed '02. A glee 
club had been formed and there were several references to 
this and to the skill and kindness of Mrs. John Boyd in her 
training of the singers. Many serious articles contained ad- 
vice on professions for women: medicine, journalism, social 
work, librarianship; student conferences at Elgin House and 
elsewhere were described and there were various communica- 
tions from graduates, notably the charming letters from Mrs. 
L. S. Amery. The death of the Reverend Dr. Body in Sept- 
ember 1912 drew a tribute to the devotion and effectiveness 
of his work; to the great development of Trinity under his 
guidance; to the inspiration of his teaching and of his ardent 
faith and widsom; and his far-sighted and energetic action in 
the founding of St. Hilda's. In the following year the death 
of Mrs. Rigby occurred. "She had many of the character- 
istics of what we lovingly call the old school, — the energy of 
character, the upright carriage, the beautiful accurate hand- 
writing, the invariable courtesy and cordiality, — yet she was 
thoroughly modern in her outlook and sympathies . . . she 
had an unfailing sympathy with every side of youthful life 



. . . and was able to infuse institutional life with the indescrib- 
able yet unmistakeable home touch. " 

A literary society is an important element in college life. 
In 1895 at the suggestion of Miss Patteson the "Lit." had 
been established in order to bring all the students together, 
"to instruct and entertain." The earliest Chronicle in the 
archives reports a spirited debate on the short story as being 
injurious to the novel, and debates were continually carried 
on under the auspices of the "Lit." or at times by a separate 
group. Inter-year debates were vigorously contested and 
dealt with a varied list of subjects. Informal discussions too 
were helpful in impromptu speaking and were often very 
lively; when inter-college debates were instituted, St. Hilda's 
played her part valiantly. 

Plays were very popular and inter-year plays were done 
every season. These took place in the Common Room of the 
old St. Hilda's and later in the dining room of 99 St. George 
Street. They were done with zest and often with a good deal 
of finish, considering that the only equipment was such 
costumes as were to be found in the property box. There 
was no stage except for a brief period when a moveable one 
was set up in the south end of the old Common Room. There 
was really nothing to work with, but the young players by 
their ingenuity and imagination overcame the disadvantages, 
turning their necessities to glorious gain by the way in which 
they managed to suggest atmosphere, even when their feet 
were almost touching those of their fellow students in the 
front row. The conquest of these difficulties was a real test 
and the dramatic ability so often shown was a foreshadowing 
of the developments in dramatic art which have come to such 
a flowering in the various drama festivals with their fine and 
varied work. 

Apart from plays and debates, there was a good deal of 
variety in the "Lit." It was not allowed to become purely a 
debating society. There were mixed programmes with music, 



charades, and readings; the novel club was an offshoot and 
papers were given on special books and authors with discus- 
sion following. At times members were reproved for non- 
attendance and one year the Freshies were disciplined for 
their slackness and sentenced to provide the next pro- 
gramme, which their generous judges pronounced the best 
of the season. A notable occasion was that on which Pro- 
fessor H. C. Simpson read aloud H. G. Wells' story, "The 
Star," to an audience stricken into silence by the beauty and 
terror of the narrative, and by the intensity of the reader's 
dramatic power. 

In the early days the College lacked a library, but from 
time to time donations of books were received and after 1903 
a room was equipped with shelves and set apart to serve as a 
reading room. It was, however, the energy of Winifred 
Harvey, '11, which really led to the establishment of a 
library. After a vigorous campaign in 1910 which was sup- 
ported by the graduates and the Finance Committee of 
Trinity, St. Hilda's soon possessed a goodly number of works 
of reference and other useful and interesting books. After 
the move to St. George Street the collection bequeathed by 
Mildred Walker, '25, was added, and the care of the library 
was vested in a committee. Help in cataloguing was gener- 
ously given by graduates who were trained librarians and 
who thus established a firm foundation for further growth. 

Social life was always an important element in St. Hilda's. 
There were many small informal events in rooms, tea and 
talk, one year or one floor entertaining another. One mem- 
ber recalls the sewing teas that Mrs. Welch gave at the 
Provost's Lodge, "when we sat around the fire in chairs or 
on the floor sewing for, I think, the Infants Home, and 
being read to." Hallowe'en parties were always much en- 
joyed and by none more than the onlookers who watched the 
procession of gay and ingenious costumes. Dances were 
always popular: the old Bread and Butter dance, probably 



the fore-runner of the later year dances, when numbers had 
increased and the big dances had to be supplemented by 
smaller affairs; the formal dances held during the year except 
in Lent, a season which in those days was treated with 
respect. Informal evening receptions were also instituted. 
The reception held at St. Hilda's in Convocation week was 
later replaced by the Provost's At Home on Saturday even- 
ing after the series of graduation functions. 

Then there were festivities at Trinity, dances in Convoca- 
tion Hall with strolls through the corridors and visits to the 
students' rooms. Surely there was no place in Toronto which 
afforded greater possibilities for enjoying a dance than 
Trinity. Old St. Hilda's too might have been specially 
designed with a view to dancing, for the dancers could circle 
round the whole ground floor. There was an ease and happi- 
ness about these dances because all had common interests 
and felt at home. In these early days a young bride at her 
first dance at Trinity had such a happy evening that she 
always wished to make a gift to St. Hilda's. This wish she, 
Mrs. F. B. Fetherstonhaugh, fulfilled years afterwards when, 
as a member of the Council, she supplied the furnishings for 
the Women's Common Room at Trinity when the present 
building was opened. 

Serenades from time to time were anticipated with plea- 
sure and enjoyed from darkened windows. They were marked 
by piercing sounds, the tramp of many feet, human forms 
clad in dark, flopping robes walking over the summer flower 
beds, the sound of nameless, tuneless instruments, and, 
finally, outbursts of song. One humourist describes the vary- 
ing emotions of thrilled tremblings and trembled thrillings 
with which the first serenade was heard and the fun of 
listening from behind the curtain; but then, after several 
experiences, a day came when she was disturbed — actually 
— by masculine voices again. Would they never stop? How 
could one "smile the while we bid you fond adieu," when 


st. Hilda's college 

they took such a long time about it? This time the Saint 
groaned and covered her head with her pillow. 

Games always played an important part in the life of St. 
Hilda's. It was realized that University students should be 
the guardians of true sport in which the game is more than 
the player and the ship is more than the crew. Tennis was 
the first sport to be cultivated but there was a hockey team 
as early as 1901. Because of limited numbers it was some- 
times difficult to get enough players to form two teams for 
practices, and in the case of basketball there was the addi- 
tional problem of finding a suitable court. After the move to 
St. George Street the situation improved, partly owing to 
the increase in the number of students. 

One of the outstanding athletes was Frances Endacott, '08, 
who "played the game" in every sense. When she died in 
May 1907 she left behind her an indelible impression be- 
cause of her joyful energy, uprightness, sense of responsi- 
bility, and love of justice. In her memory the Frances 
Endacott trophy was established, originally for tennis, but 
at present awarded for all-round athletic accomplishment. 

In the twenties baseball was promoted to the rank of 
college sport, swimming took a more prominent place, and 
badminton was introduced. A former athlete writes: 

Sports were important in our days yet it was not necessary to forego 
too many other interests in order to take part in them. They fitted 
naturally into a very full existence. 

Apart from the details of particular competitions and tournaments, 
several rather important points emerge. One is the relationship of the 
three levels of competition, inter-year, inter-faculty and inter-col- 
legiate. Each had its place and from the fun and good feeling of the 
many taking part in inter-year games came the interest and support 
which often Carried St. Hilda's to victory in inter-faculty matches. This 
led naturally to the participation of the more outstanding players and 
managers in inter-collegiate sports and they seemed to take their 
places as St. Hilda's representatives rather than as individuals in a 
wider field. 

The other valuable element was the administrative side which also 



functioned on these three levels, closely related and interdependent to 
some extent. Each year had one or more representatives on the execu- 
tive of the College athletic society and it in turn was represented by 
one or more on the University athletic directorate. 

Much was gained by participation in this side of college athletics; 
valuable contacts and new friends were made, methods of procedure 
learned and a picture of the whole field obtained. Here perhaps was 
found the more lasting value of college athletics. 

When the first building was planned the need for a chapel 
was not realized, and the only possible way to repair this 
oversight was to use for this purpose the space over the 
porch. This little chapel was beautifully fitted up by Mrs. 
Welch and her committee; there seemed to be no room for 
the altar, so a super-altar with the cross upon it was set in 
its place. This was carved with little cherub heads modelled 
after Katchinka, the small daughter of Professor Michael 
Mackenzie. Morning and Evening Prayer in shortened form 
were said daily and sometimes special services were held. 
When the move to St. George Street took place a room in the 
north house, No. 113, was set apart as a chapel but it was 
not until the acquisition of the three houses immediately 
north of No. 99 that there was a properly equipped and 
secluded chapel. An altar was then built beneath the old 
super-altar which retained the cherub heads, and the whole 
was furnished as an English altar with riddel posts and 
curtains of deep blue. Brass candlesticks with the vine and 
grapes were placed on either side of the cross and special 
hanging lamps were installed. Undergraduates took turns in 
playing the hymn and reading the daily lesson. Attendance 
at chapel had now ceased to be compulsory and voluntary 
attendance was perhaps more significant. On Sundays St. 
Hildians had the privilege of sharing in the services at 
Trinity and, since 1906, have formed an important part of 
the choir. 

On the active side the missionary or altruistic impulse 
varied to some extent with particular groups or individuals. 
The College alternated between the Woman's Auxiliary of 



the Church of England in Canada, the Young Women's 
Christian Association, and the Student Christian Move- 
ment. In its early days the Student Christian Movement 
seemed to aim too much at standardized effort without 
enough room for the special emphasis needed by different 
groups, in our case the Church emphasis. But the social 
intercourse and the friendships formed were valuable. There 
were many S.C.M. conferences at Elgin House, Lake Couch- 
iching, and elsewhere, one great international conference at 
Des Moines, Iowa, and one at Butterley, England, in 1912. 
"This combined with its open air charm and fellowship, a 
sense of the vitality and power of Christianity and of the 
evil which is its perpetual challenge, especially to the uni- 
versities which must provide Christian leaders for the world 
conflict. The conference gives one the sense of being baptised 
into all conditions." 

Work was carried on by the W. A. Dorcas committee: in 
one year the treasurer reported donations to the W. A. 
pledge; to Russian relief; to missions; to a worker in Japan, 
and to the S.C.M. national movement. Ichimura San, a 
charming young Japanese woman who had been brought to 
Canada by one of our missionaries and lived in College while 
taking special studies, did much to stimulate interest in her 
country and in St. Mary's Home, Matsumoto, where she had 
worked and to which she was returning. Her charm and 
responsiveness captivated everyone and in order to help her 
work financially a sale of needlework was initiated. This sale 
became an annual event for a number of years and was the 
occasion of a pleasant reunion of old students and friends 
who not only supplied articles for "The Sale" but also came 
to purchase. The tea room always did a thriving business 
and the auction of unsold articles at the end of the evening 
was a hilarious finish. 

The increasing awareness of social problems which charac- 
terized the first half of the twentieth century manifested 
itself early at St. Hilda's. As a result of social service work 



at Evangelia House of which St. Hilda's formed the Alpha 
Chapter, at St. Faith's Lodge for girls, at Nathanael In- 
stitute and later at the University Settlement, students 
learned how they could be of value to their community. 
St. Hildians liked especially to work at Evangelia House 
because of their admiration for the enthusiastic devotion of 
Edith Constance Elwood, B.A., a graduate of 1896 who had 
been head worker for many years. 

The war years affected St. Hilda's as they did every other 
educational institution. There was the disturbing presence 
of soldiers everywhere, even drilling in the grounds and close 
to the building, groups of wig-waggers flashing mysterious 
messages about in the ravine, practice in tactics with the 
ravine for British lines, the Crawford Street yards for the 
Germans, and the tennis court for a salient. Study certainly 
lagged with these distractions. The fifty-six men of Trinity, 
commemorated in one of the bells of Hart House Carillon, 
were remembered with pride and sorrow by all fellow- 
students and staff. Real fortitude was manifested when 
casualty lists bore familiar names. The work and activities 
of Trinity had to be carried on as far as possible by the 
women, for the home fires had to be kept burning for future 
days. Many rendered valuable service in war work, in the 
chemical laboratory at Trenton where six of the twelve 
women chemists were St. Hildians, in munitions, in farming, 
in mending at one of the woollen mills where holes caused by 
flaws in the yarn had to be darned. 

When the long-awaited signal of the Armistice was heard 
the whole College sprang into activity. Everyone leapt from 
bed and gathered in the large west-end bedroom; lightly 
clad, all trooped down to chapel to offer a very informal but 
very fervent thanksgiving; later with the Provost's permis- 
sion all attended the morning service at Trinity. After break- 
fast everyone rushed out to take a share in the general 
rejoicing and to see what was going on, and Charles Gossage 


st. Hilda's college 

brought a truck in which a fortunate group drove round the 
city much entertained by the quips of the chauffeur. The 
truck, lined on either side by handsome guardsmen clad in 
jackets of vivid red, was the centre of attraction and carried 
the flags of the Empire and the distinguishing colours of 
Trinity and St. Hilda's. 

As the time approached for the move of the College to 
Queen's Park, many anxious thoughts were given to the 
future of the excellent buildings so soon to be abandoned. It 
was finally decided by an interested group that, with Trinity 
gone from the park, the best use that could be made of the 
houses would be to establish in them an old people's home 
for married couples as well as for single men and women, 
through which the Church would make a contribution to the 
welfare work of the city. The Woman's Auxiliary of the 
Church of England accepted the responsibility for this under- 
taking and soon a vigorous committee took charge and pre- 
pared the buildings for occupation by their new residents in 
October 1925. This committee with some change of members 
from time to time has acted as the Board of Management 
ever since, and under its care and that of the matron and 
house staff, Strachan Houses has been for twenty-six years a 
friendly, happy home for those privileged to dwell there. 

The Alumnae Association, formed in 1897, was from the 
first a most valuable auxiliary, linking the happy intercourse 
of old friends with a broad outlook on larger activities. One 
cannot study the minutes of the Alumnae meetings without 
being impressed by the alertness to important questions and 
the keen attention and watchfulness over the policy of the 
College and all matters affecting its welfare. As the time of 
removal drew near, the Alumnae prepared for it by efforts to 
increase membership and by gathering funds to be available 
when it took place. 

The Alumnae Association was concerned with the need of 
representation on the Corporation of Trinity College by one 



of themselves; for many years Mr. Michael McLaughlin 
and Mr. Gerard Strathy had acted as their representatives. 
Their concern seemed all the more reasonable because women 
had been elected to the Senate of the University since 1910. 
Eventually Provost Macklem proposed that, in view of the 
approaching removal to Queen's Park, the Corporation 
should appoint a council to care for the special interests of 
St. Hilda's and that the said council should consist of 
twenty-five women, fifteen of them to be nominated by the 
Alumnae Association and ten by the Corporation. After this 
proposal had been duly approved by the Association, the 
St. Hilda's College Council was established in 1921 with Miss 
Margery Curlette, '00, as its first president. Its duties were: 
to consider the general policy of the College, to promote its 
interests and deal with any special needs, to act as an ad- 
visory committee on plans for the proposed new building and 
its furnishings, to advise on any expenditure apart from 
routine; it also had authority to raise money for any specific 
purpose and enjoyed a free hand in the disbursement of the 
funds so obtained. One picturesque and profitable plan 
adopted was that of tours to some of the beautiful private 
gardens in the city and its outskirts, a project which gave 
opportunity for some delightful excursions. As 1925 drew 
near, meetings were arranged for Churchwomen to consult 
with them as to steps for giving information about and in- 
creasing interest in St. Hilda's as the Anglican College for 
women within the University. 

The widening interests of the Alumnae are seen in the 
President's address on one occasion when she defined one of 
its functions as being the formation of a nucleus of educated 
opinion on questions of public interest, such as the Victory 
Loan, the re-education of returned soldiers, the need for 
women workers in organized recreation and social welfare, 
Juvenile Court work, and kindred matters. Congratulations 
on their work in connection with the war were sent to three 


st. Hilda's college 

alumnae, Ianthe Constantinides, '98, Christobel Robinson, 
'01-'04, and Ethel B. Ridley, '95, all of whom had been 
"mentioned in despatches" and awarded the Royal Red 
Cross in recognition of their services during the war. In 1921 
and 1922 St. Hilda's had four medical students in residence. 
The presence of the latter, a new element, was an advantage 
to the Arts students; the keenness of the "Meds" in work 
and play was stimulating and the exchange of interests pro- 
fitable on both sides. Later the four young graduates in 
Medicine were enrolled as members of the Alumnae Associa- 
tion, "inasmuch as they have fulfilled the spirit of the 
constitution. " 

The minutes of the Association contain a full account of 
the manner in which the Principal of St. Hilda's received the 
additional title of Dean of Women in November 1915. This 
was brought about through the good offices of Gertrude 
Morley, then President, who learned that graduates of the 
College could not become members of the American Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae because the Principal had no 
vote on the Trinity staff. At the same time it was learned 
that the title of "Dean" was very widely given to women in 
such positions, and for this reason the title was added to 
that of Principal by the Corporation. The title "Dean" im- 
plied a definite jurisdiction not only over the resident, but 
also over the non-resident students who, after the move to 
St. George Street, came in increasing numbers to register at 

St. Hilda's twenty-first birthday was celebrated by a 
graduate reunion in 1909. There was keen interest in pre- 
paration for this event and the reunion later became an 
annual feature of the June Convocation. This, with the 
Alumnae meeting followed by Convocation Tea in November 
of each year, brings graduates together in a happy mingling 
of business and pleasure. In June, graduates return to live in 
residence and share with the graduating class the life of the 



College for several days. Professor A. H. Young had sug- 
gested a dinner for St. Hilda's similar to the one held at 
Trinity for the men, but at that time it was felt that a re- 
union in College would be more acceptable. Although the 
programme later came to include a dinner, the essential part 
of it was the life in College when old friendships were re- 
newed, new ones formed and old times recalled with "Do 
you remember ?" These meetings were always opened with 
prayer in the Chapel and in 1921 special services were begun, 
a celebration of Holy Communion at 8 a.m. and Morning 
Prayer with address at a later hour. June of 1925 saw the 
largest reunion up to that time: members of twenty-five 
years were present, among them Miss Middleton, '90, Miss 
Curlette, '00, and Mrs. J. P. MacLaren (E. C. Elwood, '96), 
while Miss Strachan spent this last gathering in the old build- 
ings as hostess in the Lodge. Intense heat did not interfere 
with enjoyment and everything was at its loveliest. The 
Reverend H. T. F. Duckworth took the choral Communion 
and the Reverend F. H. Cosgrave preached on Abraham 
going forth in faith, and on our going forth, too, in faith and 
in knowledge of our ideals and the purpose of our foundation. 
He spoke of Bishop Strachan's venture of faith in the found- 
ing of Trinity and of Dr. Body's faith in the founding of St. 

Golden sunshine, drifting clouds, the vivid green of early 
summer, and fresh breezes made a perfect four days in June 
1936. Tulips were still in bud but iris, purple, yellow, white, 
and golden brown, were blooming in abundance. One 
hundred and seventy alumnae attended the dinner presided 
over by Mary Winspear, at which Miss Cartwright, whose 
retirement as Principal and Dean had recently been an- 
nounced, was the special guest of honour and chief speaker. 
Miss Waugh's delightful speech to '36 was beautifully 
answered by Edith Ardagh and Catherine Grubbe; the toast 


st. Hilda's college 

to St. Hilda's past was responded to by Elizabeth Newton 
in a whimsically reminiscent vein with an impressionist 
review of twenty-five years, to St. Hilda's present by Ruth 
Rous with mingled humour and seriousness, to St. Hilda's 
future by Marion Moore who touched a deep note in speak- 
ing of the need for direction in life which it should be a gift 
of one's college to impart. Every speech, although marked 
by gaiety and fun, gave evidence of a realization of the 
essential things for which St. Hilda's has tried to stand and 
of the ideals that have survived all failures in fulfilment. The 
year '11 was keeping its own twenty-fifth anniversary, which 
was of particular interest as one of its distinguished members, 
Mrs. M. M. Kirkwood, had been appointed to succeed Miss 

The high esteem in which the retiring Principal was held 
is illustrated by the following quotation from a resolution 
adopted by the Corporation of Trinity College at a meeting 
held on the twenty-fifth of April 1936: 

The Corporation of Trinity College desires to place on record its 
deep appreciation of the services of Miss Mabel Cartwright, B.A., 
LL.D., Principal of St. Hilda's College from 1903 to 1936. 

The success of St. Hilda's as a College is due almost entirely to the 
devotion and skill with which Miss Cartwright has worked during this 
long period of thirty-three years. She brought to her task a fine equip- 
ment in personal character and strong religious convictions. Her not- 
able services in connection with the missionary work of the Church are 
well known to all. At St. Hilda's she was able to maintain a simple but 
sincere religious life which was of incalculable value to the institution. 
Her insistence upon the highest standards of conduct and her sense of 
the importance of dignity and due restraint in all the activities of 
college life have made the influence of our women undergraduates a 
very wholesome element in the University. 

To Miss Cartwright as a teacher, an administrator and a friend of 
undergraduates, Trinity College desires to express its warm thanks 
and, as a mark of its appreciation of her outstanding services, requests 
her to allow it to confer upon her the title of Principal Emeritus of St. 




After an administration of thirty-three years by Miss 
Mabel Cartwright, notable both for the character of the 
remarkable woman who conducted it and for the sound de- 
velopment of the institution which her efforts promoted, the 
third Principal, Mrs. W. A. Kirkwood (M. M. Waddington, 
'11) assumed the position on the first day of July 1936. She 
had served on the Trinity teaching staff for four years and 
then, after obtaining postgraduate degrees, had been a 
member of the staff in English of University College in 
Toronto for seventeen. Her experience included some years 
as Dean of Women in the latter institution. She was the 
author of The Development of British Thought from 1820 to 
1890 and of Duty and Happiness in a Changed World as well 
as of papers on literary and social subjects. Not long after 
her appointment as Principal, she was asked to speak on 
behalf of the women graduates of the University of Toronto 
at a dinner given in honour of Sir William Mulock, then and 
for many years Chancellor. There she was able to quote from 
an early utterance of Sir William with regard to the rights of 
women to a university education, a right "as strong as that 
of their brothers. The refining and elevating influence of 
such an education must, I think, the better qualify a woman 
to play her part in life as a breadwinner, wife or mother." It 
was a similar but more effectual conviction on the part of 
Provost Body which brought about the founding of St. 
Hilda's, the first residential college for women in Canada. 

The graduates who knew the temporary residences on St. 
George Street look back to them with pleasure and affection. 
Those houses had their own character. Traditions were un- 
broken. The characteristic associations and activities of St. 
Hilda's were enjoyed much as they had been since the begin- 
nings. The emphasis upon the individual's duty to the com- 
munity was maintained. Pride in the sense of a college 
playing its part was a strong element in the undergraduate's 
consciousness. Friendship and humour flourished. 



In addition to the maintenance of the regular chapel 
services, Literary Society and College meetings, and athletic 
activities, there were certain aspects of life cultivated in St. 
Hilda's which served to stimulate and interest the students. 
Civilization is an impalpable flower, but its roots are tangi- 
ble enough and may be nourished. In the Spring 1938 number 
of the St. Hilda s Chronicle there are references to * 'Music on 
Sunday Evenings," "After-Dinner Speeches," and "Picture 
Loans," with lists of distinguished visitors to the College. 
Under the first heading we find the following: 

The Oxford Dictionary knows no such thing as "a songster," but 
Canadians and St. Hildians have experienced it as an informal pro- 
gramme of music varying from Bach Chorales to Welsh sea-chanties. 
Once a month, after supper on Sunday evenings, those who were in 
have sung together in the Common Room, and Mrs. Richard Tatter- 
sail's delightful accompaniments and leadership have made this an 
experience that we shall not forget. In the Christmas programme under 
Mrs. Tattersall's direction, "The Twelve Days of Christmas" and 
"Mater, Ora Filium" stand out as special memories. 

Among after-dinner speakers, Dr. A. P. Coleman is men- 
tioned. "Dr. Coleman told us, in the quiet, unimpassioned 
voice that is characteristic of him, of one of his recent ascents 
in the Andes. This is only one of several undertakings carried 
out alone by him in the eighties of a richly full life." Other 
speakers that winter included Dr. Helen MacMurchy, Sister 
Ruth, Miss Charlotte Emery, Miss Anne Davison, and 
Miss Edith Ardagh. Miss Blanche Pittman spoke about a 
headmistress's experiences and Miss Beatrice Gage about 
the uses of nursery schools. Mrs. T. J. Stewart of Perth ex- 
plained how a woman may make her life great by attaching 
herself to, and working for, a great cause, expressing her 
belief that the standards of political life and of society in 
general depend on the integrity and fineness of individual 
men and women. Dr. Norma Ford spoke in an informal way 
about recent researches in heredity. 

"Picture Loans" over the years have provided a live in- 



terest. Beginning with a show by Manly Macdonald, which 
was followed by a group of reproductions from the Art 
Gallery, there have been many exhibitions, none of them 
large, but every one stimulating. The chronicler of 1938 
writes: "Much discussion was roused by these pictures. 
Since our number now includes more than a few students 
taking the new course in Fine Art, the group lunching or 
dining together is sure to include the individual whose 
knowledge of art matches her ardour for the subject of 
her admiration, as well as conservatives who are repelled by 
the unexpected. ,, Canvases by Arthur Lismer are described, 
and a speech delivered by him in the Dining Hall is com- 
mented on as follows: 

Mr. and Mrs. Lismer were popular guests. Mr. Lismer pulled a face of 
contrition when his watch told him he had talked more than ten 
minutes, but the listeners in the dining room pulled faces of dismay 
when he stopped. Chiefly he said that sincere art reflects the artist's 
way of looking at things, and will enrich our lives only if we bring to it 
the open mind and heart. It may be a far-fetched connection, but his 
words carried perhaps the same message as the Archbishop's a year 
ago, when he spoke of religion as a means of quieting the soul and 
bringing it to face reality. 

On Saturday, the thirtieth of January 1937 there was a 
memorable gathering in the College when Marion Long's 
portrait of Miss Cartwright, commissioned by the graduates, 
was presented to her and by her to St. Hilda's. Brief speeches 
were made by Miss Evelyn Gregory, President of the 
Alumnae Association, by Mrs. Kirkwood, and by Miss 
Cartwright herself. Provost Cosgrave paid tribute to Miss 
Cartwright for her successful management over so many 
years, when she had often to cope with problems unknown 
to outsiders. He reviewed briefly St. Hilda's history and 
announced the hope of a new building in the near future. 

On the fifteenth of April 1937 the following were appointed 
to deal with matters arising out of the project to erect a new 


st. Hilda's college 

building for St. Hilda's and to report from time to time to the 
Executive Committee of Trinity College as to the steps to be 
taken in this regard: Mr. Campbell Reaves (Chairman), Mr. 
G. R. Larkin, Mr. G. M. Kelley, Mr. T. Oakley, Mr. F. W. 
Cowan, the Provost, Mrs. W. A. Kirkwood, and Mrs. Britton 
Osier with the President of the Alumnae and Mrs. Molyneux 
Gordon and Mrs. F. C. Clarkson from the St. Hilda's College 
Council. Soon afterwards Mr. Allan George and Mr. Walter 
Moorhouse were appointed architects for the building. The 
appeal for the necessary funds amounting to about $270,000 
met with a most generous response. On the twenty-seventh 
of November 1937 the corner-stone was laid by Miss Cart- 
wright. Mention should be made of a humorous preliminary 
the night before, when a surplice-clad procession of Trinity 
men wound its way up to the site on Devonshire Place, sing- 
ing and bearing lighted candles, and then conducting their 
own ceremonial. 

A generous gift from a graduate and her husband made 
possible the inclusion of Cartwright Hall, a most valuable 
centre for activities of both men and women students. Com- 
mittees of the Council and the Alumnae Association collected 
special gifts for the furnishings. At last on the seventeenth 
day of September 1938 the blue and silver ribbons barring 
the door of the new St. Hilda's were cut by Mrs. Albert 
Matthews, wife of the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario. In 
the absence of Archbishop Owen the prayers were said by 
Bishop Renison and addresses were delivered by Mrs. 
Matthews, the Principal, and the Provost. After the cere- 
mony many visitors were conducted through the building. 

The opening of the new building in the autumn of 1938 
was the first great event of the Jubilee year of St. Hilda's 
College, founded in 1888. On the return of the students on 
Monday, the twenty-sixth of September, a banquet was held 
in the new Dining Hall for both resident and non-resident 
women students. After the building had been explored, all 



assembled in the Large Common Room to hear an address 
by the Principal on the value of tradition and law and how 
these elements work out in College life. Another notable 
event was the visit of Lady Tweedsmuir, the wife of the 
Governor-General, on the twenty-second of November. 
Members of the executive of the Alumnae and of the Council 
and the Head of College were presented to her, and she 
delivered a charming address to the assembled company of 
students and friends of the College. The Jubilee Ball was 
held on the first of December. Among the guests were Arch- 
bishop and Mrs. Owen, the former wearing the buckles at 
knees and instep left by Bishop Strachan and held in trust 
by each Bishop of Toronto. On another occasion in the same 
year a formal dinner party was given in honour of the ex- 
hibiting artists including Mr. and Mrs. George Pepper 
(Kathleen Daly), Mr. and Mrs. Philip Clark (Paraskeva 
Clark), Mr. and Mrs. Charles Comfort, Mr. and Mrs. Frank 
Carmichael, Mrs. Rody Kenny Courtice, and Mr. A. Y. 
Jackson. At coffee afterwards in the Common Room, the 
undergraduates met in informal talk with the artists. 

A congeries of lectures, books, ' 'labs." and talk, with vary- 
ing elements of acting, music, debating, and athletics added, 
make up the pattern of modern college life. This pattern was 
developed somewhat in St. Hilda's by the move to the new 
building, and then gradually modified as the impact of war 
was felt. Such a demand for the admission of women occurred 
in 1939, with a corresponding diminution of men, that the 
Provost recommended adding to the seventy-five provided 
for in the new building. So some extra St. Hildians were 
accommodated, first in the top floor of Trinity College with 
Miss Isabel Hunter as a kindly don, and later at 113 St. 
George Street. From 1945 on, the extra twenty residents 
have lived at 101 St. George Street, now called St. Hilda's 

In July 1940, 160 pupils and fifteen teachers from St. 


st. Hilda's college 

Hilda's School for girls at Whitby in Yorkshire were sent to 
Canada to escape the anticipated bombing. Many of them 
were housed in the College building until financial sponsors 
and winter accommodation were arranged, the latter prob- 
lem being solved by the generous loan of her lovely house at 
Erindale by Mrs. Watson Evans to serve as a main school, 
and the absorption of the overflow by various boarding 
schools. Later on Mr. Clifford Sifton provided accommoda- 
tion for the younger pupils in a large residence on Lawrence 
Avenue. The St. Hilda's College Alumnae Association, under 
the courageous leadership of Mrs. C. S. Leckie, provided the 
pupils and teachers with all that they needed for their per- 
sonal comfort. This was necessary because at that time no 
money could be transferred from England to Canada. Mrs. 
Leckie's committee also secured hostesses among members 
of the Alumnae Association and their friends to provide 
holidays for the children and teachers at Christmas, Easter, 
and midsummer. In the meantime the undergraduate body 
reduced and simplified their entertaining in order to make 
generous contributions to this new cause, without falling 
behind in their missionary and other obligations. Through 
Miss Isobel Pepall, Ontario Commandant, the assistance of 
the Canadian Red Cross was secured to provide drivers and 
cars for conveying the children from place to place. For 
four years St. Hilda's was a centre for the collection of gifts 
and a rendezvous for children, hostesses, and drivers. 

Perhaps the incident best remembered in connection with 
St. Hilda's School is the arrival at St. Hilda's College one 
day in early June 1941, of eighty pupils and teachers from 
Erindale. The plumbing there had broken down, and an 
immediate evacuation was necessary. The double-decker 
beds came first and were set up in rows in Cartwright Hall 
for the younger children, while behind the stage curtains 
were beds for some of the staff. Provost and Principal joined 
with other workers in order that there might be places for all 



the children on their arrival. It happened that at that time a 
Y.W.C.A. conference was occupying one floor of the build- 
ing! The school's summer term was, however, completed at 
St. Hilda's College and the closing was held in the garden. 
Many will recall how at Convocation time Miss Rusted 
managed meals for the children in one relay and for return- 
ing graduates at a second. 

To correspond with the military training exacted from 
undergraduate men in the war period, certain services were 
required of the women students. The choices included lec- 
ture courses on domestic conservation, St. John Ambulance 
courses, instruction in air raid protection, V.A.D. courses, 
and service in the city hospitals. Both graduate and under- 
graduate members of the College served as drivers in the 
Transport Section of the Red Cross Corps. Of course many 
St. Hildians were on active service in the Navy, Army, Air 
Force, Army Medical Corps, and Red Cross Corps. Among 
the honours won may be mentioned the award of M.R.R.C. 
(Member of the Royal Red Cross) to Major Edith Dick, of 
Associate Membership in the Red Cross to Lieutenant 
Neville Hamilton Compston and to Nursing Sister R. M. 
Lister Hunter, and of membership in the Order of the 
British Empire to Miss Isobel Pepall. After the war the last- 
named was matron of St. Dunstan's until her marriage in 

Games were still played, lectures were attended, and the 
institutions of the College were maintained throughout the 
years of the war. The opening of Strachan Hall in September 
1941 led to a closer association of men and women students. 
From 1942 the June dinner in honour of the graduating 
class became a joint event attended by both men and women. 
In the same year The St. Hilda s Chronicle was merged with 
The Trinity University Review. The early years of the joint 
magazine were marked by great activity on the part of the 
St. Hildians, for Sonya Morawetz, Lynn Howard, and Jane 



Coyne acted in turn as editor-in-chief, and much excellent 
writing was contributed by the women. 

Among institutions at St. Hilda's the Chapel is the oldest. 
It has been the scene of morning and evening prayer with 
occasional celebrations of the Holy Communion through all 
the years. While much of the old furniture remains, a lovely 
altar-painting has been added, with the Mother and Child 
for subject, flanked by St. Hilda and St. Augustine. There is 
also a new lectern of natural oak. These are gifts from a 
friend of the College who secured the services of Mr. William 
Rae as architect and of Miss Yvonne Williams to fashion a 
medallion of stained glass for the centre window. Two medal- 
lions were added later, by the same artist, in memory of 
Valerie Dell Adams of the year '14. The three pieces depict 
scenes from the life of St. Hilda. 

Historically the Lit. stands next to the Chapel and in a 
manner its activities may be said to serve spiritual interests 
also. For some years the programme has been divided be- 
tween debating and acting. Debates have been conducted on 
subjects connected with politics, education, and social life. 
Humour is one offshoot of this aspect of College life and 
humour has often been the direct aim, especially in the joint 
debates with the Trinity College Literary Institute. As for 
the plays, the range of subject and of merit in presentation 
has been wide. Chosen almost at random, there may be 
mentioned as distinguished performances by undergraduate 
players The Merchant of Venice by the year '45, The Alchemist 
by the year '49, and 1066 and All That by the year '51. St. 
Hildians here prepared the costumes, made effective sets, 
and acted the parts of men as well as women with success. 
Thus effort and skill were exercised that are not always 
drawn upon when St. Hildians join in the work of the Trinity 
Dramatic Society. The latter society has, however, afforded 
a second and very popular field for the acting abilities of 
members of St. Hilda's. 



Success in games has varied, with recent glories won 
oftener in swimming, tennis, and badminton than in other 
sports. The hockey victories of 1941 and 1942 have almost 
come our way again on one or two occasions, but whether 
champions or not, we recall with pride such stalwarts as 
Elaine Knight, Gladys ("Tarzan") Carvolth, "Joey" Wells, 
the Fletcher twins, Donna Haley, and Margaret Martin. Pat 
Cockburn, Mary Matthews, and "Curly" Matthews match 
Joan Griffith and "Tibs" Annesley of an earlier day, while in 
swimming there have been such brilliant performers as Joyce 
Cobban, Phyllis Manning, Diana Jacob, and Louise Willard. 
Large numbers have participated in these sports, and the 
fun and good fellowship are immense. Hilarity reaches its 
peak perhaps when each autumn the St. Hilda's College 
Athletic Association sees its first baseball team play the 
staff, and spectators throng the Trinity field. 

The co-operation of men and women has been gradually 
extended in many fields. In the autumn of 1946 a new joint 
club was formed, the Arts and Letters, arising out of lectures 
on Shaw to the first year. At the "Conversat." in 1948, an 
operetta called "What, No Crumpets!" was produced by 
Keith MacMillan and Ronald Bryden. The animation of 
singing and acting by Trinity men and St. Hildians matched 
the originality of score and dialogue. The following year a 
musical comedy by the same authors, entitled "Saints 
Alive," was produced in Hart House. Voices, acting, and 
scene painting of men and women together served to bring 
out delightfully the musical gift and vivacious poetic humour 
of Trinity's young Gilbert and Sullivan. 

Contemporary joint interests of men and women show 
how far the College has moved from the temper of the 
infant institution. If it were not that academic honours are 
sustained, St. Hildians winning from time to time the medal 
for the best degree and in the graduating year 1951 thirteen 
out of the fifteen Trinity rankings in first class, adminis- 


st. Hilda's college 

trators might be seriously troubled. The Hamilton Spectator 
republished in April 1951 a notice that appeared first in April 
1891. It runs as follows: "St. Hilda's College is an institution 
which, in affiliation with Trinity University in Toronto, 
offers to ladies a University course leading up to the B.A. 
degree. St. Hilda's has now been established for three years. 
The students reside in the college building where lectures are 
delivered by members of the professorial staff of Trinity, 
the disadvantages of co-education being thus avoided." 

There have been many other interesting developments in 
student life at St. Hilda's. The Christmas Party has come to 
include the presentation of a Nativity play in Middle English 
(from the Coventry cycle). The House Party in Muskoka 
should not be omitted. At the end of the May examinations, 
groups of third- and fourth-year St. Hildians have travelled 
northward to holiday together, cooking their own meals, 
reading, canoeing, playing games, and swimming. Perhaps 
an incident on Lake Rousseau in 1951 will prove a model for 
the St. Hildian's life in the world. As Elizabeth Southgate of 
the year '52 paddled back to the cottage one day, to bring 
the last members of the house party to a picnicking point, she 
heard cries for help coming from a lonely part of the lake. 
She was able to reach and rescue a lad from drowning just as 
his boat was sinking beneath him some distance from the 
shore. It may be considered old-fashioned to quote from 
George Eliot, but the college girl in the canoe may belong as 
surely to the choir invisible as the devotee in a religious 

Graduates of St. Hilda's now number more than one 
thousand, and include teachers, lawyers, physicians, nurses, 
business workers, and, more than all, wives and mothers. 
The St. Hilda's College Alumnae Association numbers 
among its members some of the leading women of Canada. 
Sixty-four years is a short time in the life of an institution of 
this kind, but in that period St. Hilda's has become firmly 



established among the colleges which seek to promote the 
higher education of women in this country. The vision of its 
founders has been realized, although perhaps not quite in the 
way that they anticipated. Through its closer association 
with Trinity College and the University of Toronto, St. 
Hilda's has entered a larger academic life and gained for its 
students many new privileges and opportunities. The record 
of students and graduates shows that so far they have not 
been unmindful of the warning in the Gospel, "To whomso- 
ever much is given, of him shall much be required; and to 
whom they commit much, of him will they ask the more." 




rinity College was at the outset essentially 
English in tone, an exotic so to speak, transplan- 
ted from the Old Land to the New. Its first pro- 
fessors were graduates from English universities, 
and the members of the staff, with few exceptions, were men 
of English birth and training. It was logical, therefore, that 
the customs of the College should follow the English pattern. 
The terms "dons," "gyps," "gates," and "impots," meaning 
the professors, servants, fines, and impositions sounded 
strange to Canadian ears. Such Americanisms as "profs," 
"hazing," "sophomore," "campus," and "commencement 
exercises" (instead of Convocation) and the like would sound 
equally strange to old graduates brought up in the traditions 
of Trinity, traditions adapted from English university life. 
From the first it was emphasized that Trinity should be 
a residential college. On that memorable day, the fifteenth 
of January 1852, when the College was inaugurated, the 
Honourable and Right Reverend John Strachan, Bishop 
of Toronto, in his address to the assembled students, 
praised the advantages of collegiate life. 1 "Itwould seem," 
he said, "that nothing is more likely to benefit Students 
than to afford them an opportunity of living together in 
society — of which the regular attendance upon religious 
ordinances, the observance of correct and gentlemanly 
habits, and obedience to a wholesome restraint, would form 
prominent features. Thence we infer that without residence 

^enry Melville: The Rise and Progress of Trinity College, Toronto (Toronto, 1852). 



within the College, the full benefit of collegiate life and edu- 
cation cannot be obtained/' 

The College building was erected at a time when little 
thought was given to things now regarded as indispensable 
to comfort and convenience. This was true of the students' 
quarters, where a fire-place in each room was the chief, and, 
indeed, the only source of heat, and the soft coal used was, 
in 1862 and later, charged to the students' account. The 
"upper western," as the Divinity corridor was called, was 
heated by one huge wood stove which burned great chunks 
of hardwood. This fuel served a double purpose: it gave 
warmth, and, when needed, it served as a weapon of defence 
against raiders. "Curses, not loud, but deep" there were in 
plenty, for we learn from the columns of Rouge et Noir> in 
1880, of many complaints about the purchase of thirteen 
self-feeders (or "base-burners") for the halls, to supplement 
the lecture-room "warmers" of various patterns, and the 
thirty fire-places in rooms throughout the College. Comment- 
ing thereon the editor pertinently asks whether this system 
is cheaper and more satisfactory than a steam furnace 
would be. The following winter complaint is made that 
several students were late for 7:30 chapel,"owing to precious 
moments lost in excavating a hole through the ice in the 
water-jugs," and that "the temperature is still very low in 
spite of fourteen stoves or so; we heartily wish that some 
better plan for warming our corridors would be devised." 2 

Smoking, the traditional solace of students, was prohi- 
bited in College. When not too obtrusively evident in the 
corridors, it was often winked at by the Dean, but those who 
were fond of "the weed" were driven to various devices for 
the enjoyment of what is now an almost universal luxury. 
Both Provost Whitaker and Bishop Strachan had strong 
objections to the practice and rigidly enforced the regulation. 
In 1860, a petition from the students to the Corporation 

i Rouge et Noir y January 1880 and February 1881. 



asking for some amelioration of the rule was referred to a 
committee consisting of the Provost, Mr. John Hillyard 
Cameron, and Mr. George W. Allan. This committee recom- 
mended "that the Provost be authorized to relax the existing 
rule so far as may appear to him reasonable." 3 

If a student wished to go into the city — it was then far to 
the east of the College — he had to return before evening 
chapel, when the doors were locked. Two evenings a week, 
however, a student could obtain leave to stay out until 
midnight and sometimes, as a great concession, even later. 
"Down town" was some two miles away, and he had to 
walk every step of it there and back, unless he could get a 
lift on one of the many wood-sleighs returning empty to the 
country. There were few buildings west of Spadina Avenue, 
street-cars were unknown until 1861, and few students could 
afford cab hire. 

A custom of the College referred to by one of these early 
students was a daily social gathering much appreciated by 
the men. At the summons of the steward's bell after 9:30 
chapel, they gathered in the dining room or the common 
room for a glass of beer with crackers and cheese. It was an 
occasion for reunion, good fellowship, gossip, and friendly 
argument which was greatly enjoyed, and the hospitality of 
the steward was seldom abused. Many lasting friendships 
were cemented as a result of these gatherings. 

"There were giants in those days," men who attained high 
honour and won distinction and esteem in various walks of 
life, in the church, the state, and education. "Parsons, 
judges, lawyers, physicians, men of business, they are to be 
found, not in Canada only, but in every quarter of the 
globe . . . they have held their own wherever they have gone. 
They learned at Trinity not so much to be specialists in any 
particular department of knowledge, as to be Christian 
gentlemen, exponents of the honour and courtesy which 

3 Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, November 6, I860. 



form the foundation of the noblest characters. This is one of 
the advantages, and it is a most important one, of the 
residential system of student life. ,,4 

There was a literary society from the first. Originally a 
debating society, organized at the Diocesan Theological 
Institution in Cobourg in the forties, it was transplanted to 
Trinity when the Institution became the Faculty of Divinity 
in the new College in January 1852. From that date it was a 
weekly feature of College life during the winter months. 5 The 
reception of a freshman into the Lit. was an occasion to be 
remembered. He was required to make a speech or sing a 
song or generally make of himself an object of mirth and 
good-natured raillery. 

But that was only the beginning of the initiation pro- 
ceedings. This was followed by the "rout," a rather terrify- 
ing experience. In those early days the unfortunate freshman 
was aroused in the middle of the night, and his mattress 
pulled from under him; then he was dragged from his bed 
and taken to a basement room, usually one of the "cata- 
combs," and compelled to drink from a pewter vessel what 
might have been, for all he knew, a potion of deadly poison. 
If he survived this ordeal he was subjected to further inflic- 
tions. One student was so affected by the treatment that he 
left Trinity never to return. Provost Whitaker, realizing the 
harm to the College which might result if the news got 
abroad, called the students together and delivered so severe 
a lecture on the occurrence that the "rout" was abandoned 
the following year. But the initiation, although originally 
harmless and sometimes conducted with a semblance of 
dignity, developed, as years went by, into something more 

4 See "From 1852 Onward," in The Review, June 1902. 

'There is in the possession of the College the minute book of the Debating Society, 
which records the last meeting in Cobourg on December 5, 1851, and on the next 
page, the first meeting at Trinity College, Toronto, on January 23, 1852. At this 
meeting there were proposed for membership Messrs. Beaven, Bogert, and Langtry 
of the first year. They were duly admitted at the next meeting on February 6, and 
from then on the debates became more disputatious, if not contentious. 



serious and far less excusable. Practices were introduced 
which, in the opinion of the authorities, not only interfered 
with the liberty of the student but subjected him to personal 
indignity. Instead of a mild initiation it came to be known as 
the "inquisition" and in the late eighties assumed such pro- 
portions that Provost Body was compelled to take summary 
action. Under threat of rustication for the ring-leaders and 
heavy fines for all others concerned he put an end to it for a 
time. The senior students were compelled to subscribe to a 
declaration that they would neither participate in nor 
countenance such initiations in the future. 

But despite the Provost's efforts initiations of sorts con- 
tinued. They were carried on in out-of-the-way places and, 
as long as they were mild affairs, they were winked at by 
the Dean. In the early days of Provost Macklem's regime 
matters again got out of hand and he determined to put the 
initiation down once and for all. Since students were being 
recruited from the high schools of the Province, he did not 
want parents scared off with alarming tales of hazing and 
persecution. Early in the Michaelmas Term of 1901 certain 
regrettable incidents occurred which gave him his oppor- 
tunity. He called a meeting of the whole College and stated, 
in no uncertain terms, the disgrace it would be to the College 
if there was any publicity. In this he was supported by Dean 
Rigby, Professor Michael Mackenzie, and Professor H. C. 
Simpson, who were all graduates of English universities. The 
Provost pointed out that, if the College Council took 
official notice of the affair, scholarship holders might lose 
their scholarships, and others involved might be "sent 
down." As an alternative the authorities offered to overlook 
it if every man would sign an undertaking that he would 
never again take part in such affairs. After some discussion, 
and not without a certain feeling of resentment on the part 
of the student body that they had been forced into a false 
position by these threats, an agreement was reached and 



initiations abolished, it was hoped, for all time to come. In 
addition there was a "gentlemen's agreement" that there 
would be no more interference with the personal liberty of 
any student. 

With the turn of the century there came several changes in 
College customs. Shortly after the initiation affair, although 
not directly connected with it, the time-honoured custom of 
serving beer in Hall was discontinued. Although the edict 
came from the Provost under a general order that the use of 
all alcoholic liquors would be abolished after the seventh of 
March 1902, this action was initiated by a petition signed by 
a majority of students and presented to the authorities. Thus 
came to an abrupt end an institution half a century old. This 
prompted a new version of an old song, of which the chorus 
ran, in part: 

Milk, milk, glorious milk! 

Fill yourselves right up with milk. . . . 

Don't be afraid of it, drink till you're made of it. . . . 

Up with the sale of it, down with a pail of it 

Glorious, glorious milk! 6 

The following year saw the end of the Pelican Club, one of 
the last of a long list of traditions and customs concerning 
the freshmen which had linked each generation of students 
with those that had preceded it. The Pelican Club was a 
boxing club which every freshman was compelled to join 
and then fight several rounds with another freshman. These 
"bouts," originally organized under the guise of athletic 
competition, had degenerated into mere "slugging" matches, 
with so little regard for the ethics of "the manly art," that 
the senior students recommended the abolition of the club. 
The Review, with its usual conservatism, while lamenting the 
disappearance of worth-while traditions, congratulated the 
students on voluntarily ending the Pelican, when it was 

6 The Review, March 1902. 



plain that the club was on the down grade and would sooner 
or later be abolished by the College authorities. 

One of the institutions peculiar to Trinity, established 
almost at the beginning of the College and still observed, is 
Episkopon. 7 "Interwoven in the warp and woof of College 
tradition and association runs the thread — the yearly visits 
of the venerable Father Episkopon. It has been the weapon 
of righteous indignation, humorous upbraiding or scornful 
reproval, just and meet." 8 Its motto Notandi sunt tibi mores 
has indicated its policy since the publication of the first 
manuscript book in 1858. Originally intended as a monthly, 
it became an annual visit. The message of the benign Father, 
through the mouth of his scribe, was delivered, usually, on 
the seventeenth of March, 9 the anniversary of the turning of 
the first sod prior to the erection of the College, but the 
reason for choosing that particular date is obscure. Although 
the monitory office of Father Episkopon has not always 
found favour in the eyes of the authorities, and has been 
frequently and adversely criticized by the undergraduates, 
it has, in the eyes of the graduate body, served a useful 

Attempts have been made from time to time to discontinue 
the annual visits of the venerable Father. In the early 
seventies there was trouble brewing. The freshmen resented 
the repeated criticisms, the holding up to ridicule of their 
foibles, "the shaft of sarcasm, the blaze of wit, the thunder- 
bolts of censure and the merry jests. " They also maintained 
that they had no privileges, no representation in the Literary 
Society, in fact no rights at all. They rebelled and set them- 

'Whether the venerable Father came with the opening of the College is uncertain; 
but, in 1858, according to H. N. Taylor, '26, "he took up his quarters in the pepper- 
box belfry from which lofty abode he has kept faithful watch over his children." 
The Review, Farewell number, 1925. 

^Trinity University Year Book, 1896 and 1897. 

9 "The glorious 17th of March — Father Episkopon pays us his visit on that day as 
usual." The Review, February 1903. 



selves up a false god by the name of "Kritikos," a publica- 
tion on the same lines as Episkopon's annual message, under 
the leadership of John Farncomb, '77, then a second-year 
student. The first number of Kritikos appeared in February 
1875, and was almost entirely his work. There was no 
Episkopon that year, nor again until 1879. Kritikos lasted for 
three issues, but by 1877 even Mr. Farncomb grew restive 
under its too acrid wit. "Thus it happened that the very 
scribe and his colleagues who had so affectionately gagged 
their venerable Monitor, began to repent of their former 
deeds and resolved to renew their old allegiance. Mr. Farn- 
comb became the scribe for 1877-78, but it was an empty 
honour; Father Episkopon considered they needed a lesson 
and gave out that his aged constitution would not permit his 
appearance." 10 Consequently, there was no message. Since 
1879 there have been but two years without the Father's 
annual message: 1887-88 and 1945-46. 

Many who became distinguished graduates have filled the 
office of scribe to the Venerable Father, notably, to mention 
but a few, the Reverend C. J. S. Bethune; Canon Arthur 
Jarvis; the Reverend C. H. Shortt; the poet Archibald 
Lampman, Scribe for two years, 1881 and 1882; Michael A. 
Mackenzie; Charles S. Maclnnes, Q.C.; John G. Althouse, 
now Director of Education, Province of Ontario; the Rever- 
end Harold McCausland; Archdeacon F. J. Sawers; R. V. 
Harris; the Reverend W. Lyndon Smith, a Rhodes Scholar; 
Archbishop Charles A. Seager; and Archbishop Derwyn T. 

In the early days formal dinners were held at infrequent 
intervals. They were chiefly the Christmas dinner given by 
the students to which the dons were invited and the June 
dinner given by the authorities at the close of examinations. 
Of a more select or family character were the "freshmen's 

10 From the article by R. V. Harris, '02, K.C., M.A., D.C.L., Scribe of Episkopon, 
volume XL, in The Review, June 1902. 



spread" and the SS. Simon and Jude supper on the twenty- 
eighth of October, the day of the annual steeplechase. This 
event developed later into a day of general athletics, and the 
supper became an occasion for the formal presentation of 
awards. With the increase in the student body in the late 
eighties the SS. Simon and Jude supper was enlarged still 
further into a University and Convocation banquet. It 
proved to be a function of great value as an annual ' 'get- 
together" and was only discontinued on the outbreak of the 
war in 1914. 

The origin of the College colours, red and black, is another 
tradition handed down from the early days. But here, we 
have definite authority. A former student, Frederick Barlow 
Cumberland, '67, has related how the colours came to be. 

One day when the football team was going out to play with Trinity 
School [T.C.S.] which at that time was domiciled at Weston it was 
thought well to have some mark by which to distinguish the players. 
[The writer] had with him a piece of Cheltenham College ribbon, being 
alternate bands of crimson and black. This being cut into smaller 
portions, a piece was pinned on the shirt of each player, so that those 
on the University side might be thus identified. 

The expedient spread; its utilities in the football and the cricket 
field were evident, while it also furnished a convenient mode of evidenc- 
ing esprit de corps and connection with the alma mater. The present 
Trinity University colours of scarlet and black, as now worn, were then 
formally adopted. 11 

And that, too, is the reason the name Rouge et Noir was 
given to the predecessor of The Review. 

Among other student activities which came into being in 
the early days was the Glee Club. Most of its efforts were 
confined to the College, but occasionally the members sallied 
forth on a serenading trip by moonlight. A favourite place for 
their nocturnal serenades was Mrs. Foster's Ladies Academy 
on Grenville Street — St. Hilda's College then being un- 
thought of. The Club had its ups and downs, success of 

n Ibid. y January 1889. See also Rouge et Noir y vol. II, no. 2. 



course being largely dependent upon the vocal talent of its 
members. But it never died out completely and in certain 
years acquitted itself, to use a favorite Victorian phrase, with 
great eclat. 

An entertainment popular in the early seventies was the 
occasional minstrel show, a student enterprise which was 
looked upon with disfavour by the dons and the Provost, 
who professed himself profoundly shocked when he heard of 
it. To quote the reminiscences of Canon Arthur Jarvis: "Our 
audience was not used to this kind of performance, but, 
robbed as it was of all vulgarity and made to turn on college 
and society life, it took very well. George A. Mackenzie was 
the dignified 'middle man'; Allan Anderson was one un- 
dignified 'end man'; Henry Osborne Jones the other; old 
Greene 12 looked benevolent in burnt cork; Burnham [John 
Warren] played second fiddle; Jarvis tootled his flute and 
Clarke [the Reverend W. Hoyes] filled in at the piano." 13 
Such were the recreations of the period. 

In the eighties there also flourished the Trinity College 
Choral Club organized by John Carter, '82, later of Pusey 
House, Oxford, and mayor of that city. He was of a musical 
family, his father having been for many years organist of 
St. James* Cathedral. Among the active members of the club 
were two future bishops, Charles Scadding and Charles H. 
Brent, both singers of ability. Their singing of the "Gobble" 
duet from La Mascotte seems to have been a tour deforce and 
much in demand. The club travelled to many outside points 
during vacation and their concerts, whether in country 
school-house or in Osgoode Hall, were equally appreciated. 14 

Annual concerts were popular in the gay nineties. Thanks 
to the Reverend Canon F. A. P. Chadwick we have the pro- 

12 Canon Arthur Jarvis, '71, Rector of Napanee, from his manuscript "Remini- 
scences," in the possession of his daughter, Miss Julia Jarvis, of the University of 
Toronto Library. 

13 Canon R. W. E. Greene, Div. '71, L.Th. '84. 

u Rouge et Noir, vol. Ill, no. 2. 



gramme presented by the Trinity Banjo, Guitar and Mando- 
lin Club in April 1894. The Club was trained and conducted 
by a professional and consisted of five performers on ban- 
jeaurines (a diminutive banjo of higher register than the 
ordinary instrument)— C. Richards, W. R. Wadsworth, H. C. 
Osborne, Chris Sparling, and Lome Becher; four banjos, 

E. P. O'Reilly, Alexis Martin, Frank DuMoulin, and D. F. 
Campbell; four guitars, Harry Southam, Charles Mockridge, 
J. D. McMurrich, and E. C. Clarke; and four mandolins, 
played by S. G. Bennett, Le Grand Reed, F. A. P. Chadwick, 
and E. G. Warren. 

At a concert and dance in Convocation Hall the following 
November there were eleven musical numbers, including 
part songs and vocal and instrumental solos. After two hours 
of patient and polite attention on the part of the students, 
on came the dance, "twenty and an extra!" Compare it with 
one of the present day. There were ten waltzes, two lancers, 
three schottisches and five deux temps (a rapid form of the 
waltz); the committee responsible for this entertainment 
was made up of the Reverend Frank DuMoulin, H. B. 
Gwyn, H. C. Osborne, E. Glyn Osier, and F. A. P. Chadwick. 

About the year 1905 a few members of the honour Moderns 
classes, who frequently met in Professor A. H. Young's cosy 
room for tea, a friendly chat, or general discussion, raised the 
question, "Why not a Trinity Glee Club?" With "Archie's" 
enthusiastic support, ably abetted by Geoffrey Holt, '04, 
Howard Coulter, '05, Bruce McCausland and Arthur 
McGreer, both of '06, and W. W. Judd, '08, results followed 
fast. "Archie" was appointed Honorary President, Hamilton 
R. Mockridge, '04, President, a conductor in the person of 

F. C. Coombs, previously choirmaster at T.C.S., was secured, 
and the infant society was launched. It was a success from 
the first, and its initial concert in Easter Term 1906 created a 
most favourable impression. The concert became an annual 
event, the programmes presented receiving highly compli- 



mentary press comments. Mr. Coombs was a talented and 
successful conductor who could arouse and maintain the inter- 
est of the students. Until 1915 the chorus was made up entirely 
of men but the war had its effect on the enrolment and it 
became necessary to include women students. After the war 
efforts were made to revive the Glee Club, but its thirteenth 
concert in 1922 marked its last performance and it dis- 
banded. The Dramatic Society was increasing in popularity 
and it was found difficult to maintain and support many 
societies in a small college. 

Wars and rumours of war ! The patriotic feeling aroused by 
the Crimean War in the fifties and by other conflicts, and, 
finally, the fervour which swept over the country in 1861 on 
account of the "Trent Affair" resulted in the amalgamation 
of the several independent volunteer militia companies in 
Toronto and vicinity into one unit, the Second Battalion 
Volunteer Militia Rifles, subsequently to be designated by 
Her Majesty the Queen as the Queen's Own Rifles of Tor- 
onto. Number 8 Company, organized in 1861, was known as 
the Trinity College Company; Number 9, organized nearly 
a year later, as the University College Company, 15 A student 
of those days recalled, forty years later, the value of the 
exercise and the spirit of camaraderie developed in the Trinity 
Company; it brought the non-resident students into closer 
social relations with the residents and was a good thing in 
every way. 16 Fifty students and graduates joined the com- 
pany at its formation and were fortunate in having Major 
Robert B. Denison of Bellevue (Toronto) as their first com- 
manding officer. So well did they acquit themselves at the 
first inspection in February 1862 that the Adjutant-General 
expressed the opinion that this was among the best volunteer 
corps he had inspected. 

15 In March 1872, the designation of companies was changed from numerals to 
letters, and the University College Company was known thereafter as "K" Company. 
16 D. F. Bogert, '63, in The Review, December 1902. 



On the thirty-first of May 1866, the Queen's Own Rifles, 
together with other militia regiments, was called out to 
repel the invasion of the Niagara Peninsula by a force of 
Fenians, an attack which had been expected for some 
months. The Trinity men doffed cap and gown, put aside 
their books, and two days later were actively engaged in an 
action which took place near Ridgeway, a few miles west of 
Fort Erie. With the impetuosity of youth, the regiment went 
into action without waiting for the support of the regular 
forces. The University College Company suffered the most 
severely, with three men killed and four wounded. The 
Trinity Company, under the command of Captain L. P. 
Sherwood, advancing in open skirmishing order on the ex- 
treme left, suffered no casualties, and remained in action 
throughout the fight. After the Fenians withdrew, the regi- 
ment proceeded to Fort Erie and two days later was sent, as 
a precautionary measure, to Stratford (an important railway 
junction), there to remain until the eighteenth of June. There 
they were joined by other volunteers, which increased the 
Trinity company's parade state to sixty-five. Twelve of these 
Trinity men subsequently took Holy Orders. 17 

The company continued on the active strength of the 
Queen's Own Rifles as the Trinity College Company until 
1876, when it was disbanded. It had been felt for some years 
that the time taken for military duties unduly interfered with 
the academic work of the College. Attempts were made from 
time to time to revive interest in military training but 
without avail. In December 1880, on the reorganization of 
the 10th Battalion into the Royal Grenadiers, a Trinity Com- 
pany was proposed; but this attempt was unsuccessful owing 
to the small registration in the College. Trinity men have 
always been to the fore when danger threatened the country 
and the Empire, notably in the Northwest Rebellion in 1885, 

17 A complete list is given in the article by Mr. S. Bruce Harman, "The Trinity 
College Rifle Company," ibid., June 1902. 



the Boer War, 1899-1902, and, of course, in the Wars of 
1914-18 and 1939-45, which will be dealt with later. 18 

The enrolment of matriculants in Michaelmas Term 1867 
was the smallest in the history of Trinity — seven in all; but 
the life of the College went on. Most of the new-comers were 
from Trinity College School, then at Weston, but with the 
exception of William Osier 19 and R. Gregory Cox, both 
brilliant and hard-working students, the majority, freed from 
the restraints of home influence, found the discipline not too 
rigidly enforced and often easily evaded. They defied ' 'gates" 20 
by patronizing private entrances through barred windows, 
easily negotiated. As one dean remarked in a clever parody 
some years later, 

Trinity's a stage, 
And all the students in it are but players, 
They have their exits and their entrances, 
Known only to themselves and hidden from the Dean. 21 

The wearing of cap and gown in the streets was, for many 
years, a cause of friction. The authorities, to use the words 
of an old graduate, seemed to regard an ungowned student 
as "an indecent exhibition of academic nakedness." Trinity 
men, as at Oxford and Cambridge, were required to wear 

18 In the Northwest Rebellion, which broke out in March 1885, the following 
Trinity men were with the colours: George Herbert Broughall, '83, Robert B. Beau- 
mont, '82, and J. Earl Helliwell, '79, who was severely wounded at the battle of 
Batoche. In 1894 six Trinity students were members of "I" Company, popularly 
known as "Murray's Dandies," namely, F. A. P. Chadwick, H. B. Gwyn, C. H. Lee, 
E. Glyn Osier, W. L. Baynes Reed, and E. C. Wragge. 

I9 Sir William Osier (1849-1919) entered Trinity from Trinity College School, 
Weston, in October 1867. In his first year he won the Dickson Scholarship, but in the 
fall of 1868 decided to follow the profession of medicine. From 1868 to 1870 he was a 
student at the Toronto School of Medicine; then he transferred to McGill University 
where he graduated M.D., 1872. Two years later he returned from Europe to join the 
teaching staff of the McGill Medical Faculty. In 1902, at the Jubilee Convocation, 
Trinity conferred upon him the degree of D.C.L. {honoris causa). 

20 To be "gated" originally meant being confined to the College precincts as a penalty 
for over-staying leave or some such breach of regulations. In 1868-9, the penalty was 
changed to a fine, e.g., for going out without cap and gown the fine was twenty-five 

21 The Review, April 1904, verses by Dean Duckworth, 



academicals in the streets, but the University of Toronto 
men were not, and if any of the latter were encountered 
there was usually trouble. When Trinity men went into 
town, ungowned, it was a game of "hide and seek" between 
them and the professors, and fines and impositions and 
"gates" were of constant occurrence. If he was successful in 
evading detection the student still had to manage entrance 
to the College unnoticed. One of the gentlest, most devout, 
and most conscientious of the senior Divinity men occupied 
a room on the ground floor and there was a strong suspicion, 
never proven, that his windows were used by fellow residents 
for purposes other than light and ventilation. 

A petition of the students in 1866 that the wearing of the 
cap and gown in the streets during the severe winter was 
prejudicial to health received the following consolatory con- 
sideration of the Corporation: "That in respect to the 
memorial of the students on the subject of wearing the 
academical dress in the streets during the severity of the 
winter, the Corporation is of the opinion that the present 
cap may be made sufficiently warm by the addition of black 
fur to meet all reasonable objections, (if approved by the 
professor in residence), and that the gown must still be re- 
tained." 22 Needless to say the suggestion was not adopted. 
Ten years later, however, the rule requiring the wearing of 
cap and gown outside the College was withdrawn. 23 

Although the coming of Provost Body in 1881 did not 
materially affect the attendance at first, the result of his 
enlightened policies became evident in the later eighties, 
described by one graduate as the "growing times of Trinity." 

The erection of the Chapel in 1884, the extension of the 
western wing five years later (which doubled the previous 
accommodation), and the addition of lecture rooms well 
lighted and heated, a proper reading room, and an athletic 

^Trinity College, Minute Book of Corporation, December 11, 1866. 
™Ibid. y May 10, 1876. 



room all contributed to the convenience and physical com- 
fort of the students. "There was more opportunity for good 
fellowship, and the line was not too distinctly marked 
between residents and non-residents. Even the year dis- 
tinctions were not emphasized except in the freshman's first 
term ; class feeling was of later growth. The good fellowship 
found expression in social gatherings in students' rooms, 
where music, or a game of whist and a modest supper from 
the buttery contributed to the general enjoyment. And this 
fellowship entered into every phase of the college life, work, 
sports and leisure, invariably resulting in the formation of 
life-long friendships. " 24 

The first-year enrolment in 1886 reached twenty-seven. 
Among well-remembered names were D'Arcy Martin, 
Harold Bedford-Jones, J. Grayson Smith, Ford Jones, 
Stewart F. Houston, and H. P. Lowe (father of the present 
Dean of Christ Church, Oxford). The class also included the 
first woman graduate, Miss Helen Emma Gregory, and her 
future husband, James Henry MacGill. 25 

In 1887 enrolment fell off considerably, but that of 1888 
was large again and proved a powerful factor in College 
politics. It could hardly be otherwise with such men as W. H. 
White, an eminent classical scholar; G. H. P. Grout; F. C. 
Powell, later a Cowley Father; J. H. H. Coleman, to become 
an Archdeacon; J. A. Leigh ton, Ph.D. Cornell, and Professor 
-at Ohio State University; R. H. Clive Pringle, later a 
Senator of Canada; F. B. Howden, a future Bishop of New 
Mexico; J. G. L. Abbott; J. G. Carter Troop, a journalist of 
experience and ability, and eventually Professor of English 
in the University of Chicago; and Thomas W. Powell, Div. 

24 The Reverend H. H. Bedford-Jones, '89, D.D. '20 {honoris causa) in The Review, 
February 1903. 

26 Mrs. MacGill was the first woman to take lectures in Trinity, the first woman to 
receive the Bachelor of Music degree ('86), one of the first to graduate Bachelor of 
Arts ('89) and Master of Arts ('90). She was the first appointed Juvenile Court 
judge of Vancouver (1917-29; and again 1934-47). 



'93, as a student a mixture of levity and seriousness, of 
laxity and ambition, a maker of warm friends, who were both 
surprised and delighted at his later achievements. 26 

The beginning of the last decade of the nineteenth century 
was particularly promising both to the authorities and the 
friends of the College and to the undergraduates. The first- 
year enrolment in 1890 was so great, comparatively, as to 
delight the dons and alarm the grave and reverend seniors. 
How was such a swarm of freshmen to be properly con- 
trolled ? Had not the ' inquisition" in all its horrors been sternly 
prohibited and the threat of rustication directed against 
anyone found guilty of indulging in such Roman practices? 
But such fears were soon allayed. The freshmen showed a 
proper deference to their elders and, when one of their 
number did transgress the proprieties, they were perfectly 
willing that he should be properly disciplined. The Reverend 
H. B. Gwyn described his year in 1903: 

In point of scholarship none of our number was brilliant, not because 
they lacked capacity but simply because they did not try to be; and 
but few could be characterized as reading men. Their brawn and brain 
were devoted more to College institutions, and if the good Provost 
sighed in his saintly way, and that grand old gentleman of history and 
philosophy [Professor Clark] raved, and Mr. Smyth, professor of the 
sciences, was in despair, the institutions, which, after all, are half of 
a man's education, profited by the new infusion. In all elections the 
first year held the balance of power. In one of the most exciting elec- 
tions for the presidency of the Literary Institute it was '93 that put 
the redoubtable freshman "Biddy" DuMoulin 27 at the head of the 
polls and two or three of their number on the council. " 28 

The College journal, Rouge et Noir, was transformed in 
1888 into The Trinity University Review, the former title, on 
account of its imaginary association with a popular game of 
chance, never having found favour with the College author- 

26 Chapter vii, supra, p. 141. 

27 The Right Reverend Frank DuMoulin, '92, M.A. '94, D.D. (jure dignitatis) '16, 
Coadjutor Bishop of Ohio. 
28 The Reverend H. B. Gwyn, '93, in The Review, March 1903. 



ities and many of the older graduates. In every way, how- 
ever, it was the same publication and like its predecessor, 
"a Journal of Literature, University Thought and Events," 
with the same motto, Fortiter> fideliter, forsan feliciterP The 
man who "made the Review" was undoubtedly Jared G. 
Carter Troop, '92. Entering the College in 1888, he was the 
first freshman to be appointed to the editorial staff and to the 
position of business manager. He had had considerable 
journalistic and business experience before entering Trinity 
at the age of thirty and this stood him in good stead when he 
was appointed editor-in-chief the following year. Under his 
management the circulation of The Review and its advertis- 
ing soon doubled. Early in 1889 an arrangement was made 
with Convocation for an annual subvention. In return for 
this grant Convocation was allowed representation on the 
Board, exclusive use of specified space, and copies for all its 
members. In addition, news items from St. Hilda's College, 
Trinity Medical College, and Trinity College School were 
welcomed and the journal became in fact, as well as in name, 
The Trinity University Review. After his graduation Mr. 
Troop continued as editor-in-chief until May 1896, so that 
his association with The Review and the College extended 
over eight years. In his interesting article in the Jubilee 
number of The Review in 1902, he mentions with appreciation 
some of the men associated with him on the editorial staff: 
Tracy Norgate, '90; Harold Bedford-Jones, '89; F. B. 
Howden, '91, who wrote up the sports; Charles Hedley, '92; 
and Charles S. Maclnnes, '92, the latter a sound scholar, and 
one of the most intellectual men ever in Trinity. Mr. Troop's 
mantle fell on Henry Campbell Osborne, '96, whom he had 
trained as his successor and who carried on the traditions 
laid down by his tutor. 

The financing of any periodical is always a problem and 
that of The Review (and its predecessor) was no exception. 

29 See chapter iv, supra, p. 82. 



Advertisements had to be secured, for few journals can sub- 
sist on subscriptions alone. In the days of Rouge et Noir the 
editor was offered what then was a small fortune by the 
proprietor of a well-known patent medicine if a student 
could be prevailed upon to "do" King Street, at the fashion- 
able afternoon parade of beaux and belles, with a sandwich- 
board to advertise his nostrum. The temptation to earn easy 
money was great, but the risk of incurring official displeasure 
was greater, so the offer was regretfully declined. Twenty- 
five years later an enterprising advertising manager of The 
Review undertook to obtain an advertisement from a well- 
known firm of undertakers near the College gates, if the 
managing editor would accept it. To the consternation of the 
editor (now an eminent director of education) he appeared 
the next day with the signed contract for an advertisement 
which read, "Back to the land and small holdings — See 
Bates and Dodds, Queen St. West." 

Whence came the College song Me? Agona? All traces of its 
origin are lost. It is not as old as the College — one who had 
been among the first graduates recalled a chorus Nunc est 
bibendumjratres which, he said, had "long been superseded by 
a better tune." 30 According to the late Reverend Charles H. 
Shortt, '79, and the late Kirwan Martin, '82, the present 
version is not the original one. At any rate it was not the one 
sung in the sixties. The original version may have seen the 
light nearly ninety years ago, for the tune to which it was 
and is sung, Maryland \ My Maryland was popular at the 
time of the American Civil War in the 1860 , s. 

Algernon Boys, Professor of Classics 1878-90, contended 
that Me? Agona had been brought from a German univer- 
sity by one of his predecessors, Dean Ambery, Professor of 
Classics in 1856. Professor Boys did not like the verse and 
composed another version in both Latin and Greek. 31 

30 "From 1852 Onward," in The Review, June 1902. 

31 C. Y. Connor: Archibald Lampman (Montreal, 1929), p. 47. 



Whether this is the one used today is problematical, but 
Canon Jarvis said that in his time (1867-71) Mef Agona 
always preceded the reading of Episkopon. 32 

In 1942 Mr. Shortt and Mr. Martin wrote for The Review 
their recollections of Me? Agona and its history. 

In the University Memorial Tower there hangs a bell, the Trinity 
bell of the carillon; and on that bell there is the inscription Met* Agona 
Stephanos. Whoever chose that motto must have been inspired, for 
nothing could express more perfectly what Trinity wanted to say about 
those who had given their lives in the Great War — "After the struggle 
the crown." Since we began singing those opening words of the chorus 
over seventy years ago, they have had many applications, but never a 
more perfect one. 

We are now moved to write about Met' Agona because we feel that 
misapprehensions exist concerning its history and use, and that one of 
the unique features of Trinity has been neglected in recent years. Our 
desire is that its history should be made known so far as it can be 
ascertained and that the song should take its proper place, a prominent 
one, in suitable College functions, and be recognized as an important 
institution, having an honoured place, with a permanent appeal to 
Trinity men, a bond binding them together. What is there that appeals 
more to Trinity men in gatherings of past and present than the singing 
of Mef Agona by the whole body assembled, putting their souls in the 
singing, recalling memories of happy days of College life, an outpouring 
of the souls of the singers ? This cannot be done with the singing of one 
verse and one chorus. To rouse the singers and to get to the depth of 
their beings, at least four verses should be sung. 

By Mef Agona we mean the three Greek verses as sung at the SS. 
Simon and Jude's dinners — together with the St. Hilda's verse. 

The latter is in Latin, and is attributed to Professor E. W. 
Huntingford, a member of the staff in Classics from 1891 to 

'Op/zacojuefl', a5e\<t>oi, Brothers, let us hasten 

els aywa deivdv, To the fierce conte st, 

, a , torwe are perfectly capable 

vikclv iravTa exupov. . r r 

Of conquering every foe. 

32 Canon Arthur Jarvis, 71, "Reminiscences." 



per ay&va artyavos After the contest come the crown, 

/xeXos Kal wifor' The and {he M 

aipcofieU es to reXos T it- 

)& kvSos <t>aiSp6v. Let us > t0 the md > w,n 

For ourselves shining glory. 

'AxiXXevs 6 Trodapnys Achilles the swift-footed 

djAprjs re Sew And? of the ^ Ares> 


« i & <^> « n Zeus and Heracles 

rjao-aoivd v<j> rj^v. . 

Could be vanquished by us. 

Xatpojuev yrjdoavvy We rejoice with delight 

Afomi koJ iJ^ And> celebrating with song, 

't sz n We make music to Simon and 

lovoav re duo. . 

Jude, Saints twain. 

Sanctam Hildam canimus In treble voice 

In voce puellae We sing in praise of St. Hilda's 

Unde mox exibimus, When we shall presently go forth, 

Doctae atque bellae. Learned and beautiful. 

Other verses have been added from time to time. One 
(1895), also by Professor Hun tingford, which had no connec- 
tion with the Greek verses, was in Latin and to the effect 
that "too much spirits intoxicate the freshmen. " 33 Another 
(1899), also in Latin and by Professor Hun tingford, was 
written to celebrate a rare occasion, the victory in football 
over Varsity. In 1901, when the Duke and Duchess of York 
visited Canada, Professor Oswald Smith contributed two 
excellent verses in honour of our future sovereigns, King 
George V and his gracious consort. A Greek verse was added 
in 1921 for the installation of Provost Seager, and one by 
Dean Duckworth, also in Greek, in honour of the sixth Pro- 
vost, Dr. Cosgrave, on his taking office in 1927. 

33 This Latin verse is frequently sung and runs as follows: 

Nimium cervisii 
ebriat tirones; 
non oportet fieri 
vappas nebulones. 



A paraphrase of the original song by Professor Duckworth 
is worthy of preservation. 

Forward men of Trinity Peleus* song the swift of foot 

To the deadly battle! Jove with all his thunder 

Fall upon the enemy Brass-hat Mars and Hercules 

Scatter them like cattle! One and all go under. 

Field-day's crown of joyful feast Cheer and roar for we have done 

Shout and song victorious; Mighty deeds to rhyme on, 

Trinity amid the stars Praise we all the blessed pair 

Blazing ever glorious! Holy Jude and Simon. 

In concluding the article referred to, Mr. Shortt and Mr. 
Martin urged the restoration of the annual reunion to the 
College calendar, on SS. Simon and Jude's Day, the twenty- 
eighth of October. The Old Boys' football game, followed by 
dinner, would have an appeal to graduates and under- 
graduates as an unique opportunity for meetings of old 
friends and the revival of old memories by the singing of 
Met' Agona. "Zeal," said they, "was the outstanding feature 
of the two apostles, SS. Simon and Jude, and zeal is the point 
of our College Song, whether we apply it to a rugger game 
or to an examination, to a battle in Egypt or elsewhere, or to 
a contest within ourselves." 34 

The Dramatic Club, of which Lally McCarthy, '92, was 
the prime mover, came into existence in 1890, with per- 
formances in the College and an occasional visit to nearby 
hamlets and towns. The Club met with success and, with the 
help of a professional coach, produced such well-known 
plays as Byron's Our Boys, Burnand's Betsy, and Pinero's 
The Magistrate, This last, their most ambitious attempt, 
was produced in a down-town theatre in 1894, the proceeds 

34 It is worthy of note that both Mr. Shortt and Mr. Kirwan Martin were each, in 
turn, Trinity's oldest living graduate. Mr. Shortt, who was born in 1858, graduated 
in 1879 and died in April 1948 in his ninetieth year. His busy life of nearly ninety 
years was, almost to the day, the length of Bishop Strachan's (1778-1867). Mr. 
Kirwan Martin graduated in 1882 and died in 1950 in his eighty-seventh year. Both 
were distinguished graduates and both maintained an intense love for their College 
throughout their long and useful lives. 



being for the benefit of the Athletic Association. The returns 
were nil, but many reputations were made. A tour during the 
Easter holidays embracing Guelph, Woodstock, Brantford, 
and Hamilton bankrupted the company as well as the 
actors. After this experience the College authorities frowned 
on such ambitious ventures but by that time most of the 
prominent actors had graduated — there were no more tours 
and the old halls knew them no more. "After all, the motive 
was good and the players' interest in the Athletic Associa- 
tion's finances . . . beyond question. . . . They were good plays, 
though, and capitally acted — the players said so themselves. 
So did the newspapers — with qualifications." 35 A few of 
those who displayed histrionic ability were the late Reverend 
E. V. Stevenson, '92; John C. H. Mockridge, '92, D.D., 
now retired; E. C. Cattanach, '94, K.C.; Henry C. Osborne, 
'96, later a colonel and a C.M.G.; and a future Provost 
and Archbishop, the late Dr. Charles Allen Seager, '95, one 
of Trinity's distinguished sons. 

The Boer War (1899-1902) aroused patriotic fervour 
throughout Canada. Among the eleven Trinity men who 
enlisted were Edwin Patrick O'Reilly, '95 (son of Major 
J. E. O'Reilly, '55, Master in Chancery, Hamilton), who 
fell in battle; Major Donald M. Howard, '81 (Queen's 
Medal and four clasps); E. C. Wragge, '93; A. E. Pottinger, 
'93; Lieutenant R. H. Temple, '97; *W. G. H. Bates, class 
of '97 (machine gun officer 1914; killed at Ypres, April 
1915); J. Gladwyn Macdougall, '98; *Major C. Stuart 
Wilkie, '98 ; *Capt. Duncan F. Campbell, '98 (D.S.O., Queen's 
Medal and four clasps, wounded, mentioned in despatches; 
later M.P. for North Ayrshire, Scotland); *R. A. Carman, 
'00; *T. W. B. Marling, '01. 

The Trinity Medical College was represented by seven- 
teen men in the Army Medical Services, "a good list for one 

*Also served in World War I. 

"Provost Seager in The Review, Midsummer, 1925. 



Canadian Medical College," all of whom made a splendid 
contribution. Outstanding were Surgeon-General George 
Sterling Ryerson, '75, who had also served in the Fenian 
Raid of 1870 and in the Northwest Rebellion, 1885, was 
founder of the Canadian Red Cross, 1896, and later was to 
be Colonel-in-Chief, C.A.M.C, in the First World War; and 
Lieutenant L. E. Wentworth-Irving, M.D., CM. 1900, 
D.S.O., and Queen's Medal with four clasps. 

The first signs of a turn in the tide of the many military 
reverses came with the relief of Ladysmith on the first of 
March 1900, followed by the relief of Mafeking on the eight- 
eenth of May. Both were the signals for gala celebrations in 
the College: lectures were called off by the mutual consent of 
staff and students, and the festivities ended with monster 
bonfires in the driveway in front of the College. 

The resignation of the Dean of Residence, Professor 
Oswald Rigby, in the spring of 1903 came as a shock to the 
staff and students alike. He had been an ideal dean during 
his twelve years of office, and had endeared himself to all by 
his tact, patience, absolute justice and impartiality, and 
unswerving devotion to his work. As headmaster of Trinity 
College School for the next ten years Dr. Rigby exercised a 
beneficial influence and trained many boys who afterwards 
became prominent in the undergraduate life of Trinity. 
"What the College loses in the Dean," said The Review^ "may 
be partly estimated from the fact that he has at some time or 
other performed the duties of nearly every office in the 
College and has been on every committee since his appoint- 
ment to the faculty. . . . He has, also, been on the governing 
bodies of Bishop Strachan School and Trinity College 
School. ... In this College he identified himself with all the 
undergraduate societies, the Literary Institute and the 
Athletic Association in particular. An athlete himself and a 
firm believer in all forms of athletics, his encouragement and 



assistance have added greatly to the efficiency of the Asso- 
ciation. " 36 

Dr. Rigby's successor as Dean of Residence was Professor 
H. T. F. Duckworth, Scholar of Merton College, Oxford, who 
had been appointed Professor of Divinity in 1901. Tall, an- 
gular, and loose-jointed in structure, his melancholy, if not 
morose, countenance disguised an alert mind, a vigorous 
speech, and mordant wit. As Dean of Residence he showed 
himself possessed of the discerning eye that overlooked the 
inconsequential but was wide open to things that mattered. 
His influence was as great as his figure was unforgettable, and 
many a student gained from him his first insight into the 
nature of scholarship. Whether as Professor of Divinity, or of 
Greek, or of Ancient History, which positions he held in turn, 
or in the routine of administration, or at an athletic dinner, 
his sense of humour would delight when most unexpected. 
One recalls, too, the incident of the student hurrying into 
chapel and tearing his gown on a post, when the Dean prompt- 
ly opened the service with the well-known exhortation, 
"Rend your heart and not your garments." 37 

Early in Dean Duckworth's regime a strict revision in the 
attire of men students was effected. In the past there had 
been a tendency to disregard one of the "canons" of civiliza- 
tion and appear in Hall, Chapel, or lecture rooms wearing 
sweaters. In the future, "this will no longer be tolerated as the 
regulation forbids any cervical cover other than the linen 
collar, and the use of slippers in chapel, hall and lecture 
rooms will not be countenanced." 38 About the same time 
Sunday afternoon chapels were abolished, but students were 
allowed credits if they attended evening service in churches 
in the city. 

86 The Review, March 1903. 

"Reminiscences of Sinclair M. Adams, '13, Lecturer in Classics 1919-23, Professor 
of Greek since 1923, and College Librarian since 1927. 
zs The Review, February 1904. 



The Literary Society waxed and waned according to the 
ability and number of its members. The inter-college de- 
bates and the inter-year discussions were of value in training 
the first- and second-year men to think and speak on their 
feet. But the annual Conversazione was always the high 
social light of the year, when the undergraduates and their 
guests to the number of five hundred enjoyed the dances in 
Convocation Hall. Welcome improvements in 1904 were the 
lighting of the Hall by electricity in place of gas, and the new 
hardwood floor which added to the pleasure of the dancers. 

Students of those days dwell with affection on what they 
call the "golden days" of College life. One, an eminent physi- 
cian, speaks of the value of the Arts course as a preparation 
for the study of medicine, of the advantage of life in resi- 
dence, and how the lectures of Dr. William Clark, Professors 
Michael Mackenzie and "Archie' ' Young embraced a philo- 
sophy which was not concerned with the mere passing of exa- 
minations in the subjects they taught. Another student of 
those days, now an Archbishop, writes enthusiastically of his 
life in the old College and claims that the view of Dr. John- 
son, that no one can conceive of the happiness of London 
except those who have been in it, is equally true of Trinity. 

Convocation Day at Old Trinity was the students' day. 
Here, in full face of an august gathering, convened each year 
to witness graduation ceremonies, amid ribald remarks and 
raucous music the mighty were pulled down from their seats 
and those of low degree exalted. The "gallery" was no re- 
specter of persons. On one occasion the freshmen were 
solemnly ushered in by an important-looking senior, who 
instructed them to sit on the dais, reserved for the dons, and 
the head of the first year to take the Chancellor's chair. 

Probably the one best remembered was the last Convoca- 
tion, in faculties other than Divinity, held on Michaelmas 
Day 1904 on the eve of entrance into Federation in October 



of that year. A former student thus tells the story. 39 Convo- 
cation Hall was heavily draped in black, unrelieved by the 
traditional red. In this way the undergraduates chose to 
show their mourning for the passing of the old order, if not for 
the advent of the new. The entry of the dignitaries was de- 
layed by an unexpected innovation. It is not known when the 
custom began but for some years song-sheets had been pre- 
pared and distributed beforehand among the student body. 
The song committee consisted usually of a member from each 
year, but on this occasion the junior member, a mere 
"worm," saw little of his confreres and heard less. So to 
honour this special event he gathered, amended, and added 
to the perfected work of his predecessors in former years, 
pasted his collection into a dummy, and visited a sympa- 
thetic printer. Presently, the newly printed sheets in red 
and black appeared, all glorious in stiff covers with the Col- 
lege crest and tied with red cord. The songs, including Met' 
Agona y were there in legible type. As for the cost, the 
"worm" knew it not and cared less. 

Shortly before three o'clock on the day of Convocation 
there suddenly appeared, from the east side, or Porter's 
Lodge, three students bearing tables; from the west came 
three others similarly equipped. On each table lay a pile of 
the song-books with a saucer alongside, demurely signifying 
that a cash donation would not be unacceptable. The 
"worm" had turned, for no permission had been asked of 
Provost or Dean or anyone else in authority. Quickly "their 
dignities" in parade formation noted the turn in events. The 
foremost ranks struggled to reach beneath their cumbersome 
robes the cash pockets thereby concealed. Those following 
did the same and the general forward movement was much 
retarded. So slow was the procession in starting, and so 
slowly was each buyer provided with his copy that it was 

39 Maurice Bruce McCausland, class of '06, he being the "worm" herein referred to. 



only natural for the dons and dignitaries to fall into step with 
the strains which could now be heard issuing fom the gallery. 
Up aloft various parts of a portable organ had been carried 
under gowns and reassembled. Howard Coulter, '05, struck 
the opening chords of the Dead March in Saul and the parade 
moved slowly toward the dais. 

There was so much disturbance from the gallery that, at 
one point, it seemed that Convocation must be dissolved. 
The situation was saved by the quick thinking of the Pro- 
vost, who broke all previous traditions by presenting the 
women for their degrees before the men on account of their 
position near the dais at the front of the hall. Few in the 
audience realized how quickly disaster had thus been averted. 

The first "Commencement" under Federation was held in 
the University gymnasium on a day of suffocating warmth. 
The accommodation was quite inadequate and the thirty- 
seven prospective Bachelors and seven Masters of Arts from 
Trinity were obliged to stand throughout, no special provi- 
sion having been made for them. This prompted The Review 
to remark: "It used to be esteemed an honour to kneel and 
shake the 'Tiger's Paw/ but under present conditions this is 

The loss by drowning in Humber Bay on Palm Sunday, 
the seventh of April 1906, of two brilliant members of the 
final year, Asheleigh Crofton Moorhouse and William Walker 
Hart, cast a gloom over the College for some time. A beauti- 
ful and impressive memorial service was held on the last Sun- 
day in term, and subsequently their fellow students and the 
staff erected a memorial tablet on the north wall of the Col- 
lege Chapel, with the appropriate inscription (in Latin), 
"They were lovely and pleasant in their lives and in their 
death they were not divided." A substantial sum was also 
subscribed and vested in the Corporation for the establish- 
ment of a Hart-Moorhouse scholarship in Classics (or in 
English and History with the Classical option) to be awarded 



in the second year, in memory of these two, students in 
honour Classics at the time of their death. 

Among new societies formed about this time were clubs 
for the practice of conversational German and French. Under 
the direction of Professor A. H. Young, the Deutscher 
Klatsch Club, unique in that it had neither constitution, 
officers, nor fees, met once a week during term to attain pro- 
ficiency in conversation in the German language. Highly 
successful in its object, and well attended, it flourished until 
the outbreak of the First World War. A similar club, Le 
Cercle Francais, was formed by Dr. J. W. G. Andras, Lectur- 
er in French, and was equally well attended. Meetings were 
held in Mr. Harry Griffith's comfortable rooms in Trinity 
House (commonly known as the "Jag") every Wednesday 
evening, where French songs on the gramophone (and from 
vocal members) helped to enliven the proceedings. 

The year 1907 is memorable for the coming of two men 
who have definitely left their impress on the life of the Col- 
lege, the Reverend J. B. Fotheringham, Lecturer in Old 
Testament and Homiletics, and interested in all phases of 
student life until his retirement last year; and the Reverend 
F. H. Cosgrave, B.D., a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, 
who came as Lecturer in Hebrew and afterwards was Pro- 
fessor in the same subject, Dean of Divinity, and Provost 
from 1926 to 1945. Throughout those thirty-eight years he 
took a deep interest in the life of the College and, more than 
any former Provost, showed a sympathetic consideration for 
many of the problems of the undergraduates. One of them 
recalls with gratitude his teaching, and mentions the follow- 
ing incident. It concerned a small class of theological students 
who inhabited the north end of the Divinity corridor and who 
were seeking a name for their group. Reading Hebrew with 
Professor Cosgrave one day, they were puzzled by a certain 
phrase, which he clarified by translating it thus: "certain 
worthless fellows, sons of Belial. " The title, "Sons of Belial," 



was immediately adopted by the group which was thus 
known to the end of the course. The "fellows" in question 
were the Right Reverend John Dixon, now Lord Bishop of 
Montreal; the late Reverend Charles Paterson-Smyth, of 
Prescott; the Reverend R. S. Tippett, later a master at 
Trinity College School; and the author of the story, the 
Venerable W. G. O. Thompson, '10, of Georgetown, inciden- 
tally a writer of beautiful verse. 

The year 1914 marked the end of an era, an era that was to 
be always remembered by the outbreak of the First World 
War. But before that catastrophe, which was to alter the 
way of life in many respects, broke upon us, a don of the Col- 
lege took stock, so to speak, of the situation at Trinity, at 
the end of this, the first decade under Federation. 

Class lists show that from year to year our undergraduates can do 
and are doing work equal, in some cases superior, to that of their 
fellows. In debates and in sports — especially hockey, basketball and 
tennis — both Trinity and St. Hilda's have displayed their ability. In 
other sports — football, boxing and running — the men have brought 
honour to the College and some have found a place on the Varsity 
teams. Trinity students have played an increasingly larger part in the 
Undergraduate Parliament and its successor the Students' Administra- 
tive Council which now controls undergraduate affairs in the widest 
sense. A Trinity man is editor-in-chief of The Varsity and The Arbor, 
making both publications a credit to the University; the University 
and College are now working together, as the children of the same 
founder ought to do, for the up-building of Canada. We have un- 
doubtedly received much and may look forward to still greater things 
and we must see that the golden age does not lie behind us but before. 40 

A vote of the student body taken at that time, however, 
would have been solidly against Federation and would have 
undone all the years of Dr. Macklem's work to bring it about. 
Those students who then had to go to the University of 
Toronto for some of their subjects found the long walk or 
journey by street-car equally tedious, to say nothing of the 

40 Professor A. H. Young, in The Review, June 1914. 



waste of valuable time involved. Some graduates of thirty 
and forty years ago speak of the feeling of "getting home to 
Trinity" after a science lecture or a long afternoon lab. at 
Queen's Park. The smaller classes at Trinity, the living in 
residence, and the very close personal contacts with the 
teaching staff resulted in an influence and friendship which 
extended far beyond the lecture room. These were the days 
when Trinity — the real Trinity — was still in splendid isola- 
tion, guarding its traditions and its integrity. 

But the other side of the balance sheet cannot be ignored. 
A comparison of the staff of eight in 1900-1 (Dr. Macklem's 
first year) with that of eighteen, plus six special lecturers, in 
1914, and the corresponding increase in attendance, would 
be sufficient argument in favour of the fourth Provost's ad- 

In the same year, 1914, a new office was created, that of 
Dean of Arts, to which Professor Duckworth, for eleven 
years previously Dean of Residence, was appointed. He was 
succeeded in the latter office for the next eight years by Pro- 
fessor A. H. Young, affectionately known to successive gener- 
ations of students as "Archie." As father confessor and ad- 
viser in whom every student found a friend, he kept a close 
check on all students in College and followed their careers 
with interest throughout the after years. Graduates the 
world over will remember his "Convocation Notes" in every 
issue of The Review^ sometimes covering several pages with 
information about Trinity graduates. Nothing quite so good 
or so comprehensive has appeared since his day. 

A Head of College who exercised remarkable authority and 
control over the students at this time was John Harkness 
Dixon, '10, B.D. '14, an able student and hockey player, but 
mild-mannered and soft-spoken withal. Indeed, so great was 
his moral ascendancy, and so widespread the respect for his 
scholastic record, that he could quell a disturbance with a 
few quiet words. He was consecrated Bishop of Montreal in 



1943. The same period produced several other conspicuous 
leaders and scholars, notably James Bertram Collip, '12, 
C.B.E., F.R.C.S., internationally renowned for his brilliant 
scientific discoveries and now Dean of Medicine at the Uni- 
versity of Western Ontario; David A. Keys, '14, Ph.D., 
D.Sc, F.R.S.C, the Vice-President of the National Re- 
search Council in charge of the Atomic Energy Project at 
Chalk River; John G. Althouse, '12, D.Paed., LL.D., for 
many years headmaster of the University of Toronto Schools 
and, since 1944, Director of Education for the Province of 
Ontario; Richard C. Berkinshaw, '13, C.B.E., industrialist 
and director of many companies; the Reverend A. Harding 
Priest, '12, D.D., now General Secretary of the Board of 
Religious Education; the Reverend Roland F. Palmer, D.D., 
well known as a missioner and as Superior of the Order of St. 
John the Evangelist at Bracebridge, Ontario; the Most 
Reverend George Frederick Kingston, '13, Professor of Eth- 
ics and Dean of Residence at Trinity College and, successive- 
ly, Bishop of Algoma 1940, Bishop of Nova Scotia 1944, 
Archbishop and Primate 1947-50. 

Then came the war, and for four years the College faced 
problems unexpected and unprecedented. Almost immedi- 
ately there were enlistments, singly and in small groups at 
first, and hardly perceptible. The teaching work went on as 
usual, except that classes were suspended after four o'clock 
to enable members of the staff and undergraduates to obtain 
military instruction either in the Officers' Training Corps or 
in other army units. As the seriousness of the war increased 
so did enlistments with a relative decrease in attendance and 
enrolment. Trinity House and part of the College building 
were given up for war uses and the playing fields for drill. 
Study became a serious matter. Those who remained in 
College were either waiting to be called by the military 
authorities, or completing their studies at the request of the 
University. All this has been referred to in other chapters in 



this volume 41 and in still greater detail in the War Memorial 
Volume of Trinity College, 

The last year in the old College, 1924-25, was one long 
remembered by those in residence at that time. The men 
began to realize that they would miss the building and its 
traditions. Even the dingy walls and the long gloomy cor- 
ridors took on a sentimental aspect when it was realized that 
the days of occupation were numbered. When compared 
with the advantages of the new building the many discom- 
forts of the old must have been even more obvious: draughty 
halls, flickering gas jets for lighting, the bedroom sometimes 
a mere alcove opening off the study (the "coffin" it was 
called), the whole apartment inadequately heated by an 
open fire-place with coal charged to the students' account. 
And yet all were loth to leave the old place, full of the 
cherished memories of three-quarters of a century. A student 
of the class of 1920 recalls many of these. 

I remember on first coming up to Trinity meeting the Provost, the 
Reverend T. C. S. Macklem, whose initials I had no trouble in remem- 
bering because they stood for Trinity College School, whose first build- 
ing at Weston I was later to inhabit. It was Saturday at supper time 
so I dined in Hall in what were to me surroundings made rather 
familiar by pictures I had seen of dining halls at Oxford and Cambridge. 
There were noticeable discrepancies; but what reality lacked, imagina- 
tion and hope filled in. 

Later I was given the key to my room in the west wing, which I had 
previously selected because it gave me a fine view of the western sky 
and no end of beautiful sunsets. Professor ("Archie" for short) Young, 
then Dean of Residence, gave me his blessing, with one of his slow, 
quizzical smiles, and I took possession. Rooms in those days were 
furnished on the spartan plan. The student, as I remember, brought 
his own bedding, pictures, books, and odds and ends of impedimenta. 
The College furnished a table, a baize-covered box for cannel coal for 
the fireplace, a chair or two, if the previous occupant hadn't been too 
generous to friends, and a piece of tin, convexed, with handle, to fit 
over the open fireplace and so create a draft. 

^Chapters vii and xi. 



In those days attendance at morning chapel was compulsory, and 
every one turned out, dons and students, unless one had an excuse that 
would pass muster with the Dean. John Hall, the porter, stood at the 
entrance to the chapel with pencil poised over virgin sheet to mark 
each man present as he entered, and a student going in after the bell 
had rung took the chance of being marked late. Little time was taken 
to dress, so that, it is rumoured, more than once the academic gown 
served as a mantle of charity to conceal pyjamas and socklessfeet 
encased in worn slippers. 

How lovely was the springtime from the doorway of old Trinity 
when noises and stir of traffic on Queen Street at the foot of the elm- 
covered walk were borne muted on the soft twilight breeze as evening 
dusk closed in and street lamps fluttered in the distant street. Sweet 
familiar scents lingered in the air and as darkness came the chapel bell 
called to prayer. 

Spring brings to mind also meetings of The Review staff in "Archie's" 
rooms when W. S. Watson, Gordon Boggs, Bob Hays, Errick Willis, 
Harold Orr, Arnold Hoath, Charlie Phillips, Haldane Gee, and others 
would drink coffee brought in by the gyp, smoke cigarettes and talk. 
And reclining in his study chair, with a cup of coffee which he slowly 
stirred, was the benign figure of Archie Young, his gently smiling 
features a reflection of the good humour within. Among the delectable 
dishes I recall were strawberries and cream in June, at the final meeting 
of the year. (The memory is pleasant even if Archie did slightly dilute 
it by leaving a little tract under one's door to the effect that "the Dean 
of Residence wishes to remind Mr. C. that he is five behind in his 
chapel count.") 42 

Graduates who lived in the old College will have memories 
revived by the mere mention of Paradise Alley, Wall Street, 
and Angela Roost as the lower, middle, and upper corridors 
of the east wing were called. There were also the upper and 
lower Western, the "catacombs," and Brewery Lane. Wall 
Street derived its name from plutocratic inhabitants, many 
of whom were always ready to help the impecunious student 
in times of stress. 

Then there were the College porters, who played a most 
important part in the life of Trinity and who generally knew 

«W. G. Colgate, '20. 



more of that inner life than either the Provost or Dean. Many 
are the stories that might be told had certain incidents been 
recorded. One porter, Phelps by name, in the eighties wielded 
an authority and regarded his position as only a little lower 
than the dons. George Herbert Broughall, '83, recalled an 
incident. A young graduate, seeking funds for his church 
and knowing his man, approached Phelps for a subscription. 
On being told, in answer to his inquiry, that the other dons 
had given five dollars, Phelps said grandly: "Then I will 
give five dollars too." M. Bruce McCausland, '06, remem- 
bered the porter in his day, Townsend, who had dignity with- 
out pomposity and prided himself on his learning, some of 
which he had gleaned from books left by students in the Lodge. 
"It seems a 'worm'-to-be, newly in from the back townships, 
commandingly ordered, 'And, porter, take these trunks of 
mine up to Room 23/ 'Sir,' replied the astonished and be- 
littled Townsend, calmly but cuttingly, 'I would have you 
know that my title is derived from porta, a door — not porto, 
I carry/ ' Townsend was succeeded by John Hall, who 
flourished for nearly twenty years, retiring in 1922. He was 
an English servant of the old school, and deplored the intro- 
duction of any new-fangled ideas; the good old days were 
good enough for him. The telephone switch-board was his 
pet abomination — he could never master it or its intricacies. 
He was succeeded in 1923 by Robert G. Robinson, a veteran 
of the First World War, who has seen both the old and the 
new. With Professor Lloyd Hodgins, then Dean of Residence, 
he packed the books of the Library for removal to the new 
building in the summer of 1925: twelve hundred cartons and 
twenty-two packing cases. 

Many a tale of the old days could Bob tell : how a barber's 
pole from down town was placed outside the Provost's room; 
how the three brass balls from a York Street pawnshop ap- 
peared over the door of the Bursar's office; how a rope was 
added to the Chapel bell so that near-by residents were 



awakened in the middle of the night; how the birds and the 
deer were taken from the glass cases in the main hall and 
given an airing on Queen Street (this last was an annual 
affair). He could tell stories of bottle-rolls on the hardwood 
floors of the west wing, and many another escapade. Some 
day, it is hoped, he will write his memoirs; he has already 
done so in part, and absorbing reading they are. 43 

Robert, or Bob the Porter as he was known to all, retired 
in 1949 after having served under four Provosts. In his 
twenty-eight years in College (he came on the staff on 
Founder's Day 1921) he had taken a keen interest in all 
phases of University life, academic, athletic, and social and 
will long be remembered by generations of graduates. 

Anecdotes of dons abound. One relates to Professor R. E. L. 
Kittredge who taught French now and then to unreceptive 
students. The text was LEte de Saint-Martin. "Rappelez 
voire chat, recall your cat," translated the literal-minded 
freshman. "One moment," came the acid correction from 
"Kitty," "You recall an ambassador, but you call a cat." It 
is comforting to know that the distinction so drawn was not 

Then there are stories of Canon Rollo, a canny Scot and 
much beloved. During a total eclipse of the sun someone 
inquired "Where is Rollo?" Kittredge replied, "Oh! he has 
gone down town to send a night letter." But the Canon had a 
quick repartee as well as ready wit. When Professor Kitt- 
redge asked him if the increased rate in car fares hurt him 
he said, "Oh, not at all, now I have to walk only four times, 
instead of six, to save a quarter!" 

On the twenty-seventh of March 1925, the Scribe of 
Episkopon read the venerable Father's farewell message, 
exhorting his children to hold fast to the tradition of the old 
College while moving to the new. He announced that he was 
leaving the tower he had occupied for so many years to take 

"The Review, January 1946 and August 1947. 



up his abode in the lantern tower of the new Trinity. The 
assemblage then adjourned to the driveway, the bell tolling 
a warning that the Father was about to depart. A light in the 
tower was extinguished and His Venerability slowly descend- 
ed carrying his lantern. A few minutes later the wizened old 
man appeared at the front door accompanied by a band of 
his Scribes carrying torches. To the tune of his own song 
"The Order of the Golden Key" the little procession moved 
down the terrace where a quaint old carriage was waiting. 
Taking his seat, accompanied by the last scribe of the old 
regime and the first of the new, Father Episkopon drove 
away into the night on his journey to the new building in 
Queen's Park. 44 

The life of the old College transferred to the new surround- 
ings in the University precincts went on with little interrup- 
tion. The homelike atmosphere of the old building was 
missed, of course, and the temporary residence for men in a 
converted, but comparatively modern, apartment house 
meant a break with many cherished links with the past. 
On the other hand, the students in the new surroundings 
enjoyed academic advantages supplied by a large University 
equipped with extensive buildings, modern laboratories, a 
large library, and a well-equipped gymnasium and students' 
union in Hart House with all its amenities and privileges. At 
the same time there were retained the intimate associations 
between faculty and undergraduates characteristic of a small 

Student organizations such as the Literary Institute and 
the annual visit of Father Episkopon, both dating back to 
the beginnings of the College, and The Review continued with 
renewed vigour; the Athletic Association found greater 
scope in the closer relationship with sister Colleges and facul- 
ties; the Dramatic Society, revived in 1920 by H. B. Scuda- 
more, A. L. Ambrose, and Professor Kittredge and their 

"The Reverend H. N. Taylor, '26, in The Review, Farewell number, 1925. 



associates and directed by Gordon Sparling, went on to 
greater things thanks to the admirable facilities of Hart 
House Theatre. 

An important feature of student life has been the growing 
interest in music in recent years. This has been encouraged 
by the use of Strachan Hall for Sunday evening concerts, 
begun by Provost Cosgrave in 1941-42, with a committee of 
members of the staff and undergraduates. In all, a series of 
eight concerts are given during the session. 45 

Four years ago Provost Seeley proposed the organization 
of a Choral Society to study and perform English music with 
Mr. Eric Rollinson as conductor. At the closing concert each 
year the Society presents a programme which includes a 
cantata, Elizabethan madrigals, and folk-songs. Its progress 
has been so successful that the Choral Society provided all 
the music for the impressive Centenary service in St. James* 
Cathedral on the thirteenth of January 1952, the Sunday 
before Founders Day. 

Trinity students took their places by election on import- 
ant executive bodies, such as the Students' Administrative 
Council, the Athletic Directorate, The Varsity^ and the 
Board of Stewards of Hart House and its subsidiary com- 
mittees. The training ground of our own Literary Institute 
developed effective speakers who were frequently heard in 
the inter-collegiate and Hart House Debates. 

The great increase in student activities due to the larger 
number of non-residents created, in a few years, a situation 
new to the College. Until 1935 all matters concerning the 
male students had been dealt with by an assembly of the 
whole student body known as the College Meeting, which 
was quite adequate in the days when the total registration 
did not exceed one hundred. In the autumn of 1935 a new 
undergraduate executive body was created for the general ad- 
ministration of College affairs, styled the Board of Stewards. 

^Sce chapter vin, p. 173. 



The Board, as organized, was composed of the Dean of 
Residence; the Head of College; the Trinity representative 
to the Students' Administrative Council of the University; a 
representative from the Literary Institute, from the Athletic 
Association, and from the residents and non-residents of each 
of the three senior years; eleven in all. This Board reports at 
stated times to the College Meeting, thus giving students 
interested the opportunity of discussing problems with which 
the Board is faced. The Board has proved to be of inestim- 
able value by the close attention it gives to all matters 
affecting student life in the College. It acts, in a sense, as the 
liaison between the College Committee on Administration 
and the student body at large, in the interest of conserving 
the best features of the College. 

Before closing this review of student life it would seem 
well, even at the risk of repetition, to refer to the immense 
advantages enjoyed by the student body from the additions 
to the College building in recent years. Both ventures were 
made at times which seemed unpropitious from a financial 
standpoint, and yet were most necessary if the College was 
to fulfil its obligations to the student body. Results have 
fully justified the faith of their promoters and the generosity 
of the many benefactors who made these possible. The 
erection of St. Hilda's College on Devonshire Place in 1938 
during a period of financial depression provided a modern 
building for women students which solved many of their 
problems and difficulties. Then in the early war years 1940 
and 1941 the men's residences and Strachan Hall were erect- 
ed providing adequate and comfortable accommodation for 
the men students and a dining hall, noted for its architectural 
beauty. By the erection of this hall a lasting memorial to the 
illustrious Founder of Trinity has been established within 
the College. 




rom the very beginning athletic competition has 
been prominent in the life of the College. As soon 
as the early days of spring succeeded the first win- 
ter, the little band of students organized the Tri- 
nity College Cricket Club, which came into being on the 
second of May 1852. The prime mover in this was Thomas 
Dowell Phillipps, '55, a matriculant from Upper Canada Col- 
lege and a cricketer of great renown even down to his later 
days. From his reminiscences we learn that the first president 
and captain was the Reverend Edward St. John Parry, a 
Balliol man, the first Professor of Classics, an outstanding 
bowler and a playing member of the team until this was for- 
bidden by the Bishop as not in keeping with clerical dignity. 
Among other players were Abraham J. Broughall, '55, D„D. 
{honoris causa) '04; C. J. S. Bethune, '59, D.C.L. {honoris 
causa) '83; James J. Bogert, '55, D.C.L. {honoris causa) '02, 
sometime Archdeacon of Ottawa; James Edwin O'Reilly, 
'55, later Mayor of Hamilton and Master in Chancery; 
Charles E. Thomson, '54, a future rector of Carleton; 
Charles Walker Robinson, '55, son of the first Chancellor, 
who followed a military career and retired a C.B. and a 
Major-General; and Huson W. M. Murray, '55, eminent law- 
yer and King's Counsel. These are mentioned to show the 
good stuff of which our first students were made. There were 
no eligibility rules in those days; the game was the thing and 
men played for the love of it. John Helliwell of King's Col- 
lege, Toronto, affiliated with Trinity (B.A. ad eundem *53) 



in order to play with the College. George Anthony Barber, 
the father of Canadian cricket, and until his death in 1874 
"the highest living local authority on cricket," 1 sent his son, 
George Anthony the second, to teach and coach the young 
idea, and with this material as a basis there was evolved a 
team that was able to meet the powerful Toronto Cricket 
Club on almost equal terms. Encouragement was given by 
Dr. Alexander Burnside, who donated for a playing field 
several acres of his property adjoining the College grounds 
on the west, by the College authorities, and by Mr. George 
W. Allan (a future Chancellor) who generously gave the 
money to put the cricket field in shape. "I can see more dis- 
tinctly than a picture our first Chancellor [Sir John Beverley 
Robinson], as he stood on the steps of the front entrance 
with other dignitaries, awaiting our return with news of our 
second victory on the old Caer Howell grounds." 2 

In those days the Toronto Cricket Club was Trinity's 
chief competitor, a challenge from an eleven from the Univer- 
sity of Toronto being ' interdicted" by the Trinity authori- 
ties. However, the ban was lifted later, and other matches 
were played with Trinity College School (then at Weston, 
and later at Port Hope), Upper Canada College, and clubs 
formed from British regiments stationed at the Old and New 
Forts, the 17th and the 29th Regiments, the Royal Artillery, 
and the 13th Hussars. Sometimes Trinity players, notably 
J. J., '55 and David F. Bogert, y 63> Fred Bethune, '64, and 
T. S. Kennedy, '64, were taken to strengthen the Toronto 
Club in important matches. 

To Mr. Phillipps further tribute must be paid. He saw the 
laying of the corner-stone on the thirtieth of April 1851 and, 
as Head of College, read the Latin congratulatory ode at the 
installation of the first Chancellor, Sir John Beverley Robin- 
son, on the third of June 1853. He was ordained by Bishop 

x Hcnry Scadding: Toronto of Old (Toronto, 1873), pp. Ill and 170. 

2 The Review, December 1902, reminiscences of the Reverend T. D. Phillipps, '55. 



Strachan in 1858 but for a time followed the teaching pro- 
fession, first in Paris, Ontario, where he was principal of the 
High School, and afterwards at Ottawa, St. Catharines, and 
in schools in the United States. His cricket career of more 
than fifty-seven years included many matches where he was 
credited with high scores, some of them "centuries. " His 
final words, in his contribution to The Review at the time of 
the Jubilee were: "Though in my seventieth year I yet hope 
to see — perhaps participate in — one more cricket match on a 
field whereon it may be said without undue boasting, militavi 
non sine gloria'' 

In the pages of a book published nearly sixty years ago, 
the Trinity College Cricket Club appears frequently from 
1855 onward. 3 From this work the Reverend Herbert O. 
Tremayne, '86, gave an interesting resume in the Jubilee 
number of The Review in 1902. In 1887, W. W. Jones, a 
nephew of the Dean, and A. C. Allan, a son of the Chancellor, 
were members of the Canadian eleven chosen to tour Eng- 
land, and made a good showing, Allan scoring 113 runs at 
Lord's. This shows that from the beginning Trinity ranked 
high in the game, the Club's success being largely due to the 
players coming up from the schools where cricket was regu- 
larly played. The nineties also saw some fine cricket. In 1892, 
thirteen matches were played with such clubs as Toronto 
Rosedale, Varsity, Upper Canada College, and Hamilton, of 
which eight were victories. In one year, 1896, Trinity had 
ten men on the International eleven. Among prominent 
College players were D'Arcy R. C. Martin, '89, H. H. 
Bedford-Jones, '89, J. S. Broughall, '87, D. L. McCarthy, 
'92, G. H. P. Grout, '90, L. W. B. Broughall, '97, W. H. 
Cooper, H. S. Southam, '96, W. R. Wadsworth, '94, E. S. 
Senkler, '97, and Charles J. H. Mockridge, '95. To these must 
be added Gerard B. Strathy, '00, W. H. White, '90 and staff 
1894-99, A. D. Armour, '92, and Herbert C. Simpson, at this 

3 John E. Hall and Robert O. McCulloch: Sixty Years of Canadian Cricket, 1834- 
1894 (Toronto, 1895). 



period a junior member of the teaching staff. A summary of 
matches with the University of Toronto from 1873 to 1902 
shows that of twenty-four games played Trinity won sixteen, 
Toronto five, and three were drawn. 

Cricket reached its supremacy as the College game in the 
nineties and early 1900's. For the Jubilee year, 1902, a good 
schedule was arranged but the results were disappointing. 
While the annual game with Toronto Varsity was a gratify- 
ing win for Trinity by ten wickets, the traditional twenty- 
fourth of May fixture, with the Toronto Cricket Club, was a 
disappointing defeat. 

For a time after Federation there were a sufficient number 
of enthusiastic students, together with graduates living in 
Toronto, to make a fair showing, but it soon became evident 
that the shorter term, with examinations ending before the 
twenty-fourth of May instead of the end of June, was having 
a detrimental effect. Students were not willing or could not 
afford to remain in College once the examinations were over, 
and appeals to the College authorities to assist in financing 
the expense fell on deaf ears. In 1905, ten games were 
arranged for the months of May and June. It was a most 
successful season with Carl de Fallot, Leycester Ingles, and 
Hamilton Mockridge among the prominent players. But the 
next year and in 1907 the results were disappointing, leading 
The Review to remark that it was a pity that the one game in 
which Trinity formerly excelled should develop into a mere 
farce. In 1909 seven matches were played of which Trinity 
won two. In the following year, under the captaincy of George 
Whitaker Morley, '10, a series of fifteen matches was arranged 
with visits to London, Brantford, Guelph, and Paris but 
with eight losses, three games drawn, and only four victories. 

There was a fairly successful revival under Craufurd 
Martin in 1914, 4 when fourteen matches were arranged of 

4 Charles Kirwan Craufurd Martin, class of 1916, D.S.O., O.B.E., K.C., a worthy 
son of a worthy father (Edward Kirwan Counsell Martin, '82) who, until his untimely 
death in the summer of 1950, maintained a close and active interest in College affairs as 
Chairman of Convocation, member of Corporation and the Executive Committee, etc., 
and was for many years an officer and playing member of the Toronto Cricket Club. 



which Trinity won six and lost five. Three games were can- 
celled by reason of bad weather. In 1915, on account of the 
war and a further shortening of term in consequence, there 
was no cricket, nor was there again for the duration. A brave 
attempt to revive interest in the game in 1919 failed to over- 
come the handicap of the lack of suitable grounds, insufficient 
equipment, and the May examinations. The revival of the 
athletic-social event on the twenty-fourth of May (the an- 
nual match with the Toronto Club) resulted in a crushing 
defeat, the score standing at Toronto 151, Trinity 55. The 
following year sounded the death knell of cricket. Only one 
game was played, with Trinity College School at Port Hope 
on the twenty-third of May. Many players had left College, 
and the score was T.C.S. 72, Trinity College 30. A significant 
paragraph appears in the Trinity University Year Book for 
1924-25, "Baseball has taken the place of cricket as a spring 

With the removal to Queen's Park in the summer of 1925 
all hope of reviving the "gentleman's game" was ended. The 
University of Toronto Cricket Club, founded in 1869, had 
disbanded about 1906, but University students were granted 
honorary membership in the Toronto Cricket Club as long as 
the Club played on University grounds. In 1926 the Toronto 
Cricket Club moved to Armour Heights. 

Cricket, then, was the foundation of all our athletics. At 
the outset there was no gymnasium, baseball had not been 
invented, there was no tennis, no hockey, no football, noth- 
ing indeed but cricket. Major Goodwin of the Queen's Own 
Rifles, and a Crimean veteran, gave instruction in fencing 
and single-stick to those who desired it. Some studied the 
"manly art of self-defence" under the tuition of Charles 
Givins, '63, an adept with the gloves. 

A graduate of those days 5 speaks of the steeplechase, "old 

B David F. Bogert, '63, in The Review, December 1902. 



as Episkopon," as originating in his time, the wide-open 
fields to the north of the College offering natural facilities for 
cross-country running. The race was run over a rugged course 
of a mile and a quarter, where hill and stream and many an 
inconvenient fence had to be surmounted. 6 By the late 
sixties, a definite one-mile course was followed, down the 
Garrison Creek ravine from north of Bloor Street to the 
finish line east of the College. For three years of his College 
course, a record (five minutes, fifteen seconds) was made and 
maintained by Edward F. Milburn, '69, who had come up 
from Trinity College School at Weston. Milburn, besides 
being fleet of foot, was a fine cricketer, an all-round athlete, 
and the winner of the prize for rifle shooting. 7 In 1883, 
George H. Broughall, '83, and N. Ferrar Davidson, '84, 
appear as winners, surnames to be found again in succeeding 
generations of Trinity students. In 1893 the course is de- 
scribed as one and a fifth miles from the head of the Garrison 
Creek ravine to the finish at the College Chapel, "a splendid 
course with many obstructions, hills, fences and creeks, and 
one climb fifty feet high." 8 Wadsworth, Chadwick, and 
Heaven finished in that order, but failed to break the record 
of five minutes, forty-eight seconds made in 1892 by Hubert 
Carleton, '93. 

Football was not played at first. It was difficult to organize 
a team from the small enrolment in those early days and 
few men were willing to engage in the rough-and-tumble 
game as then played. F. Barlow Cumberland, '67, son of the 
well-known architect, Frederick William Cumberland, who 
attended Cheltenham College in England before entering 
Trinity in 1864, recalled that Trinity students were then 
playing a form of football in which the only object of the 
game was to get the ball between two short sticks or two 

*Rouge et Noir, October 1882. 

'Sometime headmaster of Belleville High School. 

"Reminiscences of the Reverend Canon F. A. P. Chadwick, '93. 



piles of coats which did duty for goalposts. There was no 
rule as to "off-side," there were no definite boundaries, no 
touchdowns, no restrictions on the number of players; there 
was a "scrum," of course, but the one object was to reach 
the opponents' goal and score a "try." In spite of its crudi- 
ties, Cumberland realized that the game had possibilities 
and with his knowledge of the English game and the assist- 
ance of Fred A. Bethune, '64, a Divinity student and later a 
master at Trinity College School, formulated the first code 
of rules for rugby football ever put out in Canada. Thus, he 
claimed, "Trinity was the mother of rugby football in 
Canada." 9 

According to Canon Jarvis, '71, the relationship between 
the Universities must have improved, for in his final year a 
challenge was received from the University College Football 
Club, which having gone through the season without a 
loss could not honestly claim the championship without 
defeating all comers. In fact, it is said, Varsity had a stand- 
ing advertisement in the Globe inviting other clubs to try 
conclusions with them. But let the worthy Canon tell the 
story in his own words. 10 

We told them we had no club to speak of but would be glad to have 
them as our guests at the College and would go through the form of 
playing a friendly match with them in conformity with our official 
answer to their challenge. We had two or three good men, John Bethune 
Abbott, of Montreal, afterwards Curator of the Art Museum of Mon- 
treal [son of Sir J. J. C. Abbott, Prime Minister of Canada 1891-2], 
"Doons" Young, James White, 71, and C. J. Logan, 74. I don't 

9 The Review, January 1889. See also University of Toronto Year Book, 1887: "The 
University College Football Club adopted the English Rugby rules in 1877. For 
nearly twenty years before that the only game played there was the 'old University 
game,' in which hacking, tripping and charging from behind were prominent features, 
and, although carrying the ball was forbidden, players might bounce it along with the 
hand. No other club played their game and consequently, no matches could be ar- 
ranged with teams outside the University." 

10 Canon Arthur Jarvis, '71, from his manuscript "Reminiscences" in the possession 
of his daughter, Miss Julia Jarvis, of the University of Toronto Library. 



remember any one else who professed to know more about the game 
than that it was played with a large ball which you were expected to 
kick furiously when you got the chance, and mainly in the direction of 
the enemy's goal if you could remember where it was. 

Both Young and Abbott declined the honour of being captain so, as 
I was one of the senior men and had urged them to accept the chal- 
lenge, it was up to me to get the fellows together to make some show of 
practice before we met the enemy. A few of the freshmen turned out to 
be not half-bad players, so our spirits began to rise and we were re- 
solved to sell our chances of victory as dearly as we could. 

On the evening before the game we had a council of war and decided 
that our only chance was to adopt a bold and reckless policy from the 
start. Their scientific stunts would be sure to wear us down eventual- 
ly, but if we pushed them for all we were worth we might get a goal by 
a lucky chance and thus lessen the ignominy of defeat. 

Next day the enemy arrived in good time; we welcomed them 
cordially, had them up to our rooms and to lunch and the whole Col- 
lege was thrown open to them. The Dean [the Reverend John Ambery, 
M.A. Oxon., Dean of Residence 1863-1875] 11 was made aware of our 
plans and entered into them in the most fascinating way; it was really 
beautiful to see his solicitude for the comfort and refreshment of the 
gentlemen from the sister University. Meanwhile he assisted in filling 
the beggars with College beer. Then we jollied them along until they 
began to think that we had been quite misrepresented to them as an 
unsociable lot of divinity students. (It was the game of her foes to 
spread the impression abroad that Trinity was merely a second-class 
divinity school whereas, as we all know, she was a University with an 
Imperial Charter, with power to grant degrees which were recognized 
all over the Empire.) 

After awhile, when we had got our foes into a state of uproarious 
good-humour, we proposed that it was time to adjourn to the field. 
When we lined up and I glanced at the two teams, I could not help 
thinking of David and Goliath. They had a husky lot of fellows, who 
were in good training; one of our men, Herbert Patton, '74 (afterwards 
a portly rural dean and canon) was then a puny, pale but plucky 
freshman. 12 I trembled when I saw him looking up at the mass of 
brawn that played against him. We won the toss and chose the goal 

n F. Barlow Cumberland, '67, in The Review, January 1889, speaks of "John 
Ambery, the portly dean, with fat round front and gown tucked up behind, pacing 
the flower-decked terrace." 

12 Reverend Canon Herbert Bethune Patton, 74, M.A., Rector of Prescott. 



that brought the sun into our enemies' eyes and started in from the 
kick-off to rush things madly. Before five minutes were up, by some 
unaccountable streak of luck, Abbott got a chance and took it, sending 
the ball home without a shadow of doubt as to the cleanness of the 
shot. Somehow or other we managed to get two more lucky flukes, and 
so we found we had won the match by a sort of miracle and were 
the champions of amateur football in Ontario! Varsity was furious and 
their captain blamed them all for filling themselves up with food and 
beer when in training and just before a match! We did what we could 
to console them but they refused to be comforted and left us in any- 
thing but an amiable spirit. 

But that is not the end of the story, not by any means. In a few days 
we received a challenge for a return match. Of course, we had to defend 
our championship, and very reluctantly sent back our acceptance. But 
there was little spirit left in us, and I could not get the team to practice; 
it was marvellous what a passion for reading for exams had taken 
possession of even the least studious. To cap it all one of our best men 
found he could not break an engagement and we had to take on a 
freshman named Wood. 13 He saved the day for us but at a heavy cost 
to himself. 

When we arrived on the Varsity field we were faced by an angry 
and sullen crowd and we knew what we were up against. There wasn't 
much pretence at good-fellowship on either side; there was rough- 
house from the start, but we took our medicine and soon our men were 
panting and limping. At last Abbott managed to get one good kick and 
sent the ball flying down the field right to the spot where Wood stood 
trembling. Now was his one chance; here was an easy kick and a wide 
goal before him. He delivered a desperate kick but the ball went only 
a few feet and, as he was attempting it again, four or five of their 
fellows came galloping up and literally fell upon him, and down he 
went. When I got there I found that the hundreds of pounds of flesh 
that had pinned Wood down had snapped his tibia and fibula like a 
pipe-stem. We gave him first-aid, bundled him into a cab, and made for 
home. Of course any idea of finishing the game was given up — it was 
a draw! The Varsity chaps were very decent; and thus it was that a 
despised freshman saved the situation and the honour of Trinity with 
a broken leg. And that is the story of the Trinity Football Champion- 

18 Thc Reverend William Hugh Wood, '74, afterwards Vicar of Tamerton Foliott, 
Plymouth, England. 



There are few other references to football in the remini- 
scences of early students. One graduate of the seventies said 
his fellows did not go in for it extensively; to their way of 
thinking it was a less dignified game than cricket, and, as 
played in those days, little more than rough-and-tumble in 
which the heavier team invariably won. A later graduate, 
who entered College in 1882 and during his student days 
played in thirteen matches against the University of Tor- 
onto, referred to the "maul-in-goal" as an undesirable feature 
of the game, which was later dropped to advantage. 14 On the 
other hand he deplored the gradual Americanization of rug- 
by, by the introduction of rules and plays from across the 
border, which was changing the character of the game and 
would, he said, "unhappily tend to professionalism rather 
than sport." A prophet not without honour! As an example 
of this invasion Walter Henry White, '90, tells us that 
Trinity had a comparatively strong team in 1894 thought 
able to meet Varsity on equal terms. Among the stalwarts 
were "Pack" Chadwick, '93, 15 captain, Harry Southam, '96, 
star half-back, and A. U. de Pencier, '95, centre scrimmage. 
But "Biddy" Barr, 16 the Varsity captain, recently from a 
preparatory school across the border, used an American 
"interference" hitherto unknown in Canada, and spoiled 
Trinity's fast running and passing plays to her ultimate 

The smaller enrolment at Trinity meant fewer men to 
draw from and in the late nineties it was difficult for her to 
play on equal terms even with Varsity seconds, although in 
1884 the senior team held Toronto Varsity to a draw and in 
1886 beat them 19 to 0. But usually it was the reverse. In 

"Edward Cartwright Cayley, '85, Div. '88, in The Review, June 1902. Sec also The 
Prospector by Ralph Connor (Charles W. Gordon, U.C. '83, and a Varsity player 
when an undergraduate), who there describes a Varsity-McGill game as played in the 
early eighties when the "maul-in-goal" was a feature. 

16 The Reverend Canon Frederick A. P. Chadwick. 

16 Adam Fordyce Barr, U.C. '96, famous Varsity player, captain and coach. 



other words, it was the team of one small college trying to 
compete against a team made up from a group of several 
colleges. Although all freshmen at Trinity were required to 
turn out for football practice, competent and experienced 
players were in the minority. But there were those who, in 
season and out of season, always upheld the honour of the 
College; among them we find the well-remembered names of 
Ned Cayley, R. B. Beaumont, the Davidsons, J. C. and N. F., 
Fred Farncomb, Charles H. Brent, Charles and Crawford 
Scadding, R. J. Dumbrille, Herbert Tremayne, the Mock- 
ridges, and many others. 

The students in the eighties confined their activities to 
football in the autumn, cricket and tennis in the summer. 
With adequate courts built in 1881 tennis became all im- 
portant in College sports and rapidly increased in popularity. 
Again such familiar names as Brent, Scadding, Cayley, and 
the Davidsons appear frequently among the contestants. In 
1886 the Trinity College Lawn Tennis Club was organized, 
with Michael A. Mackenzie, '87, as secretary. As yet there 
was no hockey. Baseball was played to some extent, but 
mostly as a means to an end, namely, for fielding practice for 
the cricket teams. One summer the players felt they were 
strong enough to challenge an Oakville baseball team, but 
found to their chagrin that Oakville had imported a "curved- 
ball" pitcher from the States, a type of player they had never 
faced, and their batters found it impossible to "connect" 
with the ball. 17 

Boxing and wrestling and gymnastics were handicapped by 
the lack of a proper gymnasium. There was, it is true, a 
frame building which did duty for one, but it was little 
better than a barn. In early numbers of Rouge et Noir refer- 
ence is made to this gymnasium as a mere out-building in a 
wretched state of repair which afforded a roosting place for 
fowls and a convenient place for the College menagerie. This 

"Walter Henry White, '90, staff 1894-99. 



included the College cows, which supplied milk for the 
Steward's department. The cows were frequently pastured 
on or near the playing fields, to the detriment of the cricket 
pitch. Complaining in one issue that the College was without 
winter amusements, the editor asserted: "A gymnasium is 
absolutely necessary. We have one badly out of repair, not 
even weather proof, nor heated, the windows broken and 
dirty, the floor in bad shape. There is little equipment — only 
[horizontal] bars, a trapeze and a ladder." 18 Apparently the 
authorities were impervious to these pointed criticisms for, 
periodically, similar complaints recur, and expressions of the 
utter hopelessness of getting necessary repairs. It was not 
until the extension of the western wing in 1890 that any 
attempt was made to provide adequate accommodation for a 
players' dressing room with showers, lockers, and other ac- 
cessories. This proved so satisfactory, that, when the eastern 
wing was added five years later, the basement was con- 
structed to include a small gymnasium. 

In the meantime, however, athletics were developing in 
other ways. Trinity was never more active or successful on 
the playing field than in the early nineties. The football 
teams of 1890, captained by Alexis Martin, '92; of 1891, by 
John F. E. Patterson, '92; and of 1892 by M. S. McCarthy, 
'93, did mighty things; the team of 1892 almost beat the 
invincible Varsity men. In 1893 Harry Southam, '96, one of a 
family of athletes, led the van, to be succeeded by "Pack" 
Chadwick in 1894. It was in that year that the team, travel- 
ling to Kingston, lost to Queen's but won from the Royal 
Military College. The cadets gave the visitors a royal time, 
and packed them off, a tired lot, on the Saturday midnight 
train in a rather battered condition for the Sunday duty 
some of them were taking. 19 

And here special mention must be made of one who was 

18 Rouge et Noir, 1880. 

"Reverend H. B. Gwyn, '93, Div. '96, in The Review, March 1903. 



largely responsible for Trinity's progress in athletics at that 
time, Alexis F. R. Martin. As captain of the football team of 
1890 he saw the need of preliminary training to develop 
players for the senior team. To accomplish this he donated a 
cup for inter-year competition. Nothing has done more to 
promote the game in College than the Martin Cup for inter- 
year competition in rugby. Thus Trinity was in advance of 
Toronto where in 1894 the Mulock Cup was donated for 
interfaculty competition, with a view to providing material 
for the University teams. Moreover, Martin saw the need of 
a controlling body in athletics and in 1892 was instrumental 
in forming the Trinity University Athletic Association, a 
year before, be it noted, the organization of a similar body in 
the University of Toronto. In both Universities the object 
was the same, namely, to create a governing body which 
would co-ordinate and control all athletic activities. Prior to 
that time each club had its own management and gave little 
consideration to the others. Economy of expenditure was 
impossible, for the enthusiasts of one particular game sup- 
ported that game to the exclusion of all others, the result 
being that one or two clubs prospered and others languished 
for lack of players and funds. 

Out of this chaos and strife was formed the "Athletic," to 
control all sports and unite the interests of all clubs. The exe- 
cutive committee consisted of nine men, representative, as 
far as possible, of all sports. Naturally, the first President of 
the new organization was its promoter, Alexis F. R. Martin, 
'92; Charles W. Hedley, '92, Div. '92, was Vice-President; 
Maitland S. McCarthy, '93, Secretary; and James Chappell, 
'93, Div. '95, Treasurer. The five committee men elected 
were W. L. Baynes Reed, '95, Frank L. Vernon, '93, H. E. B. 
Robertson, '94, E. C. Wragge, and H. M. Nelles. 

At first the treasurer was a graduate student, but later it 
was found desirable to have a don for this position, one who 
would also be a financial adviser and who, with a well- 


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balanced budget and carefully controlled expenditure, would 
give consideration to the interests of all the athletic clubs. 
Among the treasurers over the years have been Dean Rigby, 
Professors H. C. Simpson, Harold V. Routh, F. H. Cosgrave, 
Lloyd C. A. Hodgins, S. M. Adams, and now, for many 
years, C. A. Ashley. 

The coming to Trinity in 1891 of Professor Edward Wynn 
Huntingford, M.A. Oxon., and Professor Oswald Rigby, 
M.A. Cantab., had a stimulating and far-reaching effect on 
the athletic life of the College. Both were firm believers in 
the value of competitive sports. Professor Huntingford al- 
though rather eccentric was regarded by many as the greatest 
character in the College, and, next to Professor William 
Clark, the most brilliant. Certainly, to quote another don, 
no one more versatile was ever connected with Trinity. He 
could ride, row, run, and box, paint, write verse, sing, render 
first aid, set bones and sew cuts {without anaesthetic); he 
could organize a picnic, stage a play, train a choir (St. 
Margaret's), 20 deliver public lectures, and preach. A pictur- 
esque and privileged person, he was withal a thorough gentle- 
man. "Hunty," as he was affectionately called by staff and 
students alike, had been a first-rate cross-country runner at 
Oxford and from the time of his arrival took his morning 
exercise over the hills and dales in the open country north of 
the College, accompanied by his faithful bull-dog Isaac. So 
alarmed were near-by residents on Crawford Street at this 
unprecedented exhibition the first morning after his arrival 
that fear was expressed that he might have been a "trusty" 
or a patient from an institution for the feeble-minded a few 
hundred yards westerly on Queen Street. His return to Eng- 
land at the end of Michaelmas Term 1899 was regarded as a 
great loss to the life of the College and to the community. 

20 At St. Margaret's, Professor Huntingford assisted the Reverend R. J. Moore, '82, 
later Rector of St. George's, Toronto. When asked how things were going there, 
"Hunty's" invariable answer was "everything is bang-up at Peggy's." 



Professor Huntingford's method was to test every fresh- 
man to see what he could do — "but do something he had to, 
or become a nonentity." In this way he recruited the drama- 
tic club, the glee club, the boxing club, and the steeplechase. 
He also set up a form of compulsory physical training. In 
October 1892 freshmen were notified that they would be re- 
quired to take a cross-country run each morning before 
breakfast. The formation of this "Hunt Club," as it was 
called, was not a popular move at first, but in time the 
physical improvement of the men was noticeable and this 
preliminary training was of great benefit to those taking part 
in games. In boxing he encouraged the men by his own ex- 
ample in putting on the gloves with them. The first assault- 
at-arms ever held at Trinity was organized by Professor 
Huntingford in March 1892 and proved quite successful. 
'Hunty" as master of ceremonies added to the entertainment 
by giving a skilful exhibition of the single-stick in a bout 
with George Heward, '93. In the annual steeplechase he 
personally took charge of the marking of the course, the 
timing, and other technical details. Occasionally he led the 
way over the course mounted on a gallant steed borrowed 
from the neighbouring undertakers, a white horse, whose 
only other excitement was leading the annual Orangemen's 
parade on the twelfth of July, his rider impersonating "King 
Billy." In 1896, on account of the building up of the city to 
the north, Professor Huntingford altered the course to one 
covering part of Dundas Street, northward on Rusholme 
Road, across the fields to the east and down Gore Vale to the 

Professor Oswald Rigby, appointed Dean of Residence in 
January 1892, was the first full-time Professor of History. 
Although prominent as a scholar it is as Dean that he is best 
remembered. If he was not always able to take part in sports 
he was always on hand to encourage the men and frequently 
coached them. For a time he acted as treasurer of the Ath- 



letic Association and handled its finances with sound judg- 
ment. He was a great enthusiast for cricket but preferred to 
view a game alone (not, however, without his favourite pipe) ; 
he could not long endure the idle chatter of the "gallery" 21 
which decorated the terrace on such days as the twenty- 
fourth of May, the great social-athletic event of the season. 
At such times he would retire, with his faithful dog "Spot," 
to the Crawford Street boundary, and watch and smoke in 

The first annual games or track meet was held in 1893. It 
proved most successful and as time went on supplemented, 
although it never supplanted, the historic steeplechase, until 
Trinity moved to Queen's Park. In that first year, W. Rein 
Wadsworth, '94, won the College championship, winning the 
steeplechase and the half-mile run, and coming second in the 
mile and first in the broad jump. The following year Duncan 
F. Campbell, '96, was the champion and in 1896 he tied with 
C. A. Heaven, '96, for the honour. In this year W. F. Hub- 
bard, '97, entered the annual games at the University of 
Toronto (the first Trinity man to do so). He won the open 
440-yard race and placed second in the 100-yard sprint. 

In 1898 an important item of expense for the Association 
was the purchase of a ball for a new game called basketball. 
This was invented by Dr. James Naismith in 1891, when a 
young student at the Y.M.C.A. Training School in Spring- 
field, Mass. As an indoor game for the winter season, it 
rapidly found favour in the United States. Long regarded in 
Canada as a game more suitable for girls and for Y.M.C.A. 
classes, it found little recognition in Canadian university 
circles until 1908 when an intercollegiate group was formed 
in the three senior universities. 

Hockey (an adaptation of the Scottish "shinny" or the 
English "bandy" but also claimed by the Irish as having 

21 "A lively and joyous throng of young men and maidens, old men and stately 
dames." The Review, May 1893. 



been played in that country under the name of "hurley" 
long before the year 1300) was first played in Canada about 
1855 by British regiments stationed in Halifax and Kingston; 
and in 1875 by members of the Montreal Football Club as a 
winter pastime. Two McGill men were responsible for a re- 
vision of the rules to adapt them to Canadian conditions. The 
first hockey league in Ontario, formed at Kingston in 1885, 
was merged with the Ontario Hockey Association in 1890. 

By that time the game had taken hold throughout the 
country and had invaded the colleges. Clubs were formed at 
McGill and Varsity, and, according to The Review of Jan- 
uary 1892, hockey had then become well established as a 
regular College sport at Trinity. Matches were arranged with 
the officers at the New Fort (later known as Stanley Bar- 
racks), Upper Canada College, the University of Toronto, 
Osgoode Hall, and other clubs. Among the first players to 
promote the game in College were John F. E. Patterson, '92, 
Maitland S. McCarthy, '93, W. R. Wadsworth, '94, F. G. 
Wallbridge, '92, C. W. Hedley, '92, and H. S. Southam, , 96. 22 

To obtain ice for practice was a problem until the officers 
of the New Fort generously placed their rink at Trinity's 
disposal. Unfortunately play was hampered by seasonal 
thaws but the beginning was considered satisfactory, Trinity 
emerging with three victories and three defeats. The next 
season was better; two teams were organized. The seniors 
travelled to Kingston and returned R.M.C.'s generous hospi- 
tality by defeating them 8 to 7 in a close finish. In spite of 
lack of practice and poor team play, they were beaten only 
by Varsity and that by a very close score. 

Handicaps to efficient playing were uncertain weather, 
poor ice, and the lack of a rink at the College. In 1894 an 
inter-year series was organized, and proved so popular that 
the "Athletic" was prevailed upon to build a rink north of 

22 In his final year Harry Southam captained the cricket, rugby football, and hockey 



the College building. This provided a fine sheet of ice with 
room for five teams to practice. In 1895 the senior team 
reached the finals for the O.H.A. cup, but the following year, 
although apparently stronger, was eliminated in the first 
round. The vagaries of the weather again prevented team 
practice and the need of a covered rink was felt more than 
ever. The second team fared better, winning seven out of 
their eight games, which included a trip to Oakville and city 
games with the Ontario Bank, the Victorias, Stanley Bar- 
racks, and Varsity II whom they defeated 12 to 2. The inter- 
year games were the only sure ones, but even they were 
sometimes affected by mild weather and in some years had 
to be abandoned altogether. The College rink was not always 
kept in good condition on account of shortage of labour and 
the indifference of the freshmen whose duty it was to care for 

The organization of the Intercollegiate Hockey Union to 
provide an intermediate and junior series and the building of 
an artificial ice arena in the city opened up new possibilities 
and in 1910 a group was formed consisting of Trinity, 
Wycliffe, McMaster, and Varsity II. Again the College made 
a good showing by reaching the semi-finals. The interfaculty 
series at the University of Toronto also offered competition 
for the Jennings Cup, the records showing that in 1915 
Trinity, in spite of a low registration, with H. E. Orr, '17, as 
captain, reached the semi-finals. After the First World War, 
Trinity re-entered interfaculty competition and in 1919-20 
had sufficient material for two teams, one in the interfaculty 
series and one composed of freshmen which competed with 
Victoria freshmen and Appleby School. The following year 
Trinity, under the captaincy of W. H. R. Lawrence, '21, won 
the Jennings Cup, defeating the powerful Victoria team in 
the final game. Again in 1939 and in 1940, Trinity College 
won this trophy, the emblem of hockey supremacy within 
the University. 



That federation with the Provincial University had, for a 
time, a detrimental effect on College athletics is undoubted. 
Under Federation Trinity gave up its University powers, 
except in Divinity, and became a part and numerically a 
small part of the larger institution. But for what Trinity lost 
in traditions and exclusiveness, it soon found compensation 
in the larger arena of intercollegiate and interfaculty com- 
petition. It was no easy road. First the aspiring athlete had 
to prove his ability in College competition, and then move 
through two and sometimes three stages in competition with 
the athletes of other colleges before winning a place on a 
University team. 

The interfaculty competitions at the University were 
started in 1894 in rugby football by D. Bruce Macdonald 23 
and his associates to develop material for the senior Varsity 
team. This move was encouraged by the Vice-Chancellor who 
at that time donated the cup which bears his name. 24 A year 
later the Arts faculty presented a cup for competition in 
association football. A similar trophy, presented in 1898 by 
William T. Jennings, 25 examiner in Engineering, was given 
to the School of Practical Science, now the Faculty of Ap- 
plied Science, and handed over to the University for com- 
petition in hockey. In 1909 Sir Clifford Sifton, the father of 
W. B. Sifton, U.C. '10, gave a handsome trophy for competi- 
tion in basketball within the University. W. B. Sifton was an 
enthusiast for the game which was beginning to find favour 
in intercollegiate circles. All these, and similar trophies 
offered by graduates and others from time to time, have 

23 Donald Bruce Macdonald, U.C. '95, M.A. '97, LL.D. '06, headmaster of St. 
Andrew's College, 1900-35; member of the Royal Commission on the University 1905; 
member of the Board of Governors 1906-45, and Chairman of the Board 1932-45. 

"(Sir) William Mulock (1844-1944), U.C. '63, M.A. '71, LL.D. '94; Chief Justice 
of Ontario, 1903; Vice-Chancellor, University of Toronto, 1881-1900, Chancellor 
1924-44. The Mulock Cup has been competed for annually, without exception, for 
fifty-eight years. 

25 William Tindal Jennings, surveyor and eminent engineer, a believer in athletics 
for engineering students. He was City Engineer 1890-1. 



opened up avenues of competition in almost every sport 
suited to the taste and ability of the student. 

In 1910 Trinity College entered a team in the Mulock Cup 
series in rugby football and reached the semi-finals. A team 
has been entered annually ever since, even in the war years 
of 1914-18 when all the men in College numbered less than 
the regulation number for a rugby squad — and these students 
were either under age or unfit for military service. Frequently 
the Trinity men have won their group, often they have 
reached the semi-finals, occasionally they have been runners- 
up and, in 1931, under the captaincy of Stuart Martin, '32, 
and coached by George W. Gooderham, '31, and Les. Black- 
well 26 they won the Mulock Cup. The victory was a well- 
earned one and the glory all the greater because of the 
excellence of the Victoria and Applied Science teams. The 
cup was presented by the venerable donor himself, the Right 
Honourable Sir William Mulock, LL.D., K.C.M.G., at the 
Athletic Dinner on the twenty-sixth of November. The 
following year Trinity lost the final game to Victoria and in 
1933 again reached the semi-finals. In 1950 the Trinity rugby 
team won all its group games, was triumphant in the semi- 
finals and only went down to defeat against the powerful and 
professionally coached Forestry team by a score of 24 to 14. 
Trinity might have won the title oftener, if her students had 
not contributed generously to the teams of the University. 
In some years as many as ten of her best rugby players made 
the University squads, an example not always followed by 
colleges and faculties with a much higher enrolment. 

An offspring of the steeplechase, 27 "where hill and stream 

2 «The Honourable L. E. Blackwell, U.C. '24, K.C., Attorney-General of Ontario 

"The steeplechase was originally a horse-race across a track of country abounding 
in ditches, hedges, fences, and other obstacles. The goal was a distant conspicuous 
object, frequently a church steeple, hence the name. In the modern harrier race there 
are no obstacles, the rules requiring a race of five or six miles, partly on pavement, 
partly on rough roads, and partly across fields and open country. 



and many an inconvenient fence had to be surmounted," was 
the harrier race, introduced into University competition after 
Federation. The College steeplechase had been an annual 
event even in the early days of Episkopon "when men still 
understood the Greek of Met' Agona." It took place tradi- 
tionally on the afternoon of the twenty-eighth of October, 
the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude, the patron saints of stu- 
dents. 28 This event was followed by the beer supper, also 
famous in College history. The latter, as such, was formally 
abolished in 1901 but before that the date of the steeplechase 
as well as of the athletic dinner which followed it had be- 
come a movable feast. Outstanding runners of their times 
were R. H. Temple ("Reggie" to his familiars), '97, eminent 
lawyer and an officer in the first Canadian contingent to 
South Africa at the time of the Boer War, 1899; E. P. S. 
Spencer, '98, 29 who donated the Spencer Cup for the best 
time; and P. H. Gordon, 'OS, 30 who won the steeplechase in 
three successive years (and the cup "for keeps") and the 
College championship in 1905. Victor R. Smith, '05, won 
the Provost's Cup for first place in 1905, with R. G. Armour 
a close second. 

Harold V. Routh, on the staff in the Department of Classics 
1905-12, was a Cambridge man of distinction and an all- 
round athlete, runner, boxer, wrestler, and fencer. Under 
his supervision and inspired by his enthusiasm, student 
interest, which had slumped somewhat since the departure 
of Professor Huntingford and Walter H. White, '90 (Fellow 
in Classics from 1894 to 1899), was aroused to new heights of 

2S Vide Me? Agona. 

29 The Reverend E. P. S. Spencer, sometime Rector of Port Robinson and later 
Rector at Mystic, Conn. In 1897 he won the race from scratch, establishing a record 
of five minutes. In 1896 the race had been made a handicap and the course altered on 
account of the building up of the district north of the College. 

30 The Honourable Percival Hector Gordon, '05, M.A. '07, B.C.L. '09, C.B.E.; 
Justice of the Court of Appeal of Saskatchewan since 1935; Chancellor of the Diocese 
of Qu'Appelle 1932-42; Chairman of the National Executive Committee of the 
Canadian Red Cross Society, 1941-44. 



athletic endeavour. Routh had an Englishman's passion for 
sports. He was one of the few dons who were privileged to 
keep a dog in residence and his was one of the most miserable 
hairy specimens of the wire-haired breed ever produced. 
"Henry" needed a constitutional three times a week and the 
only place large enough for him to steer his erratic course was 
High Park. On these occasions Routh would send his lieu- 
tenants, Ron Hendy 31 and Jack Dykes, '13, through College 
with instructions to see that not a man remained in his 
rooms. Presently a motley procession would move out of the 
Queen Street grounds, headed by Routh and the said "Henry" 
at a very hot pace (which became hotter when they reached 
High Park) and cheered on its way by the greatest sport in 
College, Bill Hazell, 32 who would wave one of his crutches at 
the laggards and offer to show them how to run. Thus long- 
distance running was developed at Trinity. 33 

The gymnasium in the basement of the east wing, built 
in 1895, lacking proper equipment, had fallen more or less 
into disuse. R. V. Harris, '02, sought to restore its usefulness 
by collecting sufficient money from among the students with 
which to buy horizontal bars, a punching bag and other 
accessories. But his efforts were, to a large extent, nullified 
by the lack of co-operation on the part of the College authori- 
ties. Without adequate heating it was impossible to use the 
gymnasium in winter. Three years later, however, these con- 
ditions were somewhat improved, a heating system was in- 
stalled, and the place made more habitable. 

In the ten years following Federation down to the out- 

31 Ronald Alexander Hendy, class of 1915, in attendance 1911-14; enlisted as a 
trooper in the King Edward Horse 1914; Lieutenant, Royal Warwickshire Regiment, 
wounded; Intelligence officer in Ireland after the war; kidnapped and believed killed 
during the troubles in April 1922. 

32 William Hazell, '17, "a man who knew more of the rules and strategy of all games 
than most participants, a man who never missed a practice or a game, yet who was 
unable to take an active part in them. His coaching and advice helped us out of many 
a bad hole." Eric Machell, '15. 

33 From the reminiscences of Reginald A. Guff, '15. 



break of the First World War the athletic programme fol- 
lowed a general pattern. Cricket and tennis were the spring 
activities. Rugby football, with inter-year competition, a 
field day with a full programme of track and field events, 
and the time-honoured steeplechase completed the autumn 
calendar of sports. Hockey and skating, when weather per- 
mitted, and the College rink provided scope for winter 
recreation. In 1909 Mr. John Brotherton donated for com- 
petition a team trophy for cross-country running, in which 
Trinity men under the leadership of Professor Routh took 
part. Not only did they win permanent possession of the 
cup, 34 but with such men as Jack Dykes, Harry Hayes, R. A. 
Hendy, Ivan E. Kennedy, and R. A. Cluff provided men for 
Varsity first teams. On the intercollegiate championship 
teams of 1912 and 1913, four of the five men were from 
Trinity, and in 1914, three of the five with Hayes as manag- 
er won the H. R. Little Cup. In 1913 A. Harding Priest, '12, 
of Trinity was manager of the University senior team. 

In 1910 the annual field day of thirteen events brought out 
a large number of contestants including three relay teams. 
The steeplechase had an unprecedented number of runners 
including Bill Ford, Harry Hayes, A. H. Priest (who also 
made the senior Varsity harrier team), Jack Dykes, Art 
Boddy, E. H. Flesher, J. B. Collip, and R. C. Berkinshaw. 
Boxing, but on a somewhat higher plane than in the Pelican 
Club, thanks again to Professor Routh, became an annual 
event; Sheppard, Jones, and Hayes were sent to the Univer- 
sity bouts in the 125, 135, and 145 weights respectively. 
About this time Trinity entered a team in interfaculty 
basketball, and, in 1913-14, won the Sifton Cup in a sixteen- 
team series, a notable achievement. In the final game they 
doubled the score on their powerful opponents, the Victoria 
College team. Trinity's record for 1913-14 was a remarkable 

34 In 1915 Mr. Brotherton presented another trophy, which bears his name, to the 
University of Toronto for annual interfaculty competition. 



one. Though the smallest in numbers of any college or 
faculty, she played an important part in University athle- 
tics. Her teams were first in cricket, first in harrier, tied for 
first place in boxing, fencing, and wrestling, first in basket- 
ball, third in rugby football (with twelve teams competing), 
and eighth in hockey (with sixteen teams in competition). 

The Presidents of the "Athletic" from Federation to the 
outbreak of the First World War were E. H. Ker, V. R. 
Smith, '05, R. A. Jamieson, '06, E. A. Baker, '08, P. M. 
Lamb, '08, G. W. Morley, '10, J. H. Dixon, '10, J. G. 
Althouse, '12, A. H. Boddy, '13, Harry Hayes, '14, and 
William Hazell, '17. 

The outbreak of war in August 1914 soon affected College 
athletics. Intercollegiate competition was dropped from 1915 
to 1919 and in terf acuity contests were reduced on account of 
the compulsory military training. Only those pastimes were 
retained which were necessary for physical fitness. By 1916 
Trinity had dropped cricket, basketball, indoor baseball, 
hockey, track and field sports, and harrier, retaining only 
the steeplechase, rugby, and such inter-year games as were 
necessary for recreation. 

With the cessation of hostilities and the return to College 
of many former students who had joined the armed forces a 
new era commenced. The period from 1918 to 1925 was 
transitional in athletics, preparatory to the removal to 
Queen's Park, which had been delayed on account of the war. 
The first year was principally one of organization; teams were 
entered only in rugby, basketball, and hockey and in the 
tennis tournament. No attempt was made to hold a field 
day, and although the traditional steeplechase was run as 
usual, there were only fifteen contestants. Meanwhile in 
1919, with D'Arcy Argue Counsell Martin as President and 
J. F. Davidson as Secretary, the "Athletic" got into full 
swing. A track and field meet, the first in five years, was 
held with a full programme of twelve events. The Trinity 



team won the interfaculty harrier, entering thirteen runners* 
of whom four were among the first eight and two, Jack 
Davidson and Hugh Ketchum, made the Varsity intercol- 
legiate team. In 1920-21 the College reached the semi-finals 
in the competitions for the Sifton and the Mulock Cups, won 
the Jennings Cup with the first hockey team, and the indoor 
baseball championship, both against formidable opposition. 
The College tennis tournament brought out a large number 
of contestants, the championship going to D'Arcy Martin, 
who defeated Hugh and Phil Ketchum 35 in the semi finals, 
The basketball team uncovered new talent in John Lowe of 
the year 1920, 36 Percy Lowe, '20, Hugh Ketchum, '21, R. T. C. 
Dwelly, '22, H. J. Stowe, '22, and D'Arcy Martin, '20, 
and reached the semi-finals for the Sifton Cup. The following 
year practically the same team proceeded to the finals and 
lost by a very small margin to a powerful University College 

In track events Jack Davidson was easily the College 
champion, breaking the College record for the 440 yards, 
winning the half-mile and the three mile, and achieving 
second place in the broad jump. He proceeded to the inter- 
faculty competition, where he was second in the half-mile 
and won a place on the Varsity intercollegiate team. The 
following year John Lowe was the College champion, break- 
ing the record for the broad jump, with Davidson a close 
second in total points. Davidson again made the Varsity 
senior team. Trinity's last field day on the old grounds was 
held in October 1924. 

The opening of the new Trinity College building on Hoskin 
Avenue in 1925 brought Trinity into a still closer relation- 
ship with the other federated and affiliated colleges and the 

36 Philip A. C. Ketchum, '23, since 1933 headmaster of Trinity College School, Port 

36 The Reverend John Lowe, '21, M.A. '22, D.D. {honoris causa) '39; Rhodes 
Scholar 1922; Lecturer and Professor in the Faculty of Divinity, 1927-39; Dean of 
Christ Church, Oxford, since 1939; Vice-Chancellor, University of Oxford, 1948. 



several faculties of the University of Toronto. The fear 
expressed in 1904 that Federation with the Provincial Uni- 
versity would deprive Trinity of many of her cherished tradi- 
tions and that she would lose her identity in the larger 
institution had proved without foundation in athletics. The 
admirable interfaculty system in the University, commenced 
in a small way in 1894 and expanded from time to time as 
need arose, provided outlets for athletic activity in all sports. 

Squash racquets and badminton are among recent addi- 
tions to the athletic programme. Both have been played for 
years thanks to the wise provision in the plans of Hart House 
for adequate courts and a gymnasium. The squash racquets 
courts were originally intended for graduate use only, but it 
was not long before insistent demands from undergraduates 
brought about the formation of a joint committee to control 
the use of the courts. In 1921 a constitution was approved, 
D'Arcy Martin, '20, being one of the two graduate members. 
Undergraduates have on the average formed from seventy- 
five to eighty per cent of the total number using the courts. 
The first interfaculty tournament was organized in 1927 and 
one has been held annually ever since. In 1945, Toronto 
teams were sent to McGill and Dartmouth, and this was the 
beginning of intercollegiate competition which developed by 
1949 into a four- team group consisting of Toronto, McGill, 
the Royal Military College, and McMaster. In 1935 Pro- 
fessor C. A. Ashley, to promote interest in squash competi- 
tion, donated a cup which is awarded annually to the College 
champion. Now squash racquets is officially recognized by 
the Athletic Association as an interfaculty sport, with points 
counted for the intra-mural trophy and credits given for 
physical training. Trinity men have not been slow to avail 
themselves of the advantage in this as in other activities. 

The lack of a playing field in the crowded University area 
was a serious handicap until 1934. In that year the Athletic 
Association undertook the laying out of a full-sized football 



field north of the College, which is also used for hockey dur- 
ing the winter months. 

In 1945 a trophy, to be awarded annually to a student for 
all-round athletic ability and sportsmanship, was presented 
to the Athletic Association of the College by Mrs. W. T. 
Cluff in memory of her son, Howard Roger Cluff, '12, a 
prominent member of the Association during his College 
career, who was particularly interested in harrier competi- 

The development of the interfaculty or intra-mural system 
in athletics has proved of great advantage to the smaller 
colleges. In recent years further expansion has made it pos- 
sible for colleges and faculties to enter more than one team 
in a series, thus providing for greater participation. For 
example: a large faculty such as Applied Science with an 
enrolment of nearly 2,000 students could enter, as in the 
academic year 1950-51, twenty-eight teams in basketball 
alone and thus provide for three hundred students. Trinity 
in the same year entered five teams to provide for fifty-one 
men who aspired to play that game. Altogether, in team 
sports that year Trinity had seventeen teams with a total 
membership of 237 men, ranking sixth among the seventeen 
faculties, colleges, and schools participating. In tournament, 
or individual type sports, that is, track and field, harrier, 
tennis, swimming, boxing, in the same academic year Trinity 
had ninety-one men participating, ranking fourth, an excel- 
lent showing when compared with Applied Science where 
204 men were enrolled in sports of the tournament type. 

To stimulate interest in competitive sports there was es- 
tablished in 1936 a High Point Championship and a trophy 
was given by the athletic associations of the several colleges 
and faculties throughout the University. This intra-mural 
Trophy, named in honour of T. A. Reed, '01, Secretary of the 
University of Toronto Athletic Association from 1914 to 
1947, is awarded annually to the college or faculty scoring 
the highest number of points during the academic year. But 



this scoring system is unique in that it is designed to en- 
courage the smaller colleges by awarding higher points for 
the numbers participating in proportion to the male enrol- 
ment. Other points are awarded for the winning of a group, 
reaching the semi-finals, and, of course, winning an indivi- 
dual team championship. Trinity, in the sixteen years of 
competition, has won the Trophy three times, ranked second 
six times, and third, three times. It will thus be seen that 
Trinity has in no way lost her identity in the larger arena of 
University competition. 

The interfaculty championships won by Trinity men since 
Federation are as follows: Basketball (the Clifford Sifton 
Cup) 1914; Harrier (the Brotherton Cup) 1911, 1912, 1913, 
1919; Indoor Baseball (the Spalding Cup) 1921; Hockey (the 
Jennings Cup) 1921, 1939, 1940; Rugby football (the Mulock 
Cup) 1931 — runners-up, 1932, 1950; Swimming, Individual 
(the Durnan Trophy), Winston A. McCatty 1933, 1934, 
1935, Cressy A. McCatty 1936; Gymnastics (the Harold A. 
Wilson Trophy) 1935, 1950; Swimming (the A. M. Fitz- 
gerald Trophy) 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937— tied with Applied 
Science for first place 1951; Water Polo (the H. P. Eckardt 
Trophy) 1934, 1939; Golf 1941, 1942; Tennis— University 
Champion: M. E. Jones 1943, R. Lau 1944; Swimming 
League 1947, 1948; Soccer (the Arts Faculty Cup) 1948, 1949; 
Harrier team, freshmen, 1949; Squash, team championship, 
1949, 1950, 1951; Squash, individual champion (the Boake 
Trophy), E. Howard 1948, J. W. Biddell 1949, R. Gaunt 1951. 

Nor has the University suffered. Trinity, proud of her 
position as a college with great traditions, has contributed 
loyally to University teams. The Colour Books show that 
eighty-one Trinity men have received the University First 
Colour as members of senior teams, and of these men fifteen 
were granted the Bronze "T" — the highest award in the gift 
of the Athletic Association. Second Colours have been awar- 
ded to 140 members of intermediate teams and the Third 
Colour to 116 junior players. 



n Sunday, the thirteenth of January 1952 a great 
Service of Thanksgiving in St. James* Cathedral 
inaugurated the Centenary Celebrations of the 
College. His Grace the Primate of All Canada, 
the Most Reverend Walter Foster Barfoot, Archbishop 
of Edmonton, preached the sermon. The Right Reverend 
L. W. B. Broughall, formerly Bishop of Niagara, and the 
Right Reverend W. L. Wright, Lord Bishop of Algoma, both 
graduates of the College, took part in the service. Repre- 
sentatives of the University of Toronto, of the federated 
Colleges, of the Provincial Legislature, and of the City of 
Toronto were in attendance, together with a great company 
of students, graduates, and friends of the College. The sixth 
Bishop of Toronto, standing beside the grave of his prede- 
cessor, our Founder, pronounced the Benediction. So the full 
cycle of a hundred years has been fulfilled. 

It is a far cry from those first days to the present time, 
from the first enrolment of twenty-one students to the 549 
enrolled today, from a staff consisting of the Provost and 
two Professors to the present teaching staff of thirty-three. 
The preceding pages tell the story of hope and confidence 
and loyalty through all the vicissitudes of our history. Many 
things remain the same. Our place within the educational 
structure has not changed. We still stand for the unity of 
education and Christian faith and practice. Perhaps our 
contribution here is even more important now than it was a 
hundred years ago, for we have the privilege and respon- 
sibility of being the only place of higher education from 
which virtually no students can graduate without instruc- 
tion in the Christian faith. We still stand for that ideal of 



education which is described as a community of scholars. 
Our numbers now would horrify our founders, but they are 
still small in relation to other universities and colleges, and 
we can still maintain that close association between teacher 
and student which makes higher learning a communal ad- 
venture. Perhaps we have fewer eccentric characters than 
at some periods of our history — time alone will make that 
plain — but we still rely upon people rather than a system, 
and depend upon a teaching staff whose loyalty to the Col- 
lege and its principles is the dominant motive of their teach- 
ing. In all these matters, were John Strachan to return to us 
today, he would feel quite at home. 

Other sections of this story strike a contemporary note. 
Deficits, insufficient endowments, inadequate buildings — 
these things are with us still. Perhaps their constant recur- 
rence has a lesson to teach us which we find hard to learn. 
Whatever it is that Trinity has to contribute, it is independ- 
ent of material security. It is our resolve in this Centenary 
Year to try to repair some of these material deficiencies. In 
particular, we desire to see the erection of a chapel which 
will be worthy of our Founder's hope and faith and which 
will be a fitting memorial to the fallen of two wars. We wish 
to complete our residences so that we may become again a 
college that is truly residential in character. We wish to in- 
crease our endowments so that, among other things, our 
teaching staff may receive remuneration commensurate with 
their abilities. These plans and endeavours are uppermost in 
our minds at the present time, and they are worthy object- 
ives to mark our Centenary. This history is a salutary 
reminder of the proper value of these things. They are neces- 
sary instruments for carrying out our true function, but our 
real task is greater and more imponderable. These pages are 
concerned above all else with people, with men of character 
who have guided our destinies, with men and women who 
have gone out from our family to enrich the community at 



large. A college is not a building, nor is it a place for the 
communication of learning. It is a community of people who, 
by the interchange of ideas, by the sharing of ideals, and by 
the common formation of purposes, form a way of life which 
they find to be good. Having practised it among themselves, 
they then try to practise it in the larger society. 

There has possibly never been a century which has en- 
compassed as radical a change of life as that through which 
we have lived. It has witnessed the full effects of the In- 
dustrial Revolution. It has seen that whole revolution of 
thought to which Darwin's Origin of Species gave rise. It 
has experienced war on a scale unprecedented in history, and 
within it have developed means of communication which at 
its beginning would have been held unthinkable. A whole 
new pattern of world relationships, both within the Com- 
monwealth and outside it, has emerged, and for the first time 
since the Dark Ages there has grown up a serious threat to 
all that is understood by Western civilization. Even more 
intensified has been the change in our own country: the rise 
of Confederation and all that that implies; the opening up 
of the western provinces; the vast increases in population; 
the new status of Canada in world affairs. In January 1852 
no bishop had ever been consecrated on Canadian soil, all 
eastern Canada comprised five dioceses, and Rupert's Land 
was the only diocese to the west. No Diocesan Synod had 
ever been held, and the General Synod had not been thought 
of. The whole missionary work of the Canadian Church lay 
in the future. All those things which preoccupy our minds 
and modify our thoughts and colour our daily lives are pro- 
ducts of this hundred years. With all these changes and de- 
velopments one might well think that the tasks of the 
College would have radically changed and our objectives for 
the future be different. Yet it remains true that our univer- 
sities, for all that they are the centres of new thought and 
new learning, change less than the communities to which 



they pass on the results of their researches. Fundamentally, 
they are untouched by time and by the tremendous impli- 
cations of their own discoveries. This is because they are 
concerned with human beings, and human nature is not 
changed as radically by its environment as some might 

Our task for future centuries remains the same, to send 
out from our community men and women who can bring to 
bear on the immediate problems of their society values and 
standards which have stood the test of change. They bring 
to bear upon the present the experience of the past and so 
are freed from the tyranny of the immediate. They have 
learnt independence of thought and action, and therefore 
direct events instead of being enmeshed by them. They have 
learnt to prove all things and to hold fast to that which is 
good. In the hope of fulfilling such a task, John Strachan 
made the well-nigh superhuman efforts which led to our 
foundation. In honour of his memory, but even more in ad- 
herence to the principles which he held, we continue to 
endeavour to fulfil them. 

One great resource is ours which was denied to those who 
started out in 1852. They had the support and loyalty of 
many friends and well-wishers. Those we have still, but to 
them is added the goodly company of graduates and alumni 
scattered all over the world who remain within our family 
and whose loyalty to their College and faith in those things 
for which it stands provide a stimulus to endeavour and an 
encouragement to strive for greater things. No one can help 
being conscious of the great cloud of witnesses which sur- 
rounds Trinity College. Because of them it cannot but be 
strong to serve Church and State and remain dedicated to 
the cause of true learning and Christian living. 



Maurice Scollard Baldwin, '59; Huron 1883-1904. 

William Reid Clark, 74; Niagara 1911-1925. 

Clarendon Lamb Worrell, '74; Nova Scotia 1904, Metropolitan 1915, 

Primate 1930-1934. 
James Fielding Sweeny, '83; Toronto 1909-1932, Metropolitan 1932. 
William Lennox Mills, '84; Ontario 1900-1917. 
(Sir) Francis Heathcote, '91; New Westminster 1941-1950. 
Adam Urias de Pencier, '95; New Westminster 1910, Metropolitan 

Charles Allen Seager, '95; Ontario 1926, Huron 1932, Metropolitan 

Lewis Wilmot Bovell Broughall, '97; Niagara 1933-1949. 
Derwyn Trevor Owen, '01; Niagara 1925, Toronto 1932, Primate 

John Lyons, '06; Ontario 1932, Metropolitan 1949-1952. 
John Harkness Dixon, '10; Montreal 1943. 
George Frederick Kingston, '13; Algoma 1940, Nova Scotia 1944, 

Primate 1947-1950. 
Harold Eustace Sexton, '20; Co-adjutor, British Columbia 1935, 

Bishop 1936. 
George Nasmith Luxton, '24; Huron 1948. 
William Lockridge Wright, '27; Algoma 1944. 
Tom Greenwood, '34; Yukon 1952. 
Peter Trimble Rowe, '80; Alaska 1895-1942. 
Charles Henry Brent, '84; Philippines 1901; Western New York 

Charles Scadding, '85; Oregon 1906-1914. 
Charles Palmerston Anderson, '86; Coadjutor, Chicago 1900, Bishop 

1905-1930; Presiding Bishop U.S.A. 1930. 
Frederick Bingham Howden, '91; New Mexico 1914-1940. 
Frank DuMoulin, '92; Coadjutor, Ohio 1916. 
Francis Yen-Shan Tseng, '41; Assistant Bishop of Honan 1948, Bishop 



THE FALLEN 1914-1918 

Henry Harold Allen, '05 
Thomas William Edward Allen, '11 
Gordon Stewart Andrews, '10 
William George Henry Bates, '97 
David Benjamin Bentley, '91 
George Herbert Bowlby, '88 
Thomas Pattison Camelon, '90 
Duncan Frederic Campbell, '96 
Robert Alexander Rankine 

Campbell, '14 
Adam Peden Chalmers, '92 
Paul Brooks Clarke, '18 
Allen Charles Mackenzie Cleghorn, 

> 92 

Walter Henry T. Cooper, '88 

Ernest Herbert Cox, '09 

James Philip Crawford, '06 

John Arthur Cullum, '05 

Basil Lancelot Cumpston, '15 

Carl de Fallot, '05 

Robert John Gunn Dow, '05 

Roy Anderson Forsyth, '16 

Charles Randolph Gillan, '15 

Henry Arthur Harding, '04 

Webster Henry Fanning Harris, '11 

John Hately, '13 

George Frederick Hayden, 

Staff '14-'16 
Henry Stuart Hayes, '14 
James Henderson, '02 
William Anderson Henderson, '98 

David Edwin Howes, '06 
James Hamilton Ingersoll, '17 
George Leycester Ingles, '08 
Harry Alexander Taylor Kennedy, 

Cleveland Keyes, '15 
Douglas Sherwood McCarter, '18 
Kenneth Ogilvie McEwen, '98 
John Dewar McMurrich, '95 
Maurice Irving Machell, '12 
Frederick John Strange Martin, '96 
Gordon McMichael Matheson, '14 
Henry Keble Merritt, '86 
Richard Arthur Mitchell, '16 
Herbert Stanley Monkman, '06 
John Ferguson Palling, '88 
Evan Edward Price, '19 
John Henry Ratz, '95 
Ronald E. Mackenzie Richards, '16 
Federick William Rous, '10 
Jeffery Fielder Smith, '06 
Charles Ashbury Sparling, '04 
Frederick Ivanhoe Taylor, '17 
Richard Henry Thomson, '18 
Reginald Prinsep Wilkins, '14 
Matthew Maurice Wilson, '18 
Philip Hamilton Wilson, '97 
O. B. Wordsworth, Staff '14-'15 
Martin Cortlandt De Bude Young, 




THE FALLEN 1939-1945 

Godfrey Thomas Alfred Sissener 

Archbold, '35 
George Edgar Auld, '30 
Graham Macnaughton Baker, '39 
Robert John Brennan, '33 
Dorothy Florence Britton, '43 
Edward Robert Burns, '43 
John Mallory Carroll, '44 
George Stevenson Cartwright, '29 
Hollis Andrew Taylor Clark, '37 
James Murray Clark, '44 
John Franklin Clarke, '40 
Frederick John Arthur Coleman/42 
James Hill Cunningham, '45 
Harry Rosser Emerson, '37 
Douglas Joseph Farrell, '43 
John Alexander Foster, '29 
Reginald Cuthbert Gibbs, '35 
Maurice Weir Gibson, '37 
Hugh Lockhart Gordon, '42 
Edward Alexander McDougall 

Grange, '40 
Elmes Patrick Trevelyan Green, '35 
Edward Nesbitt Heighington, '37 
John Roper Henderson, '43 
David Selwyn Holmested, '35 
Eric Harry Hutcheson, '42 
Thomas Frederick Hyndman, '43 
John Denison Jackson, '44 
Stuart William Jamieson, '40 
Wilfred Sydney Johnson, '37 
Harlan David Keely, '45 
Frederick Southam Ker, '41 
Harold Wilmer Kerby, '38 
Jeffery Cayley Laidlaw, '41 
Andrew Owen Learmonth, '39 

Torkel Torkelsson Lundberg, '43 
William Francis McCarthy, '42 
Winston Alexander McCatty, '36 
Edward Gregg MacLoghlin, '32 
James Edward Temple McMullen, 

Michael Stuart Mills, '39 
Henry George Northway, '33 
David Derwyn Owen, '39 
Edward Burdess Peart, '40 
Reginald Bruce Peterson, '35 
David Martin Philp, '43 
William Thorton Purkis, '36 
Ralph Crossley Ripley, '37 
Christopher Fothergill Robinson, 

David Francis Gaston Rouleau, '41 
Ronald Franklin William Sedgwick, 

George Graham Sinclair, '30 
John Morris Gregory Smart, '45 
Douglas Schuyler Snively, '44 
Paul Edward Snyder, '39 
Gordon Kent Stephen, '45 
Robert Ian Orde Stewart, '36 
William Dunlop Stewart, Jr., '43 
John Marne Storey, '37 
George Henry Kirkpatrick Strathy, 

Ralph Richard Sturgeon, '40 ' 
William Ronald Rutherford Sutton, 

Douglas Bond Symons, '37 
Robert Keith Templeton, '40 
Edward Blake Thompson, '39 
Donald Francis Trebell, '35 




The arms of Trinity, so familiar to graduates of the College, are, in 
part, older than the College itself. In 1839, the Honourable and 
Venerable John Strachan, Archdeacon of York, was consecrated Bishop 
of the newly formed Diocese of Toronto. In the same year the College 
of Heralds granted to the Diocese the arms which in 1852 formed the 
dexter half* of the College arms; for the sinister, or left half, Dr. 
Strachan added his own badge or insignia, the stag. These arms were 
carved on the foundation stone which was laid on the thirtieth of April 
1851, and which can be seen today surmounting the foundation stone 
of the new building on the west side of the main doorway of the College. 

In heraldic terms these arms are described as follows: Azure a 
crozier in bend dexter surmounted by a key in bend sinister or, between 
an Imperial crown in chief, two open books in fess proper, and a dove 
rising in base argent, holding in the beak an olive branch vert; Impal- 
ing azure, a stag trippant or, armed and unguled gules. The shield 
surmounted by a mitre. 

Interpreted, this means: On the right hand side of the shield, on a 
blue ground, a pastoral staff and a key of gold crossed; a crown above, 
two books — one on each side, and a dove below, about to fly, holding 
in the beak a green olive branch; On the left side, on a blue ground a 
white stag walking (that is, with one foot raised) with antlers and 
hoofs red. 

The stag is the badge of Bishop Strachan and the mitre indicates 
that the founder of the College was a Bishop; the crown denotes the 
Royal foundation of the College; the books, the Bible and the Book of 
Common Prayer; the crozier or shepherd's crook, the authority of the 
Bishop; the key, the authority of the Church; the dove with the olive 
branch, the emblem of peace and goodwill. 

The arms of St. Hilda's College are simpler. Azure, between three 
fleur-de-lys argent, on a fess of the second argent an open book proper. 
That is, on a blue ground three white lilies; in the centre of the shield a 
band of white on which is placed an open book in its proper colour. 
The motto: Timor Dei Principium Sapientiae. 

*The dexter side of the shield is on the right of the man standing behind the shield. 



Aberdeen, University of, 4 

Admission of scholars, 182 

Arms of Trinity and St. Hilda's, 300 

Arts Course (1852), 53 

Ashley Trophy, 289 

Athletic Association, organization of, 276 

Athletics at Trinity, 264-95 

Bell in Carillon (in memory of the 

Fallen), 145 
Bickford House, 131, 144 
Bishops, graduates who became, 297 
Board of Endowment and Finances, 117, 

Board of Stewards, 262 
Boer War (1899), 238, 247 
Buildings, additions to, 79, 89, 103, 131, 

239, 263; new, 148, 158, 171-72, 239 
Burnside Scholarship, 56 

Canterbury, Archbishop of, visit (1904), 

Cap and gown, wearing of, 35, 54, 74, 

Cartwright Hall, 217 
Centenary Service, 292 
Cercle Franchise, 253 
Chapel, the original (1884), 89, 103 
Chapel, the proposed memorial, 293 
Charter, Royal (1852), 48 
Chess Club, 51 

Choral Club and concerts, 234, 262 
Church extension, 96 
City of Toronto purchase, 141 
Clerical Alumni, Conference of, 186 
Coadjutor Bishop of Toronto, election of 

(1866), 30, 71 
Colours of the College, 233 
Conversazione, 81 
Convocation, last general (1904), 130, 

Convocation, Office of, 92, 175 
Convocation Hall (1877), 79 
Cornerstone, laying of (1851), 43; (1923), 


Cronyn-Whitaker controversy (1860), 
61 ff. 

Dean of Women, St. Hilda's College, 211 

Debates, 179,228 

Debating Society, 50 

Deutscher Klatsch Club, 253 

Diocesan Theological Institution, 34 ff., 

Divinity Course (1852), 54 
Divinity, Faculty of, 185 
Dramatic Club (1890), 246 
Dramatic Society, 178-9 
Duplication of lectures, 132 

Earle Grey Players, 173 
Endowment, supplemental, 87 ff. 
Enrolment, increase (1925-1929), 161; 

increase of non-residents, 161 
Episkopon, 178, 231 ff., 260 
Expansion (1900-1910), 132 

Farewell to Old Trinity (1925), 151 

Federation, 74, 90, 107, 117, 124 ff.; 
effect on athletics, 282 ff.; inconveni- 
ences of, 132, 254 

Fenian Raid (1866), 72 

Financial difficulties, 59, 70, 75, 104, 114, 

Frogs, The (Aristophanes), 121 

Gates, the entrance, 131 

General Synod, formation of (1893), 102, 

173; meeting of (1943), 173 
Glee Club, 233, 235 
Graduate School of Theological Studies, 

Greek play (1902), 121 
Gymnasium, 274, 285 

Henderson benefaction, 141 

Initiations, 228 ff. 

Jubilee of College (1902), 120 ff. 
Jubilee Scholarship (S.P.G., 1851), 56 

King's College, Toronto, 33 



Lectures, public, 94, 108, 173 

Life in the Old College, 156 ff., 257; in 

Queen's Park, 158 
Literary Institute, 51, 74, 108, 228, 250, 


Martin (Alexis) Trophy, 276 

Medical Faculty; see Trinity Medical 

Memorial to Bishop Strachan, 75, 79, 

Memorial to the Fallen, 145 
Memorial Volume (1914-1918), 145 
Met' Agona, origin of, 243 ff. 
Military organization, 72, 143, 168, 236, 

Music, interest in, 262 
Music degrees in England, 98 ff. 

Northwest Rebellion (1885), 237-38 

Opening of the College (1852), 47 

Pelican Club, 230 

Physical training, compulsory, 278 

Porters, 258 

Queen's Park, transportation to and 
from, 132 

Regulations of the College, 50, 54, 81 

Removal to Queen's Park (1925), 157 

Residences, 159, 171 

Rhodes Scholars, 159 

Rifle Company, Trinity College, 236 

Rouge et Noir, 82, 241, 243 

Royal Commission (1905), 135 

St. Andrews, University of, 5, 22 
St. Hilda's Chronicle, 180, 200 

St. Hilda's College, 97, 171, 188-224 

St. Hilda's College Alumnae, 195, 199, 

209 ff., 218-19 
Scholarships, 55 

School of Graduate Studies, 184 
Site, purchase of (1850) 40; sale of (1912), 

Site in Queen's park, 135, 139 
Social life — "the Buttery," etc., 178 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 

32, 36, 39, 56, 89 
"Sons of Belial," 253 
Staff, appointments to, 46, 79, 89, 100, 

118, 133, 147; loyalty of, 134 
Steeplechase, 268, 283 
Strachan Hall, 172 
Strachan Scholarship, 56 
Student life at Trinity, 225-63 
Sunday evening concerts, 173 

Teaching methods, changes in, 182; co- 
operation with other Colleges, 184; 
tutorial system, 183 
Theological and Missionary Society, 95 
Trinity College School, 77-79 
Trinity Medical School, 38, 57, 76, 247 
Trinity University Review, 180, 241 ff. 
Trinity University Year Book, 109 

University subjects, instruction in, 158 

Wellington Scholarship, 55 

Women, higher education of, 97, 188-224, 

World War I (1914-18), 143-46; the 

Fallen, 298; Honours, 145 
World War II (1939-45), 168-70; the 

Fallen, 299; Honours, 169 
Wycliffe College, 140 



Abbott, J. G. L., 102, 240 

Abbott, Sir J. J. C, 270 

Abbott, John Bethunc, 270 

Aberdeen, H. E. the Earl of, 103 

Adam, G. Mercer, 15 

Adams, Sinclair M., 147, 249, 277 

Adams, Mrs. S. M., 221 

Allan, Arthur C, 266 

Allan, Hon. George William, 41, 69, 79, 

92, 97, 110, 118, 188, 189, 227, 265 
Allan, Major William, 13 
Allen, F. G., 121 
Allen, Henry H., 298 
Allen, Thomas W. E. 298 
Allen, Ven. Thomas William, 123 
Althouse, John G., 232, 256, 287 
Ambery, Revd. John, 60, 75-76, 243, 271 
Ambrose, Alan L., 261 
Amery, Mrs. L. S., 201 
Anderson, Allan, 234 
Anderson, Rt. Revd. Charles P., 297 
Andras, J. W. Gay, 193, 253 
Andrews, Gordon S., 298 
Anger, J. Humfrey, 123 
Annesley, Miss Rosemary, 222 
Appleyard, Revd. R. T., 63 
Archbold, Godfrey T. A. S., 299 
Ardagh, Miss Edith, 212, 215 
Ardagh, Hon. John A., 51 
Armour, Archibald D., 266 
Armour, E. Douglas, 123 
Armour, Dr. Robert G., 284 
Arnold, John, 41 

Ashley, Professor Charles A., 277, 289 
Atkinson, William P., 59 
Auld, George E., 299 

Badgley, Revd. Charles H., 78 
Badgley, Dr. Francis, 38, 57, 58 
Bagot, Sir Charles, 22 
Bain, James, 123 
Baker, Revd. E. A., 287 
Baker, Graham M., 299 
Baldwin, Revd. Arthur Henry, 51 
Baldwin, Revd. Edmund, 29 

Baldwin, Rt. Revd. Maurice Scollard, 

51, 297 
Baldwin, Hon. Robert, 24, 37 
Banks, Sir Joseph, 5 
Barber, George Anthony, 265 
Barber, George Anthony, Jr., 265 
Barfoot, Most Revd. Walter Foster, 292 
Barr, Adam Fordyce, 273 
Bates, William G. H., 247, 298 
Bathurst, Lord, 17-18 
Beaumont, Robert B., 238, 274 
Beaumont, Dr. William R., 76 
Beaven, Revd. Edward W., 51, 59, 228 
Beaven, Revd. James, 67 
Becher, Lome, 235 
Bennett, S. G., 235 
Benson, Most Revd. Dr. Edward White, 

Bentley, David B., 298 
Berkinshaw, Richard C, 256, 286 
Bethune, Rt. Revd. Alexander Neil, 5, 

9, 11, 12, 20, 24, 25, 28, 30, 34-36, 43, 

63, 84-85 
Bethune, Revd. Charles James Stewart, 

43, 52, 78, 79, 232, 264 
Bethune, Revd. Fred A., 265, 270 
Bethune, Revd. John, 9, 10 
Bethune, Master John, 45 
Bethune, Dr. Norman, 38, 57, 58, 76 
Bice, Claire, 162 
Biddell, John, 291 
Blackwell, Hon. L. E., 283 
Blomfield, Sir Arthur, 80 
Boddy, Arthur H., 286-7 
Boddy, Ven. Samuel J., 123 
Body, Revd. Charles W. E., 87-104, 188, 

201, 229, 239 
Body, Mrs. C. W. E., 193 
Bogert, David F., 236, 265, 268 
Bogert, Ven. James John, 51, 123, 142, 

228, 264-65 
Boggs, Gordon, 258 
Bourinot, Sir John George, 52 
Bourne, Revd. George, 33 
Bovell, Dr. James, 38, 57, 58, 75-77 

. 303 


Bowlby, George H., 298 

Boyd, Hon. Sir John, 123 

Boyd, Mrs. John, 201 

Boyle, Revd. Dr. T. Stannage, 110,185 

Boys, Revd. Algernon, 80, 100, 101, 109, 

Brain, Revd. William J., 110 
Brennan, Robert J., 299 
Brent, Rt. Revd. Charles Henry, 119, 

Brett, Professor George S., 133, 151, 184, 

Britton, Miss Dorothy F., 299 
Brock, Sir Isaac, 12 
Brock, William Rees, 117, 140, 152 
Brotherton, John, 286 
Broughall, Revd. Abraham J., 51, 60, 75, 

80, 95, 264 
Broughall, Revd. George H., 238, 259, 

Broughall, Revd. James S., 194, 266 
Broughall, Rt. Revd. L. W. B., 110, 266, 

292, 297 
Brown, Edward Killoran, 180 
Brown, Dr. James {Aberdeen) , 4, 5, 11 
Bryden, Ronald, 179, 222 
Burnham, John Warren, 234 
Burns, Edward R., 299 
Burnside, Dr. Alexander, 40, 41, 55-56, 


Camelon, Thomas P., 298 

Cameron, Miss Janet, 40 

Cameron, Hon. John Hilly ard, 17, 18, 

69, 72, 79, 227 
Campbell, Archibald H., 150, 168 
Campbell, Charles J., 76 
Campbell, C. Graham, 168 
Campbell, Captain Duncan F., 235, 247, 

279, 298 
Campbell, Robert A. R., 298 
Campbell, William Wilfred, 112 
Carleton, Revd. Charles Hubert, 269 
Carman, R. A., 247 
Carmichael, Frank, 218 
Carroll, John M., 299 
Carter, Revd. John, 234 
Cartwright, George Stevenson, 159, 299 
Cartwright, Hannah, 8 
Cartwright, James, 8 

Cartwright, John Robison, 191 
Cartwright, Miss Mabel, LL.D., 153, 191, 

212-213, 216, 217 
Cartwright, Hon. Richard, 6, 8 ff., 32 
Cartwright, Richard, Jr., 8 
Carvolth, Miss Gladys, 222 
Cattanach, E. C, 247 
Cayley, Revd. Edward C, 92, 118, 119, 

142, 194, 273 
Cayley, Revd. John D'Arcy, 51, 93, 95 
Chadwick, Revd. Canon F. A. P., 234, 

238, 269, 273, 275 
Chalmers, Adam P., 298 
Chalmers, Revd. Thomas {Aberdeen) ,4,6 
Champion, Thomas E., 45 
Chappell, Revd. James, 96, 276 
Chewett, Colonel William, 13 
Childs, Revd. Sidney, 175 
Clark, Hollis A. T., 299 
Clark, James M., 299 
Clark, Mrs. Paraskeva, 218 
Clark, Revd. (Professor) William, 92-95, 

101, 108, 118-19, 120, 133, 193, 241, 

Clark, Rt. Revd. William Reid, 297 
Clarke, Edwin C, 235 
Clarke, John F., 299 
Clarke, Paul B., 298 
Clarke, Revd. W. Hoyes, 234 
Clarkson, Mrs. F. C, 217 
Cleghorn, Allen C. M., 298 
Cluff, Howard R., 290 
Cluff, Reginald A., 285-86 
Cluff, Mrs. W. T., 290 
Cobban, Miss Joyce, 222 
Cockburn, Miss Patricia, 222 
Cockshutt, Colonel Henry, 150 
Cody, Revd. Henry John, 135 
Colborne, Sir John, 17, 21 
Coleman, Professor A. P., 215 
Coleman, Frederick J. A., 299 
Coleman, Ven. J. H. H., 101, 240 
Colgate, William G., 181, 258 
Collip, Dr. James Bertram, 256, 286 
Colquhoun, A. H. U., 135 
Comfort, Charles P., 218 
Compston, Lieut. Neville H., 220 
Connor, Carl Y., 112, 114,243 
Constantinides, Miss Ianthe, 211 
Coombs, Frederick C, 235 



Cooper, Walter H. T., 266, 298 
Cooper, Revd. William E., 51 
Cosgrave, Revd. Francis Herbert, 133, 

149, 162, 171-74, 212 216, 245, 253, 

262, 277 
Cotterill, Miss, 196 
Coulter, Howard S., 235, 252 
Courtice, Mrs. R. K., 218 
Cowan, Frederick W., 217 
Cox, Ernest H., 298 
Cox, Robert Gregory, 73, 80, 238 
Cox, William M., 159 
Coxe, Rt. Revd. A. Cleveland, 108 
Coyne, Miss Jane, 221 
Crawford, James P., 298 
Creighton, Frederick N., 121 
Creswick, Revd. Walter, 96 
Cronyn, Rt. Revd. Benjamin, 59-69, 72, 

Cruttenden, William M., 82 
Cullum, John A., 298 
Cumberland, Frederick Barlow, 233, 269, 

Cumberland, Frederick W., 42, 45, 269 
Cumpston, Basil L., 298 
Cunningham, James H., 299 
Curlette, Miss Margery, 210, 212 

Daly, Kathleen, 218 
Dalton, Revd. Charles B., 46 
Darling, Frank, 79, 89, 142, 152 
Darling, Revd. William Stewart, 33, 71, 

Davidson, Revd. Gilbert Farquhar, 96, 

118, 121, 142 
Davidson, Ven. John C, 96, 274 
Davidson, Revd. John F., 287 
Davidson, N. Ferrar, 135, 140, 142, 269, 

Davidson, Most Revd. Randall Thomas, 

Davies, Revd. Henry William, 51, 111 
Davison, Miss Anne, 215 
Dearborn, General Henry, 13 
de Blaquiere, Hon. P. B., 49 
de Fallot, Carl, 267, 298 
Denison, Major George Taylor, 43 
Denison, Major Robert Brittain, 236 
de Pauley, Dr. W. C, 164 

de Pencier, Most Revd. A. U., 101, 273, 

Dick, Major Edith, 220 
Dickson, George, 15 
Dixon, Rt. Revd. John Harkness, 254-55, 

287, 297 
Douglas, Dr. John, 14 
Dow, Robert J. G., 298 
Draper, Hon. Mr. Justice, 41 
Drummond, Sir Gordon, 15 
Duckworth, Revd. H. T. F., 118, 121, 

133, 149, 164-65, 192 212, 238, 245, 

249, 255 
Dumbrille, Revd. Rupert J., 274 
DuMoulin, Rt. Revd. Frank, 101, 235, 

241, 297 
DuMoulin, Rt. Revd. John Philip, 123 
Duncan Professor Thomas, 4, 6, 27 
Dunfield, John D., 121 
Dunlop, Dr. William ("Tiger"), 13-14 
Durham, Lord, 22 
Dwelly, Revd. R. T. C, 288 
Dykes, Revd. Canon P. J., 285-86 
Edgar, Lady Matilda, 11 
Ellis, Professor William H., 77, 80 
Elwood, Miss Edith Constance, 208, 212 
Emerson, Harry R., 299 
Emery, Miss Charlotte, 215 
Endacott, Miss Frances, 205 
Evans, Very Revd. Kenneth C, 164, 185 
Evans, Very Revd. Lewis, 122 
Evans, Mrs. Watson, 219 

Falconer, Sir Robert, 150, 152 
Farncomb, Revd. Frederick E., 274 
Farncomb, Revd. John, 232 
Farrell, Douglas J. 299 
Feilding, Revd. Charles R., 185 
Ferguson, Hon. George Howard, 153 
Fetherstonhaugh, Mrs. F. B., 204 
Flavelle, Sir Joseph W., 135 
Fleming, Sir Sandford 47 
Flesher, Eric H., 286 
Fletcher, Miss Laura, 222 
Fletcher, Miss Margaret, 222 
Ford, Dr. Norma, 215 
Ford, Revd. Ogden Pulteney, 80, 109 
Ford, William H., 286 
Forsyth, Roy A., 298 
Foster, John A., 299 



Fotheringham, Ven. James B., 147, 150, 

176, 253 
Fulford, Rt. Revd. Francis, 69 
Fuller, Ven. Thomas B., 31 
Fulton, Dr. John, 76 

Gage, Miss Beatrice, 215 

Gamble, William, 31 

Gaunt, Richard H., 291 

Gee, Dr. Haldane, 258 

Geikie, Dr. William B., 76 

Gemmill, Revd. William C, 96 

George, Allan, 217 

George, James, 159 

George & Moorhouse, 171, 217 

Gibbs, Reginald C, 299 

Gibson, Maurice W., 299 

Gill, Robert, 179 

Gillan, Charles R., 298 

Givins, Charles, 268 

Gladstone, Rt. Hon. William E., 71 

Goderich, Lord, 17 

Goggin, Dr. David J., 150 

Gooderham, George W., 283 

Goodwin, Major Henry, 268 

Gordon, Revd. Charles W. 
{Ralph Connor), 273 

Gordon, Hugh Lockhart, 299 

Gordon, Hon. James, 41 

Gordon, Mrs. Molyneux, 217 

Gordon, Hon. Mr. Justice Percival H., 

Gore, Sir Francis, 12, 15 

Gossage, Charles D., 208 

Grange, Edward A. M., 299 

Grant, Principal Geo. M., 108 

Grasett, Very Revd. Henry James, 25, 
29, 34-35, 38, 41-42, 69 

Green, Elmes P. T., 299 

Greene, Canon R. W. E., 234 

Greening, William S., 121 

Greenwood, Florence; see Amery, Mrs. 
L. S. 

Greenwood Rt. Revd. Tom, 297 

Gregory, Miss Evelyn, 216 

Gregory, Miss Helen Emma; see Mac- 
Gill, Judge Helen Gregory 

Grey, Earle, 173, 179 

Grey, Sir George, 17 

Grier, Sir Wyly, 71, 110, 118, 138, 141, 

Griffin, Arthur Kent, 159 
Griffith, Henry Crawford, 110, 133, 253 
Griffith, Miss Joan, 222 
Grout, Revd. G. H. P., 240, 266 
Grubbe, Miss Catherine, 212 
Grube, Professor G. M. A., 164 
Guthrie, Norman McGregor, 114 
Gwyn, Revd. Herbert B., 102, 235, 238, 

241, 275 

Hagarty, Sir John Hawkins, 52 

Hagerman, Hon. Christopher A., 23 

Haley, Miss Donna, 222 

Hall, Dr. Cyrenus B., 76 

Hall, John, 258, 259 

Hall, John E., 266 

Hallowell, Dr. William, 38, 58, 76 

Ham, Dr. Albert, 150, 154 

Hamilton, Rt. Revd. Charles, 92, 140 

Hamilton, Revd. Dr. George, 6 

Hamilton, Hon. Robert, 6 

Harcourt, Hon. Richard, 123 

Harden, Verna Loveday, 155 

Harding, Henry A., 298 

Harman, S. Bruce, 237 

Harman, Samuel Bickerton, 68, 76 

Harnack, Professor Adolf, 60 

Harraden, Miss, 196 

Harris, Revd. James H., 21 

Harris, Reginald V., Ill, 173, 232, 285 

Harris, Webster H. F., 298 

Hart, William Walker 252 

Harvey, Major John, 14 

Harvey, Miss Winifred, 203 

Haslam, Revd. George E., 89, 95 

Hatch, Revd. Edwin, 60, 68 

Hately, John, 298 

Hawkins, Revd. Ernest, 40, 46, 63, 70 

Hayden, George F., 298 

Hayes, Henry S., 286-7, 298 

Hays, Robert C, 258 

Hazell, William, 285, 287 

Head, Sir Francis Bond, 22 

Heathcote, Rt. Revd. Sir Francis, 297 

Heaven, Revd. Cecil A., 269, 279 

Hedley, Revd. Charles W., 242, 276, 280 

Heighington, Edward N., 199 

Helliwell, J. Earl, 238 



Hclliwell, John, 264 

Hellmuth, Rt. Revd. Isaac, 69 

Henderson, Elmes, 43, 52 

Henderson, James ('58), 52, 79, 117, 141 

Henderson, James ('02), 298 

Henderson, John R., 299 

Henderson, Miss Millicent, 88 

Henderson, William A., 298 

Hendy, Ronald A., 285-6 

Heward, Francis H., 31 

Heward, George C, 278 

Hicks, Professor R. Keith, 163, 176, 178 

Hill, Revd. George J., 33 

Hill, Miss Louise, 192 

Hind, Professor Henry Youle, 70 

Hoath, Arnold, 258 

Hodder, Dr. Edward M., 38, 41, 57, 76 

Hodgins, Mr. Justice Frank E., 150 

Hodgins, Dr. J. George, 15, 20 

Hodgins, Professor Lloyd C. A., 121, 160, 

176-77, 259, 277 
Holmested, David S., 299 
Holt, Professor Geoffrey E., 235 
Hopkins, Dr. Edward J., 99 
Houston, Very Revd. Stewart, 122-23 
Houston, Stewart Fielde, 102, 240 
Howard, Major Donald M., 247 
Howard, Ernest, 291 
Howard, Miss Lynn, 220 
Howden, Rt. Revd. Frederick B., 101, 

240, 242, 297 
Howes, David E., 298 
Howitt, Revd. Frederick E., 82 
Howley, Most Revd. William, 25 
Hubbard, William F., 279 
Hudspeth, Robert N., 89 
Hunter, Miss Isabel, 218 
Hunter, Peter (Lieut. -Governor), 9 
Hunter, Nursing Sister R. M. Lister, 220 
Huntingford, Revd. Edward Wynn, 100, 

101, 118, 121,194,244,277,284 
Hutcheson, Eric H., 299 
Hutton, Professor Maurice, 108, 193 
Hyndman, Thomas F., 299 

Ichimura San, 207 
Ignatieff, George, 159 
Ingersoll, James H., 298 
Ingles, Ven. Charles L., 95, 149 
Ingles, Revd. G. Leycester, 267, 298 

Irving, Revd. George Clerk, 47-48, 51,61 
Irving, Lieut.-Col. L. E. Wentworth, 248 
Irving, Hon. Mr. Justice Paulus, 123 

Jackson, A. Y., 218 

Jackson, Rt. Revd. John, 46 

Jackson, John D., 299 

Jacob, Miss Diana, 222 

Jameson, Hon. Robert Sympson, 41 

Jamieson, Dr. Ross A., 287 

Jamieson, Stewart W., 299 

Jarvis, Canon Arthur, 73, 81, 232, 234, 

244, 270 
Jarvis, Miss Julia, 81, 234, 270 
Jarvis, William Botsford, 43 
Jenks, Revd. Arthur Whipple, 118, 121, 

Jennings, William Tindal, 282 
Johnson, Wilfred S., 299 
Johnson Revd. William A., 77-78 
Jones, Beverley, 43 
Jones, Major Charles, 109 
Jones, Ford, 240 
Jones, Revd. H. H. Bedford, 101, 119, 

194, 240, 242, 266 
Jones, Henry Osborne, 234 
Jones, Mr. Justice Jonas, 109 
Jones, Melville E., 291 
Jones, Sydney H., 175, 192 
Jones, Professor William, 45, 51, 59, 75, 

78, 80, 93, 105, 109, 137-38, 147, 190, 

Jones, William Wallace, 266 
Judd, Revd. Canon W. W., 235 

Kammerer, Miss Christine, 193-94 

Kammerer, J. A., 142 

Keble, Revd. John, 71, 88 

Keely, Harlan D., 299 

Keen, Harry G., 168 

Kelley, Canon Arthur Reading, 19, 111 

Kelley, George M., 217 
Kendall, Revd. Edward K., 61, 98-99 
Kennedy, Revd. Frank W. C, 96, 123 
Kennedy, Harry A. T., 298 
Kennedy, Ivan E., 286 
Kennedy, Dr. John E., 77 
Kennedy, Revd. Thomas S., 265 
Kenrick, Revd. Charles B., 89, 96 



Ker, Ernest H. R., 287 

Ker, Frederick S., 299 

Kerby, Harold W., 299 

Ketchum, Hugh F., 288 

Ketchum, Philip A. C. 79, 288 

Keyes, Cleveland, 298 

Keys, David A., 256 

Kidd, Revd. W. E., 121, 173 

King, Revd. E. L., 119 

Kingston Most Revd. George F., 160, 

229, 256, 297 
Kirkwood, Dr. William A., 133, 145, 160, 

Kirkwood, Mrs. W. A., 194, 213, 214, 216 
Kittredge, Professor R. E. L., 164, 260, 

Knight, Professor G. Wilson, 164, 179 
Knight, Miss Elaine, 222 
Kunitz, Stanley J., 91 

Laidlaw, Jeffery C, 299 
Lamb, Revd. Percival M., 287 
Lampman, Revd. Archibald, 51 
Lampman, Archibald, 112-14, 232 
Langtry, Ven. Dr. John, 29, 51, 95 , 116, 

136-37, 142, 228 
Larkin, Gerald R., 168, 171, 217 
Lau, Roy, 291 

Lauder, Revd. William B., 68 
Lawrence, W. H. R., 281 
Learmonth, Andrew O., 299 
Leather, William B., 47 
Leckie, Mrs. C. S., 219 
Lee, Charles H., 238 

Leighton, Professor Joseph A., 102, 240 
Lewis, Professor Cecil, 164 
Lewis, Rt. Revd. John Travers, 26, 64, 

Lewis, John Travers, 82 
Lightfoot, Rt. Revd. Joseph B., 105 
Lismer, Arthur, 216 
Little, Charles Herbert, 159 
Lloyd, Revd. Arthur, 96, 101 
Llwyd, Revd. John P. D., 139-40 
Llwyd, Ven. Thomas, 122 
Lobley, Revd. Dr. J. A., 87 
Logan, C. J., 270 
Long, Miss Marion, 216 
Longhurst, Dr. W. H., 99 
Lott, Dr. Edwin W., 99 

Lowe, Revd. Henry P., 240 

Lowe, Very Revd. John, 159, 164, 185, 

Lowe, Percy, 288 
Lundberg, T. T., 299 
Luxton, Rt. Revd. George N., 297 
Lyons, Most Revd. John, 297 

McCarter, Douglas S., 298 
McCarthy, D. Lally, 246, 266 
McCarthy, Hon. Maitland S., 102, 

275-76, 280 
McCarthy, William F., 299 
McCatty, Cressy A., 291 
McCatty, Winston A., 291, 299 
McCaul, Dr. John, 23, 24, 43 
Macaulay, Hon. J. B., 41 
McCausland, Revd. Harold, 110, 232 
McCausland, Maurice Bruce, 93, 235, 

251, 259 
McCulloch, Robert O., 266 
Macdonald, Dr. D. Bruce, 135, 282 
Macdonald, Evan, 166 
MacDonald, Manly E., 216 
Macdonell, Rt. Revd. Alex. (R.C.), 25 
Macdougall, J. Gladwyn, 247 
McEwen, Kenneth O., 298 
McGill, Andrew, 7, 10 
McGill, Mrs. Andrew; see Strachan, Mrs. 

MacGill, Judge Helen Gregory, 188, 240 
McGill, James, 6, 7 
MacGill, James Henry, 240 
McGreer, Revd. Arthur H., 235 
Machell H. Eric, 285 
Machell, Maurice I., 298 
Machray, Most Revd. Robert, 103 
Maclnnes, Campbell, 173 
Maclnnes, Colonel Charles Stephen, 102, 

Mackenzie, Ernest C, 43 
Mackenzie, Revd. Garland C, 122 
Mackenzie, George Allan, 43, 86, 234 
McKenzie, Rt. Revd. Henry, 46 
Mackenzie, Revd. J. G. D., 43 
Mackenzie, Katchinka, 206 
Mackenzie, Michael Alexander, 106, 109, 

122, 134, 192, 206, 229, 232, 250, 274 
McKenzie, Dr. Tait, 114 
Mackenzie, Sir William, 117 



Mackenzie, William Lyon, 49 
Macklem, Revd. T. C. S., 116-17, 124, 

128, 131, 136, 139, 141, 147-48, 152, 

210, 229, 254, 257 
MacLaren, Mrs. J. P.; see El wood, Edith 

McLaughlin, Michael, 210 
MacLoghlin, Edward G., 299 
Macmillan, Cyrus, 7 
MacMillan, Keith, 179, 222 
McMullen, James E. T., 299 
MacMurchy, Dr. Helen, 215 
McMurray, Ven. William, 27, 31, 71 
McMurrich, Hon. John D., 102 
McMurrich, John Dewar, 235, 298 
MacNab, Sir Allan Napier, 44 
Maddock, Revd. Henry E., 80 
Magrath, Charles, 71 
Maitland, Sir Peregrine 16, 18, 21 
Manning, Miss Phyllis, 222 
Marling, T. W. B., 247 
Marsh, Revd. J. Walker, 68 
Martin, Alexis F. R., 235, 275-76 
Martin, Charles Kirwan Craufurd, 168, 

Martin, D'Arcy Argue Counsell, 287-89 
Martin, D'Arcy R. C, 102, 240, 266 
Martin, Edward, 124 
Martin, Edward Kirwan Counsell, 167, 

243-4, 246, 267 
Martin, Frederick J. S., 298 
Martin, Miss Jacqueline, 175 
Martin, Miss Margaret, 222 
Martin, Stuart, 283 
Matheson, Gordon M., 298 
Matthews, Mrs. Albert, 217 
Matthews, Miss Jane, 222 
Matthews, Miss Mary, 222 
Mavor, Professor James, 193 
Melville, Dr. Henry, 38, 44, 48, 57 
Mercer, Dr. S. A. B., 176 
Meredith, Sir William Ralph, 130, 135 
Merritt, Henry K., 298 
Metcalfe, Wilson Forbes, 42 
Middleton, Miss Mary Ethel, 212 
Milburn, Edward F., 269 
Miller, Revd. John Ormsby, 123 
Mills, Michael Stuart, 299 
Mills, Rt. Revd. William L., 297 
Minto, H. E. the Countess of, 190 

Mitchell, Richard A., 298 

Mockridge, Revd. Charles J. H., 235, 

266, 274 

Mockridge, Revd. Hamilton R., 235, 

267, 274 

Mockridge, Revd. John C. H., 247, 274 
Mockridge, Revd. Wm. H. M., 96, 274 
Moffatt, Lewis, 41, 76 
Monck, Viscount, 70 
Monkman, Herbert S., 298 
Montgomery, Professor Henry, 106, 134 
Moore, Miss Marion, 213 
Moore, Revd. Robert J., 277 
Moorhouse, Asheleigh Crofton, 252 
Moorhouse, Walter N., 217 
Morawetz, Miss Sonya, 220 
Morley, George Whitaker, 267, 287 
Morley, Miss Susan Gertrude, 147, 176, 

Morson, Judge Frederick M., 171 
Mountain, Rt. Revd. George J., 24 
Mountain, Rt. Revd. Jacob, 9, 12 14, 

Mowat, Sir Oliver, 123 
Mucklestone, Dr. Harold S., 110 
Mulock, Sir William, 152, 214, 282, 283 
Murray, Professor Clark, 94 
Murray, Huson W. M., 264 
Musson, Revd. Harry S., 186 

Naismith, Dr. James, 279 
Nelles, H. M., 276 
Nevitt, Revd. R. Barrington, 121 
Newton, Miss Elizabeth, 213 
Nicholls, Hon. Frederic, 117 
Norgate, Revd. Tracy T., 242 
Norman, Very Revd. R. W., 108 
Northway, Henry G., 299 

Oakley, Thomas, 217 

O'Brien, Henry, 43 

O'Connor, Dr. William, 89 

Orde, Mr. Justice John F., 150 

O'Reilly, Edwin Patrick, 235, 247 

O'Reilly, Major James Edwin, 247, 264 

Orr, Harold E., 258, 281 

Osborne, Lieut.-Col. Henry Campbell, 

102, 235, 242, 247 
Osier, Mrs. Britton, 217 
Osier, E. Glyn, 235, 238 



Osier, Sir Edmund Boyd, 117, 120, 133, 

134, 140, 142 
Osier, F. Gordon, 168 
Osier, Judge Featherstone, 135 
Osier, Revd. Featherstone Lake, 33 
Osier, Revd. Henry Bath, 33 
Osier, Sir William, 73, 123, 127, 238 
Owen, Revd. Dr. {Chaplain-General), 14 
Owen, David Derwyn, 299 
Owen, Most Revd. Derwyn Trevor, 110, 

150, 154, 171, 173, 217-18, 232, 297 
Owen Eric Trevor, 111, 121, 133, 150 

Palling, John F., 298 

Palmer, Revd. Roland F., 256 

Parker, Sir Gilbert, 91 

Parry, Revd. Edward St. John, 47-48, 

60, 264 
Patterson, John F. E., 275, 280 
Patteson, Miss Ellen (Mrs. Rigby), 97, 

Patteson, George Lee, 188 
Patteson, Bishop John Coleridge, 188 
Patton, Revd. Herbert Bethune, 271 
Pearson, John A., 149 
Peart, Edward B., 299 
Pellatt, Sir Henry M., 117, 120, 134-35, 

Pepall, Miss Isobel, 219, 220 
Pepler, Dr. William H., 149 
Pepper, Mrs. George; see Daly, Kathleen 
Pernet, Emile, 75, 80, 82 
Peterson, Reginald B., 299 
Phelps {porter), 259 
Philbrick, Dr. Cornelius James, 77 
Philip, Dr. James A., 175 
Phillips, Charles, 258 
Phillipps, Revd. Thomas Dowell, 51, 

Philp, David M., 299 
Pittman, Miss Blanche, 215 
Playter, Miss C. L., 193 
Pottinger, A. E., 247 
Powell, Revd. Frederick C, 240 
Powell, Revd. Thomas Wesley, 101, 141, 

Power, Bishop Michael (R.C.), 27 
Priest, Revd. A. Harding, 256, 286 
Price, Evan E., 298 
Prince of Wales (King Edward VII), 70 

Pringle, R. H. Clive, 102, 240 

Purkis, William T., 299 

Pusey, Revd. Dr. Edward Bouverie, 71, 

Pyke, General Zebulon, 13 

Rae, William, 221 

Ratz, John H., 298 

Reade, Dr. R. J., 142 

Reaves, Campbell, 217 

Redman, Lawrence V., 138 

Redpath, Henry A., 60 

Reed, Le Grand, 235 

Reed, T. A., 290 

Reed, Revd. W. L. Baynes, 238, 276 

Reid, Escott Meredith, 159 

Renison, Rt. Revd. R. J., 217 

Richards, C. 235 

Richards, Ronald E. M., 298 

Richardson, Hon. John, 14 

Ridley, Miss Ethel B., 211 

Ridout, John, 31 

Ridout, Thomas, 42 

Rigby, Revd. Dr. Oswald, 79, 101, 106, 

Rigby, Mrs. Oswald; see Patteson, Miss 

Ripley, Ralph C, 299 
Roberts, Charles G. D., 112 
Robertson, Harold E. B., 276 
Robertson, John Ross, 15 
Robinson, Charles C, 121 
Robinson, Major-General Charles W., 

10, 51, 56, 264 
Robinson, Miss Christobel, 211 
Robinson, Christopher, 56, 120, 130, 143 
Robinson, Christopher F., 299 
Robinson, Sir John Beverley, 10, 18, 23, 

Robinson, Robert G., 259 
Roe, Archdeacon Henry, 84 
Rollinson, Eric, 262 
Rollo, Revd. Canon William, 164-65, 

166-67, 260 
Rolph, Dr. John, 76 
Roper, Most Revd. John Charles, 89, 90, 

95, 104, 149, 189 
Ross, Hon. George W., 90, 125 
Rouleau, David F. G., 299 
Rous, Frederick W., 298 



Rous, Miss Ruth, 213 

Routh, Harold V., 133, 277, 284, 286 

Rowe, Rt. Revd. Peter T., 297 

Russell, Dr. Francis M., 58 

Rusted, Miss Winifred, 220 

Ruth, Sister (Elaine Younger), 215 

Ryall, Mr., 61 

Ryerson, Revd. George Egerton, 96 

Ryerson, Dr. George Sterling, 248 

Sait, Edward M., 121 

Sanderson, Charles R., 24 

Sawers, Ven. Frederick J., 151, 173, 232 

Scadding, Rt. Revd. Charles, 234, 274, 

Scadding, Dr. H. Crawford, 89, 274 
Scadding, Canon Henry, 3, 15, 29, 34-35, 

45, 56, 265 
Schnieder, Revd. Gustavus A., 89, 95 
Scott, Duncan Campbell, 112 
Scott, Fraser, 192 
Scott, Miss Laila C, 176, 194 
Scott, Chief Justice Thomas, 12, 15, 16 
Scudamore, Revd. Harold B., 261 
Seaborn, Very Revd. Robert L., 9 
Seager, Most Revd. Charles Allen, 101, 

108, 110, 148-49, 152, 162, 171-72, 

232, 245, 247, 297 
Seagram, Joseph E., 117 
Sedgwick, Ronald F. W., 299 
Seeley, Revd. Reginald S. K., 133, 160, 

174, 262 
Senkler, Edmund S., 266 
Senkler, Judge William S., 123 
Sexton, Rt. Revd. Harold E., 297 
Shaw, Ven. Alexander C, 95 
Sheaffe, Major-General Sir R. H., 13 
Sheppard, R. Ross, 286 
Sherwood, Captain Levius P., 237 
Short, Revd. Hedley V. R., 160 
Shortt, Revd. Charles Harper, 82, 96, 109, 

232, 243-44, 246 
Sifton, Sir Clifford, 282 
Sifton, Clifford, 219 
Sifton, Winfield B., 282 
Simcoe, John Graves (Lieut. -Governor), 

5, 8, 16, 18 
Simpson, Professor Herbert Clayton, 119, 

176-77, 193, 203, 229, 266, 277 
Sinclair, George G., 299 

Skakel, Dr. Alexander, 7 

Skinner, Bishop, 3 

Smart, John M. G., 299 

Smith, Eden, 110, 190 

Smith, Professor G. Oswald, 118, 121, 

133, 192, 245 
Smith, Professor Goldwin, 82, 135 
Smith, J. Grayson, 240 
Smith, Jeffery F., 298 
Smith, Victor R., 168, 287 
Smith, Revd. William Lyndon, 159, 160, 

164, 232 
Smyth, Revd. C. Paterson, 254 
Smyth, Professor Thomas H., 80, 241 
Snively, Douglas S., 299 
Snyder, Paul E., 299 
Southam, Harry S., 102, 235, 266, 273, 

275, 280 
Southgate, Miss Elizabeth, 223 
Sparling, Revd. Charles A., 298 
Sparling, Revd. Christopher P., 235 
Sparling, Gordon, 262 
Spencer, Revd. Ernest P. S., 284 
Spragge, Dr. George W., 14, 15, 31 
Spragge, Hon. John Godfrey, 41, 69 
Starr, Very Revd. George Lothrop, 142, 

Starr, Revd. Reginald Heber, 88, 116 
Stephen, Gordon K., 299 
Stevenson, Revd. E. Vicars, 247 
Stewart, Rt. Revd. Charles J., 24 
Stewart, John Leslie, 159 
Stewart, Robert I. O., 299 
Stewart, Mrs. T. J., 215 
Stewart, William D., Jr., 299 
Stone, Edgar, 179 
Storey, John M., 299 
Stowe, Hudson J., 288 
Strachan, Captain James McGill, 42 
Strachan, Mrs. J. M., 45 
Strachan, Rt. Revd. Dr. John, 3-31, 

32-49, 56-72, 73, 84, 94, 107, 167, 172, 

225, 226, 293, 295 
Strachan, Mrs. John, 10, 72, 111 
Strachan, Judge John, 147 
Strachan, Mrs. John, Jr., 196 
Strachan, Miss Mary Elizabeth, 147, 190, 

192, 201, 212 
Strathy, Elliot G., 175 
Strathy, George H. K., 299 



Strathy, Dr. George William, 98 
Strathy, Gerard Brakenridge, 110, 142, 

210, 266 
Street, George Edmund, 80 
Street, Thomas Clark, 69, 79 
Stuart, Andrew, 8 
Stuart, Revd. George Okill, 12 
Stuart, James, 8 
Stuart, Revd. John, 8, 9, 11 
Sturgeon, Ralph R., 299 
Sullivan, Rt. Revd. Edward, 114 
Sutton, William R. R., 299 
Sweatman, Most Revd. Arthur, 97, 128 
Sweeny, Most Revd. James F., 140, 149, 

152, 297 
Sydenham, Baron, 23 
Symonds, Revd. Dr. Herbert, 30, 79, 

90-91, 107, 109, 116 
Symonds, Douglas B., 299 

Tattersall, Mrs. Richard, 215 
Taylor, Lieut.-Col. Allan E., 121-22 
Taylor, Fennings, 3, 5, 10 
Taylor, Frederick I., 298 
Taylor, Revd. Henry N., 231, 261 
Temple, Lieut. Reginald H., 247, 284 
Templeton, Robert K., 299 
Thompson, Edward B., 299 
Thompson, Ven. W. G. O., 254 
Thomson, Revd. Charles E., 51, 264 
Thomson, Richard H., 298 
Thorneloe, Most Revd. George, 150, 

Tippett, Revd. Richard S., 254 
Townley, Revd. Adam, 61-62 
Townsend (porter), 259 
Trebell, Donald F., 299 
Tremayne, Revd. Francis, 51, 151 
Tremayne, Revd. Herbert O., 151, 266, 

Trew, Very Revd. Archibald G. L., 52 
Troop, Jared G. Carter, 240, 242 
Tseng, Rt. Revd. Francis, 297 
Tully, Kivas, 42, 45 
Tweedsmuir, Lady, 218 

Vankoughnet, Hon. Philip M., 41 
Venables, Frank G., 168 
Vernon, Very Revd. Frank L., 122, 276 
Vincent, General John, 13 

Waddington, Miss M. M.; see Kirkwood, 
Mrs. W. A. 

Waddington, Miss Valerie D.; see Adams, 
Mrs. S. M. 

Wadsworth, W. Rein, 235, 266, 269, 279, 

Wagner, Dixon, 179 

Walker, Sir Edmund, 135, 195 

Walker, Miss Mildred, 203 

Walker, Dr. Norma Ford, 215 

Wallbridge, Francis G., 280 

Waller, Revd. John G., 96 

Wallis, Revd. F., 105 

Walter, Professor Felix, 164 

Warren, Edwin G., 235 

Waters, J. F., 193 

Watson, Professor John {Queen's), 193 

Watson, William S., 258 

Watts, Ronald Lampman, 159 

Waugh, Miss E. G. M., 142, 212 

Welch, Revd. E. A., 105-7, 114-15, 130, 

Welch, Mrs. E. A., 203, 206 
Wellington, Duke of, 55 
Wells, Miss Mary Yvonne, 222 
Westcott, Rt. Revd. Brooke Foss, 105 
Whitaker, Revd. George, 30, 46, 47, 65-69, 

White, James, 270 
White, Revd. Walter Henry, 102, 106, 

119, 240, 266,273,284 
Whitney, Sir James Pliny, 120, 123 
Whitney, Revd. James Pounder, 123 
Whittaker, Herbert, 179 
Wilkie, Major C. Stuart, 247 
Wilkins, Reginald P., 298 
Willard, Miss Louise, 222 
Williams, Revd. Alexander, 51 
Williams, Miss Yvonne, 221 
Willis, Errick F., 258 
Wilson, Matthew M., 298 
Wilson, Philip H., 298 
Winspear, Miss Mary, 212 
Wood, Dr. George Thomson, 10 
Wood, Mrs. Guy Carleton, 111 
Wood, Thomas Henderson, 110 
Wood, Revd. William Hugh, 272 
Woodcock, Revd. Canon H. F. D., 121, 
148, 173 



Woodcock, Professor John Neville, 133, Wragge, Edmund C, 238, 247, 276 

175-76 Wright, Rt. Revd. William L., 292, 297 

Wordsworth, Osmund B., 298 

Worrell, Most Revd. Clarendon Lamb, Young, Professor Archibald Hope, 8, 25, 
122, 297 93, 109, 119, 142, 145, 164-66, 172, 180, 

Worrell, Dr. John Austin, 74, 80, 92, 120, 212, 235, 250, 253-55, 257 

124, 135, 140, 142-43, 153, 163, 171 Young, Martin C. De B., 298 

Worthington, Colonel Sir Edward, 145 Young, William H., 270